China

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People's Republic of China
Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó
中华人民共和国
NewsX-Real-Chinese-Map.jpg
Flag of the PRC.png
Arms of PR China.png
Flag Coat of Arms
Capital Beijing
Government Communist
Language Chinese (Mandarin) (official)
President Xi Jinping
Premier Li Keqiang
Area 1,447,497 sq mi(excluding occupied territories)
Population 1,440,000,000 (2020)
GDP $15,000,000,000,000 (2020)
GDP per capita $10,417 (2020)
Currency Yuan

China is the world's largest country by population, currently a totalitarian communist one-party state.[1] With thousands of years of continuous traditions, in three decades it has dramatically changed itself from a poor backward nation to a world power and is one of the world's top economies, second only to the United States. It has emerged as a major regional power in East Asia, averaging over 9% economic growth per year since 1978 when it introduced a market-based economic system known as socialism under capitalist management. Foreign businesses have flocked to invest in China, Americans and others rush to buy its cheap factory output, Chinese exports flooded the world. It has vast reserves of dollar holdings. China is modernizing its military, has joined numerous regional and international institutions, and plays an increasingly visible role in international politics. However, the paper statistics of China's growth hide the fact that it may have a weaker economy than it admits, as seen in the many "ghost towns", among other factors.[2] China is trying to overtake the U.S. economy and position as a world leader, and impose its model of Socialism with Chinese characteristics upon the planet.

The nation is under the control of the Chinese Communist Party, which encompasses mainland China, albeit with many border disputes. Since taking power in 1949, an estimated 60 million to 80 million Chinese people have been killed by democide. This number exceeds the total number of deaths in two World Wars combined.[3] The communist Beijing regime claims Taiwan as a province, but Taiwan has never been part of the People's Republic of China and the survival of Taipei's democratic sovereignty is threatened.

Unlike most other nations, the People's Liberation Army does not exist to defend the country or the people of China. Nor is it under the control of the state council, or government, of China. The PLA is the armed wing of the Chinese Communist Party and also the largest military establishment in the world. Its origins are in the Chinese Communist Party, and control of it has always remained within the party. The government or bureaucracy is called the State Council, and all civil servants are required to be party members. The PLA exists to maintain and defend the Communist Party's control over the State Council and the people, and further the Party's interests. Not only is there no civilian control over the military, there is separation of the military from all government or State Council control.

Since China's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001, China represents a vast market that is growing more affluent and sophisticated while remaining a low-cost base for export-oriented production. Educationally, China is forging ahead with partnerships, and exchanges with foreign universities to steal intellectual property and subvert foreign governments and societies.

For more information on China, see World History Lecture Three.

Contents

Name

China
Traditional Chinese 中國
Simplified Chinese 中国
Literal meaning central nation

The word "China" is derived from the Persian word Cin (چین), which is from the Sanskrit word Cīna (चीन).[4] It is first recorded in 1516 in the journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa.[5] The journal was translated and published in England in 1555.[6] The traditional theory, proposed in the 17th century by Martino Martini, is that Cīna is derived from "Qin" (秦), the westernmost of the Chinese kingdoms during the Zhou Dynasty.[7] However, the word was used earlier in Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata (5th century BC) and the Laws of Manu (2nd century BC). Indian writers were not aware of China until the second century AD. Earlier usage of the word presumably refers to another entity, perhaps a country near the Tibetan-Burma border.[8]

People

Ethnic groups

Chinese Ethnolinguistic Groups.

China officially recognizes 56 distinct ethnic groups. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute about 91.9% of the total population. The remaining 8.1% are Zhuang (16 million), Manchu (10 million), Hui (9 million), Miao (8 million), Uighur (7 million), Yi (7 million), Mongolian (5 million), Tibetan (5 million), Buyi (3 million), Korean (2 million), and other ethnic minorities.

In July 2009 large-scale rioting erupted as the Uighur minority fought Chinese riot police in major cities in China's western Xinjiang province. Hundreds were killed.[9] Uighurs are angry at political, cultural and religious persecution as well as the growing presence in the region of Han Chinese - China's main ethnic group. Han now predominate in the cities, and Uighurs in the countryside. This is the first major violent unrest in China in two decades.

Language

There are seven major Chinese dialects and many subdialects. Mandarin (or Putonghua), the predominant dialect, is spoken by over 70% of the population. It is taught in all schools and is the medium of government. About two-thirds of the Han ethnic group are native speakers of Mandarin; the rest, concentrated in south and southeast China, speak one of the six other major Chinese dialects. Non-Chinese languages spoken widely by ethnic minorities include Mongolian, Tibetan, Uyghur and other Turkic languages (in Xinjiang), and Korean (in the northeast).

All Chinese dialects use the same written character sets. In mainland China, the Simplified characters have been in use since 1949.

Pinyin system of Romanization

On January 1, 1979, the Chinese Government officially adopted the pinyin system for spelling Chinese names and places in Roman letters. A system of Romanization invented by the Chinese, pinyin has long been widely used in China on street and commercial signs as well as in elementary Chinese textbooks as an aid in learning Chinese characters and for common character input systems. Variations of pinyin also are used as the written forms of several minority languages.

Pinyin has now replaced other conventional spellings in China's English-language publications. The U.S. Government also has adopted the pinyin system for all names and places in China. For example, the capital of China is now spelled "Beijing" rather than "Peking."

In 2008 the Republic of China government finally adopted the pinyin system, replaces the Wade-Giles system which is gradually pushed away by the Chinese diaspora.

Population policy

For a more detailed treatment, see One-child Policy.
Xi Jinping had the disastrous Mao-era One-child Policy scrapped and replaced it with a Two-child Policy on October 29, 2015 which then took effect on January 1, 2016. On May 31, 2021, he announced that married couples will be allowed to have up to three children to deal with an aging population while giving financial support for families, but next month on June 18, he decided to end all childbirth restrictions by 2025.[10]

Disputed territories

Map of China including the disputed territories of Tibet, Inner Mongolia, and East Trukestan.
See also: China disputed territories

The PRC lays claim to almost all of the South China Sea bordered by the Philippines, Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei, and Taiwan. Beijing has sought to bolster its claims in the strategic waterways by building artificial islands in the area and building military outposts on them. In one and half years, between 2013 and 2014 under Xi’s rule, the PRC created more than 3,200 acres of territory.

In relation to Taiwan, the regime views the self-ruled island as part of its territory and has vowed to bring Taiwan under its fold with force if necessary. CCP academics openly teach students the regime could bribe Taiwanese politicians, ban trade and tourism from China, convince the few remaining countries that recognize Taiwan diplomatically to switch to the PRC, block Taiwan's participation in international organizations and meetings, and assassinate some Taiwanese to instill fear among the population.

During the opening ceremonies of the 2020 Tokyo Summer Olympic Games, NBC Sports broadcasting network did not represent Taiwan or the South China Sea as part of the PRC on a map as the People's Republic of China athletes were being introduced. The Chinese Consulate General in New York said in a statement that NBC “hurt the dignity and emotions of the Chinese people. We urge NBC to recognize the serious nature of this problem and take measures to correct the error."[11] The official state funded media organ Global Times called it a "dirty political trick."[12]

Since 1950, the PRC has been illegally occupying the countries of Tibet and East Turkestan.

East Turkestan (Xinjiang)

Main article: East Turkestan

The main inhabitants of East Turkestan are the Uighurs among other Turkic peoples such as Kazakhs, Kirghiz, Uzbek and Tatars. East Turkestan was an independent country until the year 1949, when it was invaded by the Communist Chinese.[13] From the years 1951-1959, there were over 14 major armed rebellions against the Chinese occupation. The largest armed rebellion took place in Khotan from December 28-31, 1954.

Natural population growth in Xinjiang has declined dramatically; growth rates fell by 84 percent in the two largest Uyghur prefectures between 2015 and 2018, and declined further in several minority regions in 2019. For 2020, one Uyghur region set an unprecedented near-zero birth rate target: a mere 1.05 per mille, compared to 19.66 per mille in 2018. This was intended to be achieved through “family planning work.”

Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR) government documents bluntly mandate that birth control violations are punishable by extrajudicial internment in “training” camps. This confirms evidence such violations were the most common reason for internment (Journal of Political Risk, February 2020).

Uyghur forced labor and reeducation camp for girls in Xinjiang.[14]

XUAR documents from 2019 reveal plans for a campaign of mass female sterilization in rural Uyghur regions, targeting 14 and 34 percent of all married women of childbearing age in two Uyghur counties that year. This project targeted all of southern Xinjiang, and continued in 2020 with increased funding. This campaign likely aims to sterilize rural minority women with three or more children, as well as some with two children—equivalent to at least 20 percent of all childbearing-age women. Budget figures indicate that this project had sufficient funding for performing hundreds of thousands of tubal ligation sterilization procedures in 2019 and 2020, with at least one region receiving additional central government funding. In 2018, a Uyghur prefecture openly set a goal of leading its rural populations to accept widespread sterilization surgery.

By 2019, XAUR planned to subject at least 80 percent of women of childbearing age in the rural southern four minority prefectures to intrusive birth prevention surgeries (IUDs or sterilizations), with actual shares likely being much higher. In 2018, 80 percent of all net added IUD placements in China (calculated as placements minus removals) were performed in Xinjiang, despite the fact that the region only makes up 1.8 percent of the PRC’s population.

Shares of women aged 18 to 49 who were either widowed or in menopause have more than doubled since the onset of the internment campaign in one particular Uyghur region. These are potential proxy indicators for unnatural deaths (possibly of interned husbands), and/or of injections given in internment that can cause temporary or permanent loss of menstrual cycles.

Between 2015 and 2018, about 860,000 ethnic Han residents left Xinjiang, while up to 2 million new residents were added to Xinjiang’s Han majority regions. Also, population growth rates in a Uyghur region where Han constitute the majority were nearly 8 times higher than in the surrounding rural Uyghur regions (in 2018). These figures raise concerns that Beijing is doubling down on a policy of Han settler colonialism.

These findings provide the strongest evidence yet that Beijing’s policies in Xinjiang meet one of the genocide criteria cited in the U.N. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, namely that of Section D of Article II: “imposing measures intended to prevent births within the [targeted] group” (United Nations, December 9, 1948).[15]

Xinjiang's largest concentration camp is twice the size of Vatican City.[16] As of 2021, Xinjiang had over 300 concentration camps, or 206 million square feet with enough capacity to incarcerate seven times the prison population in the United States.[17]

Hong Kong

Main article: Hong Kong Independence Movement
Grafetti from the late November 2019 Hong Kong democracy protests reads: "Dear World, CCP will infiltrate your government, Chinese enterprises $ interfere your political stance, China will harvest your home like Xinjiang. BE AWARE or BE NEXT!"[18]

Hong Kong was guaranteed its democratic sovereignty in a peace arrangement between the United Kingdom in 1997, and Macau was handed over by Portugal in 1999. In 2020, the CCP violated and abolished the international peace agreement guarantying Hong Kong's democratic sovereignty, and brought the formerly free people under control of the oppressive socialist and communist slave system.

The Hong Kong branch of the Chinese Communist Party was founded in 1947 as the Xinhua News Agency Hong Kong Branch. Although the party has ruled Hong Kong since 1997, it remains technically illegal, or "underground." This status, unique among the world's ruling parties, allows the CCP to evade local laws that require political parties to disclose financing and to provide a membership list. In 2000, the name of the branch was changed to "Liaison Office of the Central People's Government." It is headquartered in a tower in the city's Sai Ying Pun district. In 2003, the office was reorganized as a "second government" parallel and equal in status to the "local government" in Admiralty. Since 2012, Sai Ying Pun has been the dominant partner in the Hong Kong government. The Liaison Office is headed by a director, currently Luo Huining. Luo is a member of the national party's central committee. The office has extensive and undisclosed property holdings through Newman Investment, a subsidiary. The office reports to the Hong Kong and Macau Affairs Office, an agency of the Beijing government. This agency is currently headed by Xia Baolong, also a central committee member.

The Sino-British Joint Declaration of 1984 provides that Hong Kong will enjoy a "high degree of autonomy except for foreign and defence affairs" under a "one country, two systems" approach. This approach was to last for fifty years, from 1997 to 2047. China promised that it would hold a direct election for chief executive by 2017. In August 2014, the Chinese parliament announced that Hong Kong voters would choose a chief executive from two or three candidates nominated by a committee. This announcement triggered mass pro-democracy protests in Hong Kong in the form of the Umbrella Movement. The protests failed to the stop the selection of Carrie Lam as chief executive in 2017. In 2017, a spokesman for the Chinese Foreign Ministry announced that the joint declaration was no longer valid.

In 2019 the Hong Kong government proposed a bill to extradite suspects who were wanted on the mainland. Unlike Hong Kong courts, mainland courts do not provide suspects with due process or other legal protections. A series of the enormous protests were held in Hong Kong and the bill was withdrawn on October 23, 2019. Parties that supported the pro-democracy protesters swept the District Council elections that were held in November.[19]

Indo-China border

See also: Ladakh

The India-China border has not been agreed upon and has been in dispute since 1962.

In June 2020 troops from the Peoples Liberation Army (PLA) and India clashed in the Galwan Valley.[20] The battle was fought with rocks, batons, and barbed wire-wrapped clubs. A 1996 agreement banned the use of guns and explosives along the disputed line of control. India reported 20 of their soldiers were killed, whereas the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) did not report any of its deaths. Indian media and the Russian news agency TASS reported that as many as 45 PLA soldiers may have been killed.[21] Over the following 12 months the PLA increased its troop strength along the border from 15,000 to 50,000 by July 2021, and moved advanced surface-to-air missiles including its HQ-9 system, which is similar to Russia’s S-300 and America’s Patriot missile.[22]

Tibet

Main article: Tibet
The Dalai Lama, the Head of State of Tibet, is escorted out of an Oval Office meeting with Barack Obama past garbage bags; the photo-op was staged to please Obama's communist Chinese financiers.[23]

Resistance to the Chinese occupation started to take on organized forms as early as 1952, reached massive proportions in 1959, and has continued, primarily underground, ever since.[24] Tibetans inside Tibet have no basic human rights. Particularly, nuns and monks are being denied the right to practice their religion freely. People are forced to denounce their spiritual leader, His Holiness the Dalai Lama. Even carrying a photo of the Dalai Lama is prohibited.[25]

The Dalai Lama was made Tibetan head of state in 1950, the same year that China invaded and occupied Tibet.[26] CNN reports the Chinese government finds it "unacceptable when they see the Dalai Lama treated as a VIP, or even akin to a head of state."[26]

After the Dalai Lama met with Barack Obama in February, 2010 he was unceremoniously escorted through a side door that trash is regularly carried out for a photo op with awaiting cameras.

On Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's first official visit to China, the Secretary told Chinese leaders the Obama administration considered human rights concerns secondary to economic survival[27] and asked the CCP leaders for help financing President Obama's massive $787 billion economic stimulus plan by buying US Treasury securities.[28]

Often portrayed as a religious leader by Western media, the Dalai Lama was made Tibetan head of state in 1950, the same year that Communist China committed an act of aggression against Tibet.[29]

Southern Mongolia (Inner Mongolia)

Main article: Southern Mongolian Independence Movement

The Southern Mongolian Independence Movement (also known as the Inner Mongolian Independence Movement) is a movement for the independence of Inner Mongolia from China. Some in the movement also advocate for a merger with Mongolia.[30]

Hada, leader of the e Southern Mongolian Democratic Alliance, has been arrested and detained beyond his term of sentence.[31]

Southern Mongolia (formally the Southern Mongolian Human Rights Information Center or SMHRIC) has been a Member of UNPO (Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization) since 2007. UNPO supports the endeavors of the SMHRIC through advocating for its cause and raising awareness of the PRC’s discriminatory policies within the region in the European Union (EU) and United Nations (UN). SMHRIC’s main goal is to establish a democratic structure in Southern Mongolia through gathering and distributing facts and information regarding the ongoing human rights violations within Southern Mongolia. SMHRIC also aims to educate the Mongolian population about human rights and democracy. SMHRIC runs the Southern Mongolian Human Rights Information Center at www.shhric.org with regular updates on the struggles of the Mongolian people living in the PRC.[32]

According to the UNPO website, the history of Southern Mongolia within China is marked with perpetual injustice and indignity. Starting from its annexation by the PRC in 1949 Southern Mongolia has undergone a series of political purges, ethnic cleansing, cultural assimilation, economic marginalization, and environmental destruction. It has not simply a case of the people being denied their basic right to self-determination, but also of a people who have been subject to perpetual systematic persecution, a denial of basic human rights, dignities and cultural heritage. The state apparatus in China has been implementing hostile policies that directly and adversely affect the Mongolian pastoralist way of life, while also causing immeasurable damage to the environment. Within the last few years, the consequences of these policies whose aim is to extract minerals from the region, as well as the violence associated with them have increased.

Mongolian herders have been displaced through policies such as ‘ecological migration’ and ‘ban over livestock grazing’ leaving many landless, jobless and homeless. Moreover, through these policies, the PRC attempts to replace the traditions and cultures of Mongolians with more Sino-centric cultural characteristics. Thousands of Chinese state-run mining companies have come to occupy vast territories of Southern Mongolia, continuing to destroy the local economy by dumping hazardous waste in traditional herder grasslands.[33]

Manchuria

Main article: Manchuria

Manchuria is a country currently under the occupation of China.[34] The current Emperor, who resides exiled in Japan, is Dokuritsu Aisingyoro. There is a Manchu government in exile that advocates for the restoration of its independence. [35] Manchuria was occupied when the Republic of China was established in 1912. In 1932, Manchukuo gained independence from the Republic of China. The last Qing emperor, Emperor Henry Puyi Aisingyoro became the Manchukuo emperor.

After Japan's defeat in the Great East Asian War in 1945, Manchuria was occupied by China again. Japan regained sovereignty in 1952, yet Manchuria remained occupied by the totalitarian Chinese communists.

The Manchukuo Temporary Government was established in 2004 to fight for independence again. The successor of the Aisingyoro family succeeded to the throne. From 2015, Dokuritsu Aisingyoro succeed the throne and appointed Mr. Cheung Siu Bong as the President. On March 7, 2019. The Manchukuo Government in Exile and Manchukuo Temporary Government merged into the Manchukuo Government. Mr Fu Jun became the New President.

Disputed claims in the South China Sea.

Manchukuo has an ambassador in Japan and representatives in the United States, Taiwan and Brazil.

South China Sea

The South China Sea lies to the south of the China mainland and is bounded by the coastlines of the People's Republic of China (PRC), Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei, the Philippines, and Taiwan. In the south-west it becomes the Gulf of Thailand. To the south the Serat Karimata gives access to the Java Sea; to the east the Balabac and Mindoro straits give access to the Sulu Sea and the Luzon Strait north of the Philippines gives access to the Pacific Ocean. The South China Sea contains a number of small island groups, uninhabited or inhabited only on a temporary basis by fishermen or by military detachments. These include the Paracel Islands and the Spratly Islands.

The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development estimates that roughly 80% of global trade by volume and 70% by value is transported by sea. Of that volume, 60% of maritime trade passes through Asia, with the South China Sea carrying an estimated one-third of global shipping.

Racism

See also:China and racism

An article entitled Racism in China declares:

The Han Chinese have traditionally considered themselves more advanced and civilized than other ethnic groups in China. In the imperial era, this was almost state policy. The sentiment continues today even though laws have been enacted to protect minorities, racism is officially condemned and Chinese multi-ethnicity is celebrated in propaganda. In recent years assimilation has been encouraged, particularly in Tibet and Xinjiang, whose ethnic groups are regarded as a threat.

The Chinese have many prejudiced views about race, gender and nationality. Chinese often have no compunctions about directly mocking ethnic minorities, and there sometimes seems to be a prevailing belief that anything non-Chinese is primitive.[36]

This-is-Africa-offensive-images.jpg
Images from the Hubei Provincial Museum Wuhan exhibit, "This is Africa," 2017.[37]

The Internations organization website says this about racism in China:

When it comes to foreign nations against which racism in China exists, the Japanese are particularly disliked. The use of slurs, such as “little Japanese” and even “Japanese devils”, is fairly common. The two countries’ bloody history — particularly Japan’s occupation of China and the atrocities against Chinese citizens during World War II — is neither forgotten nor forgiven. According to a BBC World Service poll, nine out of ten Chinese think negatively of their island neighbors.

Black people are often regarded suspiciously, too, and considered as all coming from Africa, regardless of their actual origin. In a society where light skin is still deemed desirable and seen as a sign of fortune, darker skin is often associated with less favorable traits. There have, for instance, been reports of African-American English teachers (and thus native speakers) being turned down in favor of white English teachers with non-native language skills.

China’s economic investment in a number of African countries may well have helped to create the prejudice that all Africans are poor and profiting from money that should rather be invested at home, thus fostering racism in China. In Guangzhou, where a large number of Africans have settled over the last few years, racial tensions have been particularly high.[38]

Gen. Xu Qiliang, vice-chair of the Central Military Commission and a member of the Politburo Standing Committee who is China’s most senior military officer, refused to meet with his counterpart, Lloyd Austin, America's first African American Defense Secretary.[39]

Uyghurs and Muslims

According to various estimates, the Chinese Communist authorities have placed anywhere from 1-3 million Turkic Muslims, mostly ethnic Uyghurs, and Kazakhs, in concentration camps without formal charges, trials or hearings, and with no timetable for release. Many detainees have little or no contact with their families and, in some cases, young children. Some CCP officials describe the Xinjiang camps as “vocational education institutions” in which “trainees” learn the Chinese language, legal knowledge, and job skills, and undergo “de-extremization.” Other CCP authorities state that detainees are “infected with religious extremism and violent terrorist ideology.” According to some reports, many prisoners had engaged in activities that authorities may now deem “extremist,” including participating in religious services outside of officially sanctioned places of worship; home-schooling one's children; spending time abroad or having relatives living abroad; and expressing religious sentiments.

Many detainees reportedly are compelled to express or chant their love of the Communist Party and President Xi Jinping, sing patriotic songs, renounce or reject many of their religious beliefs and customs, including their avoidance of pork, alcohol, and smoking, and undergo ideological indoctrination and self-criticisms. According to former detainees, treatment and conditions in the camps include beatings, food deprivation, and crowded and unsanitary conditions. Some reeducation centers reportedly contain factories where detainees are forced to work, in some cases producing goods for export.

Recent security measures include the following:

  • Police Presence and Surveillance: Thousands of “convenience” police stations, furnished with antiriot and high-tech surveillance equipment, have been installed.
  • Biometric data collection: Authorities have systematically collected and cataloged DNA samples, blood types, and fingerprints and performed eye scans of Uyghurs for identification purposes as part of its social stability campaign, often under the guise of “health physicals.”
  • Internet and Social Media Controls: Uyghurs in some areas of the XUAR are required to install an application on their mobile phones that enables authorities to monitor their online activities.
  • Home stays: The government has sent an estimated one million officials and state workers from outside the XUAR, mostly ethnic Han, to live temporarily in the homes of Uyghurs to assess their hosts’ loyalty to the Communist Party.[40]

Religion

A February 2007 survey concluded that 31% of Chinese citizens ages 16 and over, representing 300 million persons, follow some kind of religion,[41] provided that the Communist Party is recognized as the supreme entity above any diety.

There are reportedly more than 100,000 officially recognized sites for religious activities, 300,000 officially recognized clergy, and more than 3,000 officially recognized religious organizations.

The Government officially recognizes five main religions: Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Catholicism, and Protestantism. There are five state-sanctioned "Patriotic Religious Associations" (PRAs) that manage the activities of the recognized faiths. The Russian Orthodox Church operates in some regions, particularly those with large populations of Russian expatriates or with close links to Russia. Foreign residents in the country who belonged to religious faiths not officially recognized by the Government were generally permitted to practice their religions. There is very little freedom for Christians however.[42]

It is difficult to estimate the number of Buddhists and Taoists because they do not have congregational memberships and many practice exclusively at home. The following are informed estimates published by Freedom.org or religious communities (with the exception of Taoism, for which no figures were available), drawing on official figures, public opinion surveys, academic studies, media reports, and religious groups’ own reporting as of 2019.[43]

  • Chinese Buddhists 185-250M
China B.jpg
  • Protestants 60-80M
  • Registered ~30-50M
  • Unregistered ~30M
  • Muslims 21-23M
  • Hui 12M
  • Uighur 11M
  • Catholics 12M
  • Registered 6M
  • Unregistered 6M
  • Falun Gong practitioners 7-20M
  • Tibetan Buddhists 6-8M

The Government estimated that there are 16,000 Buddhist temples and monasteries, 200,000 Buddhist monks and nuns, more than 1,700 reincarnate lamas, and 32 Buddhist schools. Most believers, particularly ethnic Han Buddhists, practice Mahayana Buddhism, while the majority of Tibetans and ethnic Mongolians, as well as a growing number of ethnic Chinese, practice Tibetan Buddhism, a Mahayana adaptation. Some ethnic minorities in southwest Yunnan Province practice Theravada Buddhism, the dominant tradition in parts of neighboring Southeast Asia.

There are more than 25,000 Taoist priests and nuns, more than 1,500 Taoist temples, and 2 Taoist schools. Traditional folk religions (worship of local gods, heroes, and ancestors) are practiced by hundreds of millions of citizens and are often affiliated with Taoism, Buddhism, or ethnic minority cultural practices.

The government says there are twenty million Muslims. Independent estimates range as high as fifty million or more. There are more than 40,000 Islamic places of worship, more than half of which are in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region {XUAR), more than 45,000 imams nationwide, and 10 Islamic schools. The country has ten predominantly Muslim ethnic groups, the largest of which is the Hui, estimated to number more than ten million. The Hui are centered in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, but there are significant concentrations of Hui throughout the country, including in Gansu, Henan, Qinghai, Yunnan, and Hebei Provinces, as well as in the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) and the XUAR. Hui Muslims slightly outnumber Uighur Muslims, who live primarily in the XUAR. According to an official 2005 report, the XUAR had 23,900 mosques and 27,000 clerics at the end of 2004, but fewer than half of the mosques were authorized to hold Friday prayer and holiday services. The country also has more than one million Kazakh Muslims and thousands of Dongxiang, Kyrgyz, Salar, Tajik, Uzbek, Baoan, and Tatar Muslims.

Officials from the Three-Self Patriotic Movement/China Christian Council (TSPM/CCC), the government branch (committee) in charge of the Christianity Churches (officially led by the CPC), estimated that at least twenty million citizens worship in official churches. Government officials stated that there are more than 50,000 registered TSPM churches and 18 TSPM theological schools. The Pew Research Center estimates that between 50 million and 70 million Christians practice without state sanction. However, some estimates over 100million people are Christians. The World Christian Database estimates that there are more than 300 unofficial house church networks.

The Catholic Patriotic Association (CPA) reports that 5.3 million persons worship in its churches and it is estimated that there are an additional 12 million or more persons who worship in unregistered Catholic churches that do not affiliate with the CPA. According to official sources, the government-sanctioned CPA has more than 70 bishops, nearly 3,000 priests and nuns, 6,000 churches and meeting places, and 12 seminaries. There are thought to be approximately 40 bishops operating "underground," some of whom are in prison or under house arrest. During the reporting period, at least three bishops were ordained with papal approval. In September 2007 the official media reported that Liu Bainian, CPA vice president, stated that the young bishops were to be selected to serve dioceses without bishops and to replace older bishops. Of the 97 dioceses in the country, 40 reportedly did not have an acting bishop in 2007, and more than 30 bishops were over 80 years of age.

State atheism and religious discrimination

See also: China and atheism and Communism and religious persecution and Persecution of Christians in the People's Republic of China

China has the world's largest atheist population.[44][45] China has state atheism (see: China and atheism).

The Government restricts legal religious practice to government-sanctioned organizations and registered religious groups and places of worship, and seeks to control the growth and scope of the activity of both registered and unregistered religious groups, including "house churches." Government authorities limit proselytism, particularly by foreigners and unregistered religious groups, but permit proselytism in state-approved religious venues and private settings. The Chinese government explicitly prohibits students and civil servants from participating in certain religious practices, even when not in school or at work.[46]

Great Mosque of Xi'an.

In 2008, the Government's repression of religious freedom intensified in some areas, including in Tibetan areas and in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region (XUAR). Unregistered Protestant religious groups in Beijing reported intensified harassment from government authorities in the lead up to the 2008 Summer Olympic Games. Media and China-based sources reported that municipal authorities in Beijing closed some house churches or asked them to stop meeting during the 2008 Summer Olympic Games and Paralympic Games. During the reporting period, officials detained and interrogated several foreigners about their religious activities and in several cases alleged that the foreigners had engaged in "illegal religious activities" (alleged) and canceled their visas. Media reported that the total number of expatriates expelled by the Government due to concerns about their religious activities exceeded one hundred. Officials in the XUAR, the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), and other Tibetan areas tightly controlled religious activity. The Government sought the forcible return of several Uighur Muslims living abroad, some of whom had reportedly protested restrictions on the Hajj and encouraged other Muslims to pray and fast during Ramadan. Followers of Tibetan Buddhism, including those in the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region and most Tibetan autonomous areas, faced more restrictions on their religious practice and ability to organize than Buddhists in other parts of the country. "Patriotic education" campaigns in the TAR and other Tibetan regions, which required monks and nuns to sign statements personally denouncing the Dalai Lama, and other new restrictions on religious freedom were major factors that led monks and nuns to mount peaceful protests at a number of monasteries on March 10, 2008. The protests and subsequent security response gave way to violence in Lhasa by March 14 and 15. Moreover, Christians, including the Catholic, Protestant Christians, are facing societal hostility generated by the government, and the Christians are facing difficulties when comes to the decision of ascension in the governmental (regime) enterprises and will be arrested if evangelizing on governmental schools' campus (public schools, but with heavy involvement from the Communist party branches).

"Underground" Roman Catholic clergy faced repression, in large part due to their avowed loyalty to the Vatican, which the Government accused of interfering in the country's internal affairs. The Government continued to repress groups that are designated as "cults," most of which included several Christian groups and Falun Gong.

Religious and ethnic minority groups such as Tibetan Buddhists and Uighur Muslims experienced societal discrimination not only because of their religious beliefs but also because of their status as ethnic minorities with distinct languages and cultures. After the March 2008 protests in Lhasa and other Tibetan areas, there were reports of increased tensions between Tibetan Buddhists and Hui Muslims.

The Falun Gong is a self-described spiritual movement that blends aspects of Taoism, Buddhism, and the meditation techniques and physical exercises of qigong (a traditional Chinese exercise discipline), with the teachings of Falun Gong leader Li Hongzhi. There are estimated to have been at least 2.1 million adherents of Falun Gong before the Government cleansed and persecute the group in 1999. Hundreds of thousands may practice Falun Gong privately, but with serious risks, and once discovered by the government agents, the practitioners will be jailed, losing jobs, and may not even attend the universities. Moreover, the practitioners will risk the risk of having their organs live-harvested by the Communist government.[47]

Suppression of religion through murder and torture

See also: Atheistic communism and torture and China and involuntary organ harvesting

The Chinese communist regime has used beatings, harassment and torture to suppress religion in China and continues to use these practices.[48][49][50]

Several researchers — for example, Canadian human rights lawyer David Matas, former Canadian parliamentarian David Kilgour, and the investigative journalist Ethan Gutmann estimate that tens of thousands of Falun Gong prisoners in Communist China have been killed to supply a financially lucrative trade in human organs and cadavers, and that these human rights abuses may be an ongoing concern.[51]

Government

The People's Republic of China is a totalitarian/authoritarian regime in which the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) is the base structure and source of power. Moreover, the society has been forced to run according to the motive of the Communist Party in the past decades, although not successful. Party members hold almost all top government, police, and military positions. The children of high-level officials, dubbed “princelings” (taizi) in colloquial Chinese, are particularly prominent at the highest levels of the Chinese political system. The party is controlled by roughly 800 political dynasties, likened to mafia families, spread throughout the country. China's most prominent princeling is Xi Jinping.[52] Ultimate authority rests with the 25-member political bureau (Politburo) of the CCP and its nine-member standing committee. Xi Jinping holds the three most powerful positions as CCP general secretary, president, and chairman of the Central Military Commission.

Chinese Communist Party

The 89 million-member CCP, totalitarian in structure and ideology, continues to dominate government. Nevertheless, China's population, geographical vastness, and social diversity frustrate attempts to rule by fiat from Beijing. Core leaders are attempting to adopt several changes in order to support their own greed in power as a totalitarian state.

In periods of greater openness, the influence of people and organizations outside the formal party structure has tended to increase, particularly in the economic realm. This phenomenon is most apparent today in the rapidly developing coastal region. Nevertheless, in all important government, economic, and cultural institutions in China, party committees work to see that party and state policy guidance is followed and that non-party members do not create autonomous organizations that could challenge party rule. Party control is tight- although not being felt directly.

Theoretically, the party's highest body is the Party Congress, which traditionally meets at least once every 5 years. The 17th Party Congress is expected to take place in the fall of 2007. The primary organs of power in the Communist Party include:

  • The Politburo Standing Committee, which currently consists of nine members (one seat is vacant following the June 2, 2007 death of Huang Ju);
  • The Politburo, consisting of 24 full members, including the members of the Politburo Standing Committee;
  • The Secretariat, the principal administrative mechanism of the CCP, headed by the General Secretary;
  • The Central Military Commission;
  • The Discipline Inspection Commission, which is charged with rooting out corruption and malfeasance among party cadres.

Principal government and party officials

(After Oct. 2017)

  • General Secretary of the CCP, Chairman of the Central Military Commission, and President of the State Council—Xi Jinping
  • Politburo Standing Committee—Xi Jinping (General Secretary), Li Keqiang, Wang Yang, Li Zhanshu, Wang Huning, Zhao Leji, Han Zheng
  • Other Politburo Members (25 members, meets irregularly, mostly provincial heads and Senior State Council members)— Ding Xuexiang, Wang Chen, Liu He, Xu Qiliang, Sun Chunlan (Arrested), Li Xi, Li Qiang, Li Hongzhong, Yang Jiechi, Zhang Youxia, Chen xi, Chen Quanguo, Zhao Leji, Guo Shengkun, Huang Kunming, Cai Qi. (alternate)
Xi an Mao
  • Alternate Politburo Members—Wang Gang
  • Vice President—
  • Premier, State Council—Li Keqiang
  • NPC Chair—Wu Bangguo
  • Vice Premier—Zhang Gaoli
  • Foreign Minister—Yang Jiechi
  • Minister of Commerce—Zhong Shan
  • Minister of Finance—Jin Renqing
  • Minister of Agriculture—
  • Minister of Industry and Digitalization —Wang Xudong
  • Governor, People's Bank of China—Zhou Xiaochuan
  • Minister, State Development and Reform Commission—Ma Kai
  • Ambassador to the U.S.--Zhou Wenzhong
  • Ambassador to UN—Wang Guangya

Military

It is indeed brutal to kill one or two hundred million Americans. But that is the only path that will secure a Chinese century, a century in which the CCP leads the world. We, as revolutionary humanitarians, do not want deaths, but if history confronts us with a choice between deaths of Chinese and those of Americans, we’d have to pick the latter, as, for us, it is more important to safeguard the lives of the Chinese people and the life of our Party.

—Chi Haotian, ex-Vice-Chairman of China’s Military Commissionm[53]

See also: Peoples Liberation Army

The establishment of a professional military force equipped with modern weapons and doctrine was the last of the "Four Modernizations" announced by Zhou Enlai and supported by Deng Xiaoping. In keeping with Deng's mandate to reform, the People's Liberation Army (PLA), which includes the strategic nuclear forces, army, navy, and air force, has demobilized millions of men and women since 1978 and introduced modern methods in such areas as recruitment and manpower, strategy, and education and training.

Chinese communists suppressed news of the covid outbreak for two months, arrested doctors who posted on social media about it, and did not advise the people of Wuhan until after the virus spread throughout the world.

Following the June 1989 Tiananmen crackdown, ideological correctness was temporarily revived as the dominant theme in Chinese military affairs. Reform and modernization appear to have since resumed their position as the PLA's priority objectives.

The Chinese military is in the process of transforming itself from a land-based power, centered on a vast ground force, to a smaller, mobile, high-tech military eventually capable of mounting limited operations beyond its coastal borders.

China's power-projection capability is limited but has grown over recent years. China has acquired some advanced weapons systems from abroad, including Sovremmeny destroyers, SU-27 and SU-30 aircraft, and Kilo-class diesel submarines from Russia, and continued to develop domestic production capabilities, such as for the domestically-developed J-10 fighter aircraft. However, much of its air and naval forces continue to be based on 1960s-era technology. As the Defense Department's Quadrennial Defense Review, released February 2006, noted, the U.S. shares with other countries a concern about the pace, scope, and direction of China's military modernization. We view military exchanges, visits, and other forms of engagement are useful tools in promoting transparency, provided they have substance and are fully reciprocal. Regularized exchanges and contact also have the significant benefit of building confidence, reducing the possibility of accidents, and providing the lines of communication that are essential in ensuring that episodes such as the April 2001 EP-3 aircraft incident do not escalate into major crises. During their April 2006 meeting, President Bush and President Hu agreed to increase officer exchanges and to begin a strategic nuclear dialogue between STRATCOM and the Chinese military's strategic missile command. U.S. and Chinese militaries are also considering ways in which we might cooperate on disaster assistance relief. However, it should be remembered that the Military is still under the Party's control. It is not to be equated with the European and American Armed forces.

Unrestricted warfare doctrine

Since the publication in 1999 of Unrestricted Warfare: Two Air Force Senior Colonels on Scenarios for War and the Operational Art in an Era of Globalization, by Qiao Liang and Wang Xiangsui, it has been understood that hard-line elements within the Chinese National Security community have been envisioning and positioning themselves for war with the USA. As the title suggests, this book subverts the strategic thinking and rules of "old-style warfare”, proposes “new types of warfare” and explores military tactics, strategy and organization in the age of globalization. The “unrestricted” part of “unrestricted warfare” avoids direct military confrontation and seeks instead to conquer through non-kinetic means.

The authors argued that the notion that “national defense being the country’s main security goal is somewhat outdated, at least rather inadequate." Under such circumstances, a country, especially a weak one, must go beyond the limits of "traditional war" in order to win when it is faced with an opponent stronger than itself.

CCP Unrestricted Warfare.PNG

"Traditional war" follows certain rules or boundaries, for example, protections for the civilians and civilian facilities, humanitarian treatment to POWs, banning the use of weapons of mass destruction, etc. These principles were formally established in a series of international agreements. "Unrestricted warfare" means going beyond the limit, whether it is material, spiritual, ethical or technical; and whether it is called 'range', ‘restriction’, ‘restraint’, ‘boundary’, ‘rules’, ‘law’, ‘limit’, or ‘taboo’ ". In “unrestricted warfare” there is no distinction between "front and rear", "military and civilian”, country and territory. It is not restrained by moral and ethical limits. Any person and any facility can be considered as a military target. In order to achieve the goal, you can do whatever you want.

Unrestricted warfare tactics are divided into three categories, "military, trans-military and non-military. To operate “unrestricted warfare”, any item in the table of the three categories can be combined with one or more other items as needed to form "combined tactics". The authors specifically pointed out in the note: "The three categories of operations here are real wars, not metaphors or descriptions."

When all the boundaries of “old-style warfare” are broken, there is only one reality left: the entire human society is treated as a battlefield. There is no doubt that the United States is the simulated enemy against whom the unrestricted warfare was formulated. The reasoning goes that the Peoples Republic of China, being the weaker party compared with the United States in terms of military technology and power justifies tactics described in Unrestricted Warfare, since conventional tactics may not ensure victory against the US.[54]

Biological weapons

See also: CCP global pandemic
WIV.png

China agreed to the Biological Weapons Convention in 1984, but both academics and government agencies have asserted that the regime is a world leader in bioweapon production.[55] The U.S. State Department and other agencies stating publicly in 2009 that they believe China has offensive biological agents.[56] China is “commonly considered to have an active biological warfare program,” says the Federation of American Scientists. An official with the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defence charged that China is the world leader in toxin “threats.”[57]

the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV) is linked to Beijing's covert bioweapons program. WIV is under the Chinese Academy of Sciences, but certain laboratories within it have linkage with the PLA or BW-related elements within the Chinese defense establishment. Suspicions were raised about the WIV when a group of Chinese virologists working in Canada improperly sent to China samples of what he described as some of the deadliest viruses on earth, including the Ebola virus.[58]

In 2015, Chinese military scientists discussed how to weaponize SARS coronaviruses to "cause the enemy’s medical system to collapse." In a 263-page document, written by People's Liberation Army scientists and senior Chinese public health officials and obtained by the US State Department during its investigation into the origins of COVID-19, suggests that SARS coronaviruses could herald a "new era of genetic weapons," and noted that they can be "artificially manipulated into an emerging human ­disease virus, then weaponized and unleashed in a way never seen before."[59]

Science and technology

See also: Technocracy

The 13th Five year Plan, which ran from 2016 - 2020, eliminated a distinction between civilian and military science and technology research, fusing them together in a two-way flow of technology and other resources.[60]

Since 2015, there is no distinction between civilian and military research. All science and technology is shared equally between the military and non-military researchers.

Science and technology have always preoccupied China's leaders; indeed, China's political leadership comes almost exclusively from technical backgrounds and has a high regard for science. Deng called it "the first productive force." Distortions in the economy and society created by party rule have severely hurt Chinese science, according to some Chinese science policy experts. The Chinese Academy of Sciences, modeled on the Soviet system, puts much of China's greatest scientific talent in a large, under-funded apparatus that remains largely isolated from industry, although the reforms of the past decade have begun to address this problem.

Chinese science strategists see China's greatest opportunities in newly emerging fields such as biotechnology and computers, where there is still a chance for China to become a significant player. Most Chinese students who went abroad have not returned, but they have built a dense network of trans-Pacific contacts that will greatly facilitate U.S.-China scientific cooperation in the coming years. The U.S. space program is often held up as the standard of scientific modernity in China. China's small but growing space program, which successfully completed its second manned orbit in October 2005, is a focus of national pride.

The U.S.-China Science and Technology Agreement remains the framework for bilateral cooperation in this field. A 5-year agreement to extend the Science and Technology Agreement was signed in April 2006. The Agreement is among the longest-standing U.S.-China accords, and includes over eleven U.S. Federal agencies and numerous branches that participate in cooperative exchanges under the S&T Agreement and its nearly 60 protocols, memoranda of understanding, agreements, and annexes. The Agreement covers cooperation in areas such as marine conservation, renewable energy, and health. Biennial Joint Commission Meetings on Science and Technology bring together policymakers from both sides to coordinate joint science and technology cooperation. Executive Secretaries meetings are held biennially to implement specific cooperation programs. Japan and the European Union also have high-profile science and technology cooperative relationships with China.

Nuclear weapons

In 1955, Mao Zedong's Chinese Communist Party decided to proceed with a nuclear weapons program; it was developed with Soviet assistance until 1960. After its first nuclear test in October 1964, Beijing deployed a modest but potent ballistic missile force, including land- and sea-based intermediate-range and intercontinental ballistic missiles.

China became a major international arms exporter during the 1980s. Beijing joined the Middle East arms control talks, which began in July 1991 to establish global guidelines for conventional arms transfers, but announced in September 1992 that it would no longer participate because of the U.S. decision to sell F-16A/B aircraft to Taiwan.

First stage of the DF-58 ground-based ICBM.

China was the first state to pledge "no first use" of nuclear weapons. It joined the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1984 and pledged to abstain from further atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons in 1986. China acceded to the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) in 1992 and supported its indefinite and unconditional extension in 1995. In 1996, it signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and agreed to seek an international ban on the production of fissile nuclear weapons material. To date, China has not ratified the CTBT.

In 1996, China committed not to provide assistance to un-safeguarded nuclear facilities. China became a full member of the NPT Exporters (Zangger) Committee, a group that determines items subject to IAEA inspections if exported by NPT signatories. In September 1997, China issued detailed nuclear export control regulations. China began implementing regulations establishing controls over nuclear-related dual-use items in 1998. China also has committed not to engage in new nuclear cooperation with Iran (even under safeguards), and will complete existing cooperation, which is not of proliferation concern, within a relatively short period. In May 2004, with the support of the United States, China became a member of the Nuclear Suppliers Group.

Based on significant, tangible progress with China on nuclear nonproliferation, President Clinton in 1998 took steps to bring into force the 1985 U.S.-China Agreement on Peaceful Nuclear Cooperation.

As of mid-2021, the PRC had 145 missile silos under construction capable of housing the DF-41, which can carry multiple warheads and reach targets as far away as 9,300 miles.[61]

Missile technology

Although it is not a member of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), the multinational effort to restrict the proliferation of missiles, in March 1992 China undertook to abide by MTCR guidelines and parameters. China reaffirmed this commitment in 1994 and pledged not to transfer MTCR-class ground-to-ground missiles. In November 2000, China committed not to assist in any way the development by other countries of MTCR-class missiles. However, on August 29, 2003, the U.S. Government imposed missile proliferation sanctions lasting two years on the Chinese company China North Industries Corporation (NORINCO) after determining that it was knowingly involved in the transfer of equipment and technology controlled under Category II of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) Annex that contributed to MTCR-class missiles in a non-MTCR country.

Liaoning CV-16. Photo: ChinaPower[62]

In December 2003, the P.R.C. promulgated comprehensive new export control regulations governing exports of all categories of sensitive technologies.

PLA Navy

The PLA Navy had a 335-ship fleet as of 2019, about 55 percent larger than in 2005. Based on this expansion speed, the PLA Navy fleet is projected to have more than 450 ships and about 110 submarines by 2030.[63] China currently has two carriers. The Liaoning entered service in 2012. The nation’s first fully indigenously built carrier, the Shandong, entered service in late 2020. Comparatively, the U.S. Navy had 293 ships in 2019, an increase of just two in the last 15 years.

Peoples Armed Police

The Peoples Armed Police (PAP) are not under the control of the government (State Council). The Peoples Armed Police is a section with the Peoples Liberation Armey (PLA), the Chinese Communist Party's military wing. The PAP is a paramilitary component of China’s armed forces; its primary mission is internal security. Although the PAP has specialized units for a variety of functions, such as border security and firefighting, most units address internal security. PAP units are organized into contingents for each province, autonomous region, and centrally administered city. There are also a small number of mobile divisions available to deploy anywhere in the country to respond to crises.

In 2017, authorities announced that the PAP would be commanded by the Central Military Commission (CMC), removing the State Council from the chain of command and removing the PAP from the direct control of provincial authorities.[64] Moreover, the changes removed all troops not involved in domestic security duties from the PAP. Following the changes, the PAP has become a force exclusively focused on domestic security that operates under the command of the CMC.

The CCP also revised PAP funding to strengthen central control. Stronger central control of the PAP removes these troops from possible misuse by local power holders, deters potential challengers to Beijing’s authority, and enables the central government to deploy the forces to carry out its own strategic plans, such as consolidation of political control over the western provinces. However, the militarization of the PAP raises the prospect that domestic security concerns will be considered in military terms, further weakening what little remains of the rights of the people of China, especially in the ethnic-minority dominated provinces featuring a heavy PAP presence.

State Council

The State Council is the civilian administrative or bureaucratic civil service. It is subservient to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). All members are required to be CCP members. The Chinese military, the Peoples Liberation Army, is wholly independent of the government and is Party organ.

The Chinese Government is constructed around the Chinese Communist Party (CCP); its role is to implement party policies. The primary organs of state power are the National People's Congress (NPC), the President (the head of state), and the State Council. Members of the State Council include Premier Li Keqiang (the head of government), a variable number of vice premiers (now four), five state councilors (protocol equivalents of vice premiers but with narrower portfolios), and 22 ministers and four State Council commission directors.

Under the state constitution, the NPC is the highest organ of political power in Mainland China. It meets annually for about 2 weeks every March to review and approve major new policy directions, laws, the budget, and major personnel changes. These initiatives are presented to the NPC for consideration by the State Council after previous endorsement by the Communist Party's Central Committee. Although the NPC generally approves State Council policy and personnel recommendations, various NPC committees hold active debate in closed sessions, and changes may be made to accommodate alternate views.

When the NPC is not in session, its permanent organ, the Standing Committee, exercises state power.

In 2010, China’s national domestic security spending exceeded its spending on external defense for the first time.[65] According to some estimates, on a purchasing power parity basis, China’s domestic security spending in 2017 was equivalent to about $349 billion, more than double the United States’ estimated $165 billion. Besides major increases in spending, security officials have adopted advanced technologies for surveillance and security purposes, such as facial recognition and “social credit” rating schemes through information technologies.[66] The increasing expansion of law enforcement capabilities and international outreach raises the risk that Chinese security forces will extend their hunt for political opposition abroad.48 Already, requests by Chinese police officials to establish extradition agreements has raised concern that the MSS and MPS may serve as vehicles for capturing political dissidents.[67]

Ministry of State Security

The MSS is the country’s main civilian intelligence and counterintelligence agency. Its missions include protecting China’s national security, securing political and social stability, conducting counterintelligence, and implementing the State Security Law and related laws.42 The provincial and municipal departments of the MSS are responsible for carrying out surveillance and domestic intelligence work. Some of the departments also carry out foreign intelligence work.

Ministry of Public Security

Chinese leaders rely on the MPS and the MSS as the primary forces for ensuring public order and controlling threats in the country. The MPS is responsible for domestic law enforcement, as well as overall maintenance of “social order,” riot control, and antiterror duties. Unlike the PAP or PLA, however, the MPS provides oversight of local police forces, most of which are controlled and funded by local and provincial officials. Locally hired Chinese police forces are generally regarded as poorly paid, poorly trained, and corrupt.

Legal system

The government's efforts to promote rule of law appeared to be advancing, but impossible under the political structure constructed around the Communist Party. After the Cultural Revolution, China's leaders aimed to develop a legal system to restrain abuses of official authority and revolutionary excesses. In 1982, the Communist's National People's Congress adopted a new state constitution that emphasized the rule of law under which even party leaders are theoretically held accountable.

Since 1979, when the drive to establish a functioning legal system began, more than 300 laws and regulations, most of them in the economic area, have been promulgated. The use of mediation committees—informed groups of citizens who resolve about 90% of China's civil disputes and some minor criminal cases at no cost to the parties—is one innovative device. There are more than 800,000 such committees in both rural and urban areas.

Legal reform became a government priority in the 1990s. Legislation designed to modernize and professionalize the nation's lawyers, judges, and prisons was enacted. The criminal law amendments abolished the crime of "counter-revolutionary" activity, although many persons are still incarcerated for that crime. Criminal procedures reforms also encouraged the establishment of a more transparent, adversarial trial process. The Chinese constitution and laws provide for fundamental human rights, including due process, but these are often ignored in practice. In addition to other judicial reforms, the Constitution was amended in 2004 to include the protection of individual human rights and legally-obtained private property, but it is unclear how those provisions will be implemented. Although new criminal and civil laws have provided additional safeguards to citizens, previously debated political reforms, including expanding elections to the township level, and other legal reforms, including the reform of the reeducation through labor (RTL) system, have been put on hold. However, it is still impossible for certain groups to defend themselves as the legal system is constructed around the Communist Party.

Propaganda Department

All films, media, and publications were transferred from the State Council to the CCP’s Propaganda Department in 2018.<refhttps://www.chinafile.com/conversation/chinas-communist-party-takes-even-more-control-of-media</ref>

Foreign Relations

Since its establishment, the Communist Party is doing all it can to lure countries to stand and advocate for its One-China policy that it is the sole legitimate government of all China, including Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan. In the early 1970s, Beijing was recognized diplomatically by most world powers. Beijing (Pekin) assumed the China seat in the United Nations in 1971 and has since become increasingly active in multilateral organizations. Japan established diplomatic relations with China in 1972, and the United States did so in 1979. As of July 2021, the number of countries that have diplomatic relations with Beijing had risen to 180, while 15 maintained diplomatic relations with Taiwan.

After the founding of the PRC, China's foreign policy initially focused on solidarity with the Soviet Union and other communist countries. In 1950, the Mainland Communist Regime sent the People's Liberation Army into North Korea to help North Korea halt the UN offensive that was approaching the Yalu River. After the Korean conflict stalemated, China sought to balance its identification as a member of the Soviet bloc by establishing friendly relations with Pakistan and other non-aligned countries, particularly in Southeast Asia.

In the 1960s, Beijing competed with Moscow for political influence among communist parties and in the developing world generally. The PRC broke its connection with the foreign policy leadership provided by Moscow after the Cuban Missile Crisis. Following the 1968 Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia and clashes in 1969 on the Sino-Soviet border, Chinese competition with the Soviet Union increasingly reflected concern over China's own strategic position.

In the 1970s and 1980s, China sought to create a secure regional and global environment for itself and to foster good relations with countries that could aid its economic development. To this end, China looked to the West for assistance with its modernization drive in what's called the post-Mao "Reform and opening" era.

In the immediate aftermath of the Tiananmen massacre of thousands of Chinese people during the June 1989 democracy movement, many countries reduced their diplomatic contacts with China as well as their economic assistance programs. In response, China worked vigorously to expand its relations with foreign countries, and by late 1990, had reestablished normal relations with almost all nations. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in late 1991, China also opened diplomatic relations with the republics of the former Soviet Union.

In recent years, Chinese leaders have been regular travelers to all parts of the globe, and China has sought a higher profile in the UN through its permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council and other multilateral organizations.

Influence operations

The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) uses propaganda and influence operations as a means of projecting its power and weakening its enemies. These operations are coordinated and directed by the CCP's United Front Work Department (UFWD).[68] The CCP's United Front system mobilizes the party's “friends” to strike the party's enemies. The system was greatly energized and expanded by Xi Jinping. It operates inside foreign political parties, diaspora communities, colleges and corporations, all with the goal of promoting the party's interests. The express goals of the United Front system include undermining social cohesion, exacerbating racial tension, and influencing politics.[69]

Influencing international organizations

The WHO, headed by a Marxist fellow traveller, publicly announced that the Wuhan virus posed no threat of contagious reaction between humans.[70]

Jin Canrong, a professor and associate dean of the School of International Studies at Beijing's Renmin University of China, explained the CCP's plan to exert greater influence over global bodies such as the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the World Health Organization (WHO), Interpol, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the International Olympic Committee, and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

The Chinese regime's goal is for “all these international organizations to be controlled by China. We can appoint someone who speaks Chinese [who represents China] to be its leaders,” Jin said.

During his speech, Jin emphasized that Xi Jinping was unlike his predecessors in his ambitions. Previous CCP leaders after Deng Xiaoping worked hard to develop the regime's power but didn't dare to use it. “No matter how much power you have, it’s nothing if you don’t dare to use it,” Jin said. “Chairman Xi dares to use it. [Xi’s authorities] have the power, dare to use that power, and all of its attacks make the other party bleed.”

Xi's ambitions, however, cannot be revealed to the outside world, Jin Canrong said. When Xi took power in 2012, he urged the country to realize the “Chinese dream.” This meant becoming a “moderately well-off” country by 2021, and then a “strong, democratic, civilized, harmonious, and modern socialist country” by 2049.

Jin explained that Xi's target is actually to replace the United States as the world's only superpower by 2049. “[Chinese] Ministry of Foreign Affairs keeps on saying [at press briefings] that China loves peace. But no reporters at the press briefings believe this,” Jin said.

WTO membership

U.S. trade deficit with China. The difference between the red line and blue line represents an outflow of American wealth - capital that could be used to create American jobs rather than jobs in China and prosperity for the Chinese Communist Party.

Despite the CCP's human rights abuses in the Tiananmen massacre, no trade sanctions were ever leveled by Western Powers and globalists. China was rewarded for its human rights abuses in 2001, despite the absence of reforms, by being welcomed into the World Trade Organization with full membership and a year later granted Most Favored Nation trade status by the U.S. Congress. China formally joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in December 2001.

By 2017, the imposition of tariffs by U.S. President Donald J. Trump began to redress the imbalance of a half-trillion dollar a year trade deficit and the outflow of American wealth to China. China's economy was developed over those early decades of the 21st century as a coastal, manufacturing economy entirely dependent on exports. Young people left their home villages in the countryside to seek work in coastal factories. The prosperity was all built on access to the U.S. consumer market, and Americans' appetite for cheap manufactured goods. Scant attention was paid to developing a domestic service sector economy, while the vast interior remained impoverished, and increasingly so as young people abandoned rural agricultural work for urban factory work.

Contrary to Cold War era belief that free trade would encourage non-democratic countries to become more democratic - an argument used to sell globalization - experience ultimately proved free trade only strengthens tyrannical regimes. By 2020, the notion that democracy and free trade go hand-in-hand had been thoroughly discredited.

Belt and Road Initiative

Main article: One Belt One Road

Chinese officials are quite open that Belt and Road is aimed at creating a Eurasia wide Chinese led bloc to counter the United States.

China has been looking to construct a 120-kilometer mega canal cutting through the Isthmus of Kra, the narrowest part of the Malay Peninsula in Thailand. This will open the South China Sea to the Indian Ocean, bypassing the Strait of Malacca. What China is eyeing is a canal project in Thailand called the Kra Canal and the Thai leadership seems to be on board. Through this canal, China is trying to reduce dependence on the Strait of Malacca. Currently, 80 percent of China's oil imports passed through the South China Sea.

The Strait of Malacca is a key reason why China has not been able to grow too powerful. Democratic and powers such as India, Australia, and other Southeast Asian nations are well-positioned to cut off Chinese supply lines in the event of a major military confrontation by creating a blockade around the Strait of Malacca. China wants to ensure that its commercial and naval vessels find an alternate route that altogether avoids the Malacca chokepoint while traveling between the Indian and Pacific Oceans. This is an overhang of the maritime portion of Xi Jinping's Belt and Road initiative that seeks to connect Southeast Asia with the Middle East and Europe.

Relations with the United States

Jin Canrong, a professor and associate dean of the School of International Studies at Beijing's Renmin University of China,[71] laid out a multi-pronged strategy involving a range of malign actions to subvert the United States while strengthening the Chinese regime.[72] They include:

  • interfering in U.S. elections,
  • controlling the American market,
  • cultivating global enemies to challenge the United States,
  • stealing American technology,
  • expanding Chinese territory, and
  • influencing international organizations.

Decoupling

Decoupling refers to restricting and terminating certain trade relationships with the Chinese Communist Party. Decoupling however, is not limited merely to commerce. It will affect student exchange programs as students from China are hand selected by the Chinese Communist Party and expected to serve the party upon graduation without becoming infected with ideas such as democracy, justice, and religion while in the United States. American students studying in China likewise are targeted for compromise, blackmail, and ideological subversion.

The Federal Retirement Thrift Investment Board oversees the Thrift Savings Plan, a retirement fund for federal employees and members of the uniformed military services, with about $600 billion in assets. Money is withheld from federal employees and the military's paychecks to contribute to the fund. Approximately 11% is invested in Chinese companies, some of which produce weapons designed to kill members of the U.S. military.[73] The government of China even prior to the CCP virus outbreak was in violation of U.S. sanctions law and engaged in humanitarian and human rights abuse.

Economy

Under the CCP's model of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, as in all socialist societies, there are no safeguards, guarantees, or protection of property rights. Hence, there is no private sector in China. While certain successful entrepreneurs are allowed to benefit and profit from their work or business, and even become extremely wealthy by Western standards, the state reserves the right to expropriate and take control of any person, business, or enterprise at any time. While foreign investment in recent decades has been attracted to China because of its large domestic market and cheap labor cost, foreigners are prohibited from owning more than 49% of any business and must have a 51% Chinese controlling partner who is subject to Chinese Communist law and expropriation of property rights.

During the Post-Maoist Reform era after 1978, China introduced a system known as capitalist management of socialism, which it operates under today. China is not a true market economy, as the key resources, such as land, is not privately owned; the so-called collective ownership is still de facto government ownership. Moreover, in the Communist Regime's Constitution, Mainland China is still officially a Communist country.

In the 3 years from 2011 to 2014, China used more cement than the US did in the entire 20th century.

In 1985, based on IMF data,[74] China was the eleventh largest economy, with a GDP of $313 billion, below the United States, Soviet Union, Japan, Germany, United Kingdom, France, Italy, Canada, Spain, and the Netherlands. China quickly got to tenth in 1990, with its $398 billion. China managed to get to eight in just five years, with a GDP of $737 billion. However, during this time, the Russian economy was collapsing, which meant that China went to seventh. The Italian economy got overtaken by the Chinese economy of $1.215 trillion in 2000. However, China nearly tied France and England around the $2.5 trillion mark. When the 2008 financial crisis hit America and Europe, China boomed even further, becoming the 3rd largest economy in 2010, nearly tying Japan, with a $6 trillion GDP. It went up to $11 trillion in 2015, clearly becoming the 2nd largest economy. In 2020, it hit 100 trillion yuan ($15.21 trillion), when the United States went down to $20 trillion, and Japan went down to $5 trillion, because of the CCP pandemic. China is expected to get to $25 trillion in 2025 and possibly hit $33 trillion in 2030, surpassing the United States' 30 trillion. The media appears to be cheering for China.[75] In 2050, China could dwarf and double the US economy and military, with an overwhelming $100 trillion GDP, based on PricewaterhouseCoopers projections. China is eager to get the 1st place from the US and promote its agenda in an extreme way, even through killing 1.5 million people through a biological weapon, the Coronavirus.[76]

By 2020 under Communism, China had a per capita income below Mexico but above the Dominican Republic. 40% of the population lives on less than $5 per day.

The mainstream media praised the Chinese economy,[77] and boasted about how China will overtake the US economy before 2030.[78] China actually may overtake the US economy, based on the trends and if the United States doesn't speed up, which makes the mainstream media, and especially Joe Biden, happy.

Agriculture

China is the world's most populous country and one of the largest producers and consumers of agricultural products. Roughly half of China's labor force is engaged in agriculture, even though only 10% of the land is suitable for cultivation and agriculture contributes only 13% of China's GDP. China's cropland area is only 75% of the U.S. total, but China still produces about 30% more crops and livestock than the U.S. because of intensive cultivation, China is among the world's largest producers of rice, corn, wheat, soybeans, vegetables, tea, and pork. Major non-food crops include cotton, other fibers, and oilseeds. China hopes to further increase agricultural production through improved plant stocks, fertilizers, and technology. Incomes for Chinese farmers are stagnating, leading to an increasing wealth gap between the cities and the countryside. Government policies that continue to emphasize grain self-sufficiency and the fact that farmers do not own—and cannot buy or sell—the land they work have contributed to this situation. While this was the case in China before Communism, many other countries have since embrace individual ownership while China has not. In addition, inadequate port facilities and lack of warehousing and cold storage facilities impede both domestic and international agricultural trade.

Industry

Industry and construction account for about 46% of China's GDP. Major industries are mining and ore processing; iron; steel; aluminum; coal, machinery; textiles and apparel; armaments; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products including footwear, toys, and electronics; automobiles and other transportation equipment including rail cars and locomotives, ships, and aircraft; and telecommunications.

China has the longest and most-used high-speed rail network in the world. China's high-speed rail network accounts for two-thirds of the world's total high-speed rail networks.

China has become a preferred destination for the relocation of global manufacturing facilities. Its strength as an export platform has contributed to incomes and employment in China. The state-owned sector still accounts for about 40% of GDP. In recent years, authorities have been giving greater attention to the management of state assets—both in the financial market as well as among state-owned-enterprises—and progress has been noteworthy.

Organ harvesting

Human organ transplants have been developed into a booming industry by the Chinese Communist Party. Virtually all donors are involuntary, with a few people in poverty being paid perhaps $25 for a kidney that is advertised globally, online, as a procedure costing $60,000.

Since organ transplantation has been made a high priority in the Chinese Communist Party’s national strategy and heavily emphasized as a future emerging industry, a large number of organ transplant projects have been funded under major national programs. The Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education, other departments, and the military have invested heavily in research, development, and personnel training in transplantation technology to meet the needs of this rapidly-growing industry. New capabilities and techniques have emerged and been extensively spreading, allowing live organ transplantation in China to grow into a large, industrialized operation in less than two decades.[79]

Before 2000, the technology in kidney and liver transplants had matured through the sourcing of organs from prisoners sentenced to death and prisoners of conscience. The repression of Falun Gong opened up a mass organ supply. If the Chinese Communist Party had not approved and supported the mass killing of Falun Gong for their organs, it would not have been possible for the transplant profession and the hospitals to participate in and benefit from these killings. Since 2001, the Party has incorporated organ transplantation into its Five-Year Plans.[80]

Until 2010, China had no organ donation system, but become one of the world's organ transplant leaders. China claimed that the organs came from executed prisoners, but the number of reported capital executions was only a fraction of the number of transplants. Wait times as short as 2 weeks, that in other countries were as long as 15 years, and an endless supply of donors, made China a popular destination for transplant surgeries.[81] The trade is estimated to be worth $1 billion per year.[82]

Foreign Investment

Any foreign business operating in China must have a Chinese partner. Foreigners are limited to 49% iwnership. Foreigners are prohibited from owning Chinese tech firms.

As part of its WTO accession, China undertook to eliminate certain trade-related investment measures and to open up specified sectors that had previously been closed to foreign investment. New laws, regulations, and administrative measures to implement these commitments are being issued. Major remaining barriers to foreign investment include opaque and inconsistently enforced laws and regulations and the lack of a rules-based legal infrastructure.

Opening to the outside remains central to China's development. Foreign-invested enterprises produce about half of China's exports, and China continues to attract large investment inflows. Foreign exchange reserves were $1.1 trillion at the end of 2006, and have now surpassed those of Japan, making China's foreign exchange reserves the largest in the world.

Regulatory environment

Though China's economy has expanded rapidly, its regulatory environment has not kept pace. Since Deng Xiaoping's open market reforms, the growth of new businesses has outpaced the government's ability to regulate them. This has created a situation where businesses, faced with mounting competition and poor oversight, will be willing to take drastic measures to increase profit margins, often at the expense of consumer safety. This issue has recently acquired more prominence, with a number of restrictions being placed on problematic Chinese exports by the U.S. The Chinese Government recognizes the severity of the problem, recently concluding that up to 20% of the country's products are substandard or tainted. However, the level of the Chinese corporate taxes is actually 60% of the annual income. Moreover, in September 2017 the Communist Regime announced that private enterprises that are over 50 employees are required to set up party branches.

Forced labor

Forced Labor Detention Facilities in China.PNG

China's network of penal forced labor facilities, established in the early years of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) government to hold both criminals and political dissidents, remains in operation today.[83] U.S. law prohibits the importation of goods produced “wholly or in part in any foreign country by convict labor or/and forced labor or/and indentured labor under penal sanctions.”[84] Artificial flowers, Christmas lights, shoes, garments, umbrellas as well as coal, cotton, electronics, fireworks, footwear, nails, and toys have been identified as produced in Chinese prison factories for export. There have been several instances of letters and notes from prisoners describing their confinement, working conditions and mistreatment discovered in products purchased by consumers outside China; at Christmas in 2019 a six-year-old girl in London, in a box of newly purchased Christmas cards, found one that had a message in English saying,

"We are foreign prisoners in Shanghai Qingpu prison China Forced to work against our will. Please help us and notify human rights organization."[85]

Profitable prison companies help to fund the operations of both local and national government. Prison labor enterprises producing high-tech goods such as semiconductors and optical instruments are the most profitable, each earning an estimated annual revenue of tens of millions of dollars and paying taxes to the Chinese government. According to the 2012 Trafficking in Persons Report from the United States Department of State,

“[t]he [PRC] government reportedly profits from [the use of] forced labor. Many prisoners and detainees in ‘reeducation through labor’ facilities [are] required to work, often with no remuneration.”

Many prisons function as subcontractors for Chinese firms. The State Department has noted cases in which

“detainees were forced to work up to 18 hours a day without pay for private companies working in partnership with Chinese authorities” and “were beaten for failing to complete work quotas."[86]

The book Laogai: The Machinery of Repression in China, published in 2009, stated that as many as 3 to 5 million people were imprisoned in laogai or gulag camps.[87]

In addition to criminal sentences imposed by a court, administrative detention imposed by police with no legal due process required, the CCP has a system of “Black Jails”, an unofficial system of unlicensed confinement facilities used by local CCP officials primarily to detain petitioners seeking redress of grievances.[88]

Energy

Together with strong economic growth, China's demand for energy is surging rapidly. In 2003, China surpassed Japan to become the second-largest consumer of primary energy, after the United States. China is the world's second-largest consumer of oil, after the United States, and for 2006, China's increase in oil demand represented 38% of the world total increase in oil demand. China is also the third-largest energy producer in the world, after the United States and Russia. China's electricity consumption is expected to grow by over 4% a year through 2030, which will require more than $2 trillion in electricity infrastructure investment to meet the demand. China expects to add approximately 15,000 megawatts of generating capacity a year, with 20% of that coming from foreign suppliers.

Coal makes up the bulk of China's energy consumption (70% in 2005), and China is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. As China's economy continues to grow, China's coal demand is projected to rise significantly. Although coal's share of China's overall energy consumption will decrease, coal consumption will continue to rise in absolute terms. China's continued and increasing reliance on coal as a power source has contributed significantly to putting China on the path to becoming the world's largest emitter of acid rain-causing sulfur dioxide and greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide.

The 11th Five-Year Program, announced in 2005, calls for greater energy conservation measures, including the development of renewable energy sources and increased attention to environmental protection. Moving away from coal towards cleaner energy sources including oil, natural gas, renewable energy, and nuclear power is an important component of China's development program. China has abundant hydroelectric resources; the Three Gorges Dam, for example, will have a total capacity of 18 gigawatts when fully on-line (projected for 2009). In addition, the share of electricity generated by nuclear power is projected to grow from 1% in 2000 to 5% in 2030. China's renewable energy law, which went into effect in 2006, calls for 10% of its energy to come from renewable energy sources by 2020.

Since 1993, China has been a net importer of oil, a large portion of which comes from the Middle East. Net imports are expected to rise to 3.5 million barrels per day by 2010. China is interested in diversifying the sources of its oil imports and has invested in oil fields around the world. Beijing also plans to increase China's natural gas production, which currently accounts for only 3% of China's total energy consumption. Analysts expect China's consumption of natural gas to more than double by 2010.

In May 2004, then-Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with China's National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) that launched the U.S.-China Energy Policy Dialogue. The Dialogue has strengthened energy-related interactions between China and the United States, the world's two largest energy consumers. The U.S.-China Energy Policy Dialogue builds upon the two countries' existing cooperative ventures in high energy nuclear physics, fossil energy, energy efficiency, and renewable energy and energy information exchanges. The NDRC and the Department of Energy also exchange views and expertise on Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Technologies, and we convene an annual Oil and Gas Industry Forum with China.

Environment

See also: China and the environment

The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is responsible for 27% of global carbon emissions, more than all other developed nations combined.

One of the serious negative consequences of China's rapid industrial development has been increased pollution and degradation of natural resources. China is widely expected to surpass the United States as the world's largest emitter of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases sometime in 2007 or 2008. A World Health Organization (WHO) report on air quality in 272 cities worldwide concluded that seven of the world's 10 most polluted cities were in China. According to China's own evaluation, two-thirds of the 338 cities for which air-quality data are available are considered polluted—two-thirds of them moderately or severely so. Respiratory and heart diseases related to air pollution are the leading cause of death in China. Almost all of the nation's rivers are considered polluted to some degree, and half of the population lacks access to clean water. By some estimates, every day approximately 300 million residents drink contaminated water. Ninety percent of urban water bodies are severely polluted. Water scarcity also is an issue; for example, severe water scarcity in Northern China is a serious threat to sustained economic growth and the government has begun working on a project for a large-scale diversion of water from the Yangtze River to northern cities, including Beijing and Tianjin. Acid rain falls on 30% of the country. Various studies estimate pollution costs the Chinese economy 7%-10% of GDP each year.

China's leaders are increasingly paying attention to the country's severe environmental problems. In 1998, the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) was officially upgraded to a ministry-level agency, reflecting the growing importance the Chinese Government places on environmental protection. In recent years, China has strengthened its environmental legislation and made some progress in stemming from environmental deterioration. In 2005, China joined the Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development, which brings industries and governments together to implement strategies that reduce pollution and address climate change. During the 10th Five-Year Plan, China plans to reduce total emissions by 10%. Beijing in particular is investing heavily in pollution control as part of its campaign to host a successful Olympiad in 2008. Some cities have seen improvements in air quality in recent years.

China is an active participant in climate change talks and other multilateral environmental negotiations, taking environmental challenges seriously but pushing for the developed world to help developing countries to a greater extent. It is a signatory to the Basel Convention governing the transport and disposal of hazardous waste and the Montreal Protocol for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, as well as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species and other major environmental agreements.

The question of environmental impacts associated with the Three Gorges Dam project has generated controversy among environmentalists inside and outside China. Critics claim that erosion and silting of the Yangtze River threaten several endangered species, while Chinese officials say the dam will help prevent devastating floods and generate clean hydroelectric power that will enable the region to lower its dependence on coal, thus lessening air pollution.

The United States and China are members of the Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate (APP). The APP is a public-private partnership of six nations—Australia, China, India, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and the United States—committed to explore new mechanisms to meet national pollution reduction, energy security, and climate change goals in ways that reduce poverty and promote economic development. APP members have undertaken cooperative activities involving the deployment of clean technology in partner countries in eight areas: cleaner fossil energy, renewable energy and distributed generation, power generation and transmission, steel, aluminum, cement, coal mining, and buildings and appliances.

The United States and China have been engaged in an active program of bilateral environmental cooperation since the mid-1990s, with an emphasis on clean energy technology and the design of effective environmental policy. While both governments view this cooperation positively, China has often compared the U.S. program, which lacks a foreign assistance component, with those of Japan and several European Union (EU) countries that include generous levels of aid.

Digital currency

A new digital currency laid out in the Five-Year Plan for 2021-2025 is part of the PRC's goal to become technologically independent of the West, to dominate global tech, and overtake the US as the world's dominant power by 2049. Unlike cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin, which are not issued by governments and therefore cannot be used as means of payment in most daily transactions, China's digital currency is issued and controlled by China's central bank.

The currency known as the digital renminbi or yuan, also known as Digital Currency Electronic Payment (DCEP), is the opposite of bitcoin. The ultimate goal of a cryptocurrency in the West is the separation of money and state, whereas the new digital currency is another element in the toolbox of surveillance and controlling the population, ensuring that no transaction goes unrecorded.

Poor medical care

Mainland China, like most Communist regimes, gives low priority to medicine and medical care. Mainland China only spends 1% of GDP on health care, ranking #156 out of 196 nations surveys by the World Health Organization (WHO). Many people rely on traditional practitioners, having more faith in acupuncture than modern science. In any case, few have the opportunity to receive modern drugs or treatment with advanced devices. The local clinic has only a thermometer and stethoscope for instrumentation, and very few modern drugs. Only one in six medical personnel have a college degree, and those degrees are not high quality. The ordinary people want more medical care but that hardly matters, for in a dictatorship violence matters, but not public opinion.[89]

Internet censorship

U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton has criticized Chinese censorship and restrictions on the Internet, and China is pushing back since the Communist Party considers Internet control essential if it is to maintain the stability of the country. Between 2006 and 2010, Google had a censored version of its search engine in mainland China on google.cn. In 2010, Google ended its censored mainland Chinese version, instead offering a link to the Hong Kong Chinese version, which does not censor search results, but is blocked in the mainland. The Communist Party promotes Internet use for commerce, but heavily censors content it deems pornographic, anti-social or politically subversive and blocks many foreign news and social media sites, including Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube. The censorship is nicknamed the "Great Firewall of China," which is based on the Great Wall of China. However, the censorship can easily be bypassed with a Virtual Private Network (VPN), colloquially known as 翻墙 (fānqiáng, lit. "going over the wall").

Higher education

Despite fears that China may be outpacing the United States in turning out engineers, the number of college students in China who study engineering is on the decline, according to Global Times, a Chinese party-controlled newspaper. Fewer than one in 10 college graduates in 2009 majored in engineering. Instead, students are turning to economics, finance, and management, which pay more and carry more social status. "Engineering usually makes people think of factories, while factories often give people an impression of hard work, low wages, and layoffs," the newspaper quoted one professor as saying.

Although there are some considerable effort of developing the universities, the Communist regime is still having issues with academic freedoms, which means that some improvements will be made, but the overall environment will not change.

The exodus of Chinese undergraduate and graduate students continues; as 180,000 left in 2008, about 25% percent more than in 2007, as more families were able to pay overseas tuition. For every four students who left in the past decade, only one returned; those with American PhDs in science or engineering the least likely to return. The intellectual vitality, quality of science, pay scales, and political climate are much more attractive in the West. Those who return to China risk being shunned as "foreigners".[90] Now the exodus are enlarged into high-school students and even primary school students.

China and intellectual property theft

See: China and intellectual property theft

Human Rights

Under Mao millions of Chinese died, no matter it is famine or political movements, they are all the results of Communism itself. The "Cultural Revolution" in the 1960s was an Cultural Marxist effort of eradicating Chinese culture endorsed by Mao in order to eliminate potential political elite that could act against the Communist Party; it set back China by decades, even after his death, the damage in the social morality is still remaining.

After the mid-1980s the new leader Deng Xiaoping promoted rapid modernization. While Mao's memory was still revered, most of his brutal policies were ended and much economic freedom—and a dash of political liberalization—was allowed. Intellectuals were encouraged to speak out again and to share in a new spirit of "democratization." However Communist party leaders in 1986 warned that modernization must not be used as an excuse to introduce "bourgeois philosophies and social doctrines." By late 1986 student groups began to demonstrate demanding more student participation in local government, a greater degree of democracy, and better living conditions. As demonstrations escalated Hu Yaobang, the general secretary of the party, resigned, confessing that he had made major mistakes and would take responsibility for them. It was a setback to political and economic liberalization, though Hu remained, out of office, a symbol of the potential for democracy. Hu's death in April 1989, sparked widespread public rallies in favor of broad social changes in Beijing, Shanghai, and other major cities. Tens of thousands of students defied a government clampdown to demonstrate in May in Tiananmen Square central Beijing. The Party moved to kill dissent, sending uneducated rural troops into square on June 3–4; hundreds of demonstrators were killed, wounded, or arrested. The world was appalled. Following the savage repression of democrats in all major cities Deng Xiaoping appeared to be even more firmly in control.

The China country reports in the U.S. State Department's 2009 Human Rights Practices and International Religious Freedom Reports[91] noted China's well-documented and continuing abuses of human rights in violation of internationally recognized norms, stemming both from the authorities' intolerance of dissent and the inadequacy of legal safeguards for basic freedoms. Reported abuses have included arbitrary and lengthy incommunicado detention, forced confessions, torture, and mistreatment of prisoners as well as severe restrictions on freedom of speech, the press, assembly, association, religion, privacy, worker rights, and coercive birth limitation. In 2006, China continued the monitoring, harassment, intimidation, and arrest of journalists, Internet writers, defense lawyers, religious activists, and political dissidents. The activities of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), especially those relating to the rule of law and expansion of judicial review, continue to be restricted.

In 2008 China loosened its restrictions somewhat for the Summer Olympics. The government owns the Internet access and censor several websites to prevent the people from learning about the Communist regime and the evil root of the Communism.

Human rights failures remain a major concern. Abatement of pollution and improvements in systems to ensure food, drug, and product safety are major concerns, especially after notorious episodes of exporting poisoned pet food, toothpaste, and infant formula.

By 2019, human rights in China had deteriorated significantly.[92]

Uyghur forced labor

A transport of Uighur prisoners at a CCP concentration camp in Xinjiang.[93]
See also: Xinjiang concentration camps

According to some reports, the CCP has begun to move large numbers of Uyghurs, including many former detainees, into textile, apparel, and other labor-intensive industries in Xinjiang and other PRC provinces. Uyghurs who refuse to accept such employment may be threatened with detention. They continue to be heavily monitored outside of work, and are required to attend political study classes at night. A study by the Australian Strategic Policy Institute identified nearly 120 Chinese and foreign companies, including global brands, that the institute alleges directly or indirectly benefit from Uyghur labor in potentially abusive circumstances.[94]

Uyghurs are working in factories that are in the supply chains of at least 83 well-known global brands in the technology, clothing and automotive sectors, including Apple, BMW, Gap, Huawei, Nike, Inc., Samsung, Sony and Volkswagen. In factories far away from home, they typically live in segregated dormitories, undergo organised Mandarin and ideological training outside working hours, are subject to constant surveillance, and are forbidden from participating in religious observances.[95]

Persecution of Falun Gong

These values come from the China International Transplantation Network Assistance Center (CITNAC) at www.zoukiishoku.com. CITNAC was founded in the transplantation institute at the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University. Its website was shutdown soon after organ harvesting was exposed, here is the archived page.
See also: Forced organ harvesting

While the CCP pandemic unfolded the China Tribunal, an independent people's tribunal, released its full judgment on Chinese forced organ harvesting. The panel was chaired by Sir Geoffrey Nice who previously led the prosecution of former Yugoslavia Prime Minister Slobodan Milosevic for war crimes at the International Criminal Tribunal and included other experts in law, transplant surgery, international politics, Chinese history and business. The experts concluded that the grisly practice has continued unabated. In June 2019 the tribunal delivered its findings in London, concluding beyond a reasonable doubt that state-sanctioned forced organ harvesting from prisoners of conscience has taken place for years in China on a significant scale and is still taking place. The main organ supply came from imprisoned practitioners of the persecuted spiritual group Falun Gong.

The Chinese regime has persecuted the group for more than two decades. Hundreds of thousands of adherents have been thrown into prisons, labor camps, and brainwashing centers where many have been tortured in an effort to force them to renounce their faith. The tribunal concluded that the Chinese regime sustained a campaign of forced organ harvesting constituted a crime against humanity. Many people have died indescribable hideous deaths for no reason, that more may suffer in similar ways, and that all of us live on a planet where extreme wickedness may be found in the power of those, who for the time being, are running a country that is one of the oldest civilizations known to modern man.[96]

History

History of China
History of China
Ancient
Neolithic c. 8500 – c. 2070 BC
Xia dynasty c. 2070 – c. 1600 BC
Shang dynasty c. 1600 – 1046 BC
Zhou dynasty c. 1046 – 256 BC
 Western Zhou
 Eastern Zhou
   Spring and Autumn
   Warring States
Imperial
Qin dynasty 221–206 BC
Han dynasty 206 BC – AD 220
  Western Han
  Xin dynasty
  Eastern Han
Three Kingdoms 220–280
  Wei, Shu and Wu
Jin dynasty 265–420
  Western Jin
  Eastern Jin Sixteen Kingdoms
Southern and Northern Dynasties
420–589
Sui dynasty 581–618
Tang dynasty 618–907
  (Wu Zhou interregnum 690–705)
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
907–960
Liao dynasty
907–1125
Song dynasty 960–1279
  Northern Song W. Xia
  Southern Song Jin
Yuan dynasty 1271–1368
Ming dynasty 1368–1644
Qing dynasty 1644–1911
Modern
Republic 1912–1949
People's Republic 1949–present

For a more detailed treatment, see History of China.
Although archaeologists have found settlements in China dating to 5000 BC, the earliest nation that can be dated in the area of modern China is the Shang Dynasty, approximately 2000 BC.

Dynasty followed dynasty, as old regimes would lose the "mandate of heaven;" it was believed that each emperor ruled only with the approval of heaven, and a ruler who was unfit to rule would curse the nation until replaced. In addition, the Chinese capital would occasionally be overrun by "barbarians," who invariably would start a new dynasty in the Chinese capital, integrating their nations into the former dynasty.

Chinese had an advanced artistic culture and well-developed science and technology. However, its science and technology stood still after 1700 and in the 21st century very little survives outside museums, except in for the popular forms of traditional medicine.

19th and 20th century

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by large-scale civil wars, major famines, military defeats by Britain and Japan, regional control by powerful warlords, and foreign intervention such as the Boxer Rebellion of 1900. In 1911 a revolution deposed the Qing dynasty and the Republic of China was proclaimed.

Under the leadership of the KMT (Kuomintang), headed by Chiang Kai-shek (1887-1975), the central government finally suppressed the local warlords who effectively controlled many provinces. The KMT tried to destroy the Communists under Mao Zedong, but they escaped in the "Long March" of 1934–35. Japan seized Manchuria in 1931, and in 1937 invaded all of China, seizing the coast, the major cities, and setting up a puppet government that controlled most of the population. China was allied with the U.S. and Britain against Japan, and at war's end joined the United Nations as a permanent member of the 5-nation Security Council, with a veto.

The period from the Opium Wars to the rise of New China under Mao is referred to in Communist Chinese history texts as the Century of Humiliation.

Great East Asian War

See also: Second Sino-Japanese War

When the war against Japan broke out in 1937, the Kuomintang (KMT) had more than 1.7 million armed soldiers, ships with 110,000 tons of displacement, and about 600 fighter planes of various kinds.

The total size of the CCP Army, including the New Fourth Army, which was newly formed in November 1937, did not exceed 70,000 people. Its power was weakened further by internal fractional politics; it could have been eliminated in a single battle. If the CCP were to face the Japanese in battle, it would not be able to defeat a single division of Japanese troops. Sustaining its own power rather than ensuring the survival of the nation was the central focus and the reason for its emphasis on “national unity.”

After the Japanese occupied the city of Shenyang on Sept. 18, 1931, thereby extending Japanese control over large areas in northeastern China, the CCP fought alongside Japanese invaders to defeat the KMT.[97]

The Japanese set up a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit in Harbin. Unit 731 and its affiliated units were involved in research, development and experimental deployment of epidemic-creating biowarfare weapons in assaults against the Chinese populace (both military and civilian) throughout World War II. Plague-infected fleas, bred in the laboratories of Unit 731 and Unit 1644, were spread by low-flying airplanes upon Chinese cities, including coastal Ningbo and Changde, Hunan Province, in 1940 and 1941.[98] This military aerial spraying killed tens of thousands of people with bubonic plague epidemics. An expedition to Nanking involved spreading typhoid and paratyphoid germs into the wells, marshes, and houses of the city, as well as infusing them into snacks to be distributed among the locals. Epidemics broke out shortly after, to the elation of many researchers, where it was concluded that paratyphoid fever was "the most effective" of the pathogens.[99][100][101]

At least 12 large-scale field trials of biological weapons were performed, and at least 11 Chinese cities were attacked with biological agents. An attack on Changda in 1941 reportedly led to approximately 10,000 biological casualties and 1,700 deaths among ill-prepared Japanese troops, with most cases due to cholera.[102] Japanese researchers performed tests on prisoners with bubonic plague, cholera, smallpox, botulism, and other diseases.[103] This research led to the development of the defoliation bacilli bomb and the flea bomb used to spread bubonic plague.[104] Some of these bombs were designed with porcelain shells, an idea proposed by Ishii in 1938.

Due to pressure from numerous accounts of the bio-warfare attacks, Chiang Kai-shek sent a delegation of army and foreign medical personnel in November 1941 to document evidence and treat the afflicted. A report on the Japanese use of plague-infested fleas on Changde was made widely available the following year, but was not addressed by the Allied Powers until Franklin D. Roosevelt issued a public warning in 1943 condemning the attacks.[105][106]

Mao era

Yan'an rectification movement

See also: Yan'an rectification movement and Rectification

In northern Shaanxi Province, while sandwiched between the Japanese and the KMT, the CCP began the Yan’an Rectification Movement of mass cleansing, killing many people. More than 10,000 were killed in the "rectification" process,[107] as the Party made efforts to attack intellectuals and replace the culture of the May Fourth Movement with that of Communist culture.[108][109][110] This type of repetitive massacre on such a massive scale did not prevent the CCP from eventually expanding its power to rule all of China. The CCP expanded this pattern of internal rivalry and killing from the small Soviet areas to the whole nation. The Nine Commentaries on the Communist Party describes the Yan'an rectification movement as,

"the largest, darkest, and most ferocious power game ever played out in the human world. In the name of “cleansing petty bourgeoisie toxins,” the Party washed away morality, independence of thought, freedom of action, tolerance, and dignity... Humiliation became a fact of life in Yan’an—it was either humiliate other comrades or humiliate oneself. People were pushed to the brink of insanity, having been forced to abandon their dignity, sense of honor or shame, and love for one another to save their own lives and their own jobs. They ceased to express their own opinions and recited Party leaders’ articles instead."

Mao developed the techniques of "thought reform" (literally "washing the brain" in Chinese). Mao's tactics often included isolating and attacking dissenting individuals in "study groups." These techniques of pressure, ostracism, and reintegration were particularly powerful in China, where the culture puts great value on "saving face", protecting one's innermost thinking, and above all, identifying with a group. Individuals put through thought reform later described it as excruciating. The resulting changes in views were not permanent, but the experience overall seriously affected the lives of those who went through it. The CCP has used these same types of techniques on millions of Chinese since 1949.

Maoist revolution

See also: New China and History of the Chinese Communist Party

In 1945–46, the U.S. attempted to force a negotiated settlement between the KMT and the Communists, but failed. In the face of economic collapse,[111] the Communists won the civil war in 1949 under Mao Zedong established a totalitarian regime, forcing the elected constitutional ROC Government to Taiwan. Taiwan is recognized as an integral part of China in theory, but in practice has been independent since 1949.

Mao liquidated millions of opponents, acting against the International society in the Korean War (1950–53), and around 1960 broke bitterly with the Soviet Union over the control of the Communist world. Mao's regime imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. Mao bluntly said,

“What can Emperor Qin Shi Huang brag about? He only killed 460 Confucian scholars, but we killed 46,000 intellectuals. There are people who accuse us of practicing dictatorship like Emperor Qin Shi Huang, and we admit to it all. It fits the reality. It is a pity that they did not give us enough credit, so we need to add to it.”[112]

Cold War era

Throughout most of the Cold War era, the United States and its allies adopted a Two-China policy, referring to Mainland China as Red China, and the allied Taiwanese government as Free China. The government of Taiwan held the permanent seat assigned to China on the United Nations Security Council from the founding of the United Nations Charter in 1945, until Red China's accession to the post in 1971. Since 1971, Red China, or the Peoples Republic of China, has insisted upon a One-China policy in all its diplomatic relations. The common reference to Mainland China as "China" proper in American academia and media, in accordance with PRC propaganda and its foreign policy stance, is a relatively late development of more recent decades.

Cultural Revolution

See also: Cultural Marxism

Mao was discredited by the failure of the Great Leap Forward, and power shifted to the party boss Liu Shaoqi and his protégé, Deng Xiaoping. Dissatisfied with China's new direction and his own reduced authority, Mao launched a massive political attack on Liu, Deng, and other pragmatists in the spring of 1966.

In the early stages of the Cultural Revolution, Mao and Lin Biao charged Liu, Deng, and other top party leaders with dragging China back toward capitalism. In 1971, Lin Biao was accused of plotting against Mao. He fled Beijing and died in a plane crash in Mongolia.

The ideological struggle between more pragmatic, veteran party officials and the radicals re-emerged with a vengeance in late 1975. Mao's wife, Jiang Qing, and three close Cultural Revolution associates (later dubbed the "Gang of Four") launched a campaign against Deng, who was stripped of all official positions.

Deng and successors reform era

After 1978, Mao's successor Deng Xiaoping constructed a market-economy system, while still remain de facto control over the land by imposing the length of usage of the land, and by 2000 output had increased, population growth ended (by imposing a one-child policy), and mediocre relations were secured with the West. For much of the population, living standards have improved and the material choices are growing, yet totalitarian rule and the ownership of the Internet still firmly gripped.

In 1989, the Tiananmen Square democracy protests were inspired by an explosion of democracy protests worldwide, resulting in the Fall of the Berlin Wall, the Czech Velvet Revolution, and the collapse of Soviet Communism. The Chinese protests however were quashed when the so-called "People's Liberation Army" killed over 10,000 Chinese people. The Chinese Communist Party then established a registry of social organizations, in order to head off political upheaval. Falun Gong, a revival of pre-Maoist Cultural Revolution traditions, registered with the Chinese government in 1992. It soon attracted “tens of millions of adherents,” the political-science professor Maria Hsia Chang writes in Falun Gong: The End of Days.' Falun Gong started holding enormous gatherings; by the mid- 1990s, there were more than two thousand Falun Gong practice sites in Beijing alone. Troubled by the possibility that a large part of the population was becoming more loyal to Falun Gong than to the Communist Party, the government began cracking down on groups and banning sales of Falun Gong publications.

By 1999, the CCP estimated that the group had seventy million adherents; that year, more than ten thousand of them staged a silent protest in Tiananmen Square. An arrest warrant was issued for Li Hongzhi, the group founder, who had by then immigrated to Queens, New York. The Chinese National Congress subsequently passed, and began violently enforcing, an "anti-cult law".[113]

China's economy changed from a centrally planned system that was largely closed to international trade, to a more market-oriented economy that has a rapidly growing private sector and is a major player in the global economy.

Most Favored Nation status with the U.S.

See also: Most favored nation

As China has been growing in power, it has also become increasingly aggressive on the international stage.[114] The country's Communist Party also increased control over the country and economy,[115] and foreign companies worked to appease the Chinese government.[116] China uses about half of the world's steel and cement/concrete. In the 3 years from 2011 to 2014, China used 6.6 gigatons of cement, which is more than the US did in the entire 20th century.[117] China also worked to isolate Taiwan diplomatically.[118] China became the dominant trading partner of a large majority of the world's countries, overtaking the U.S.[119] Under Xi Jinping, China regressed back to Mao's totalitarianism.[120]

Xi era

With the amendment to the constitution repealing presidential term limits, allowing Xi Jinping to become a ruler for life,[121] the Reform era begun by Deng Xiaoping came to an end. The repeal of these reforms on the highest offices of state violated long sought-after conditions and agreements with the GATT organization and WTO for admission.

On March 1, 2020, ten days before the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the CCP virus a global pandemic, the international China Tribunal published its Final Report declaring that the CCP had indeed performed hundreds of thousands of involuntary organ harvesting of hearts, lungs, kidneys, and livers from Falun Gong practitioners and other prisoners of conscience in a budding for-profit organ transplant industry for recipients worldwide.[122]

Wuhan Coronavirus epidemic

See also: CCP virus, Atheism and the Wuhan coronavirus epidemic, and Wuhan coronavirus - Chinese Communist Party response

In July 2019, Xiangguo Qiu and a number of Qiu's students were forcibly removed from Canada's only level-4 laboratory. A Level 4 virology facility is a lab equipped to work with the most serious and deadly human and animal diseases. The laboratory in Winnepeg, Manitoba is one of only a handful in North America capable of handling pathogens requiring the highest level of containment.[123]

Bio-warfare experts questioned why Canada was sending lethal viruses to China.[124]

The unity within the Chinese Communist Party is shattering as all three factions (Shanghai, Beijing, and Zhenjiang) in the party are embroiled in a feud. The Shanghai faction is led by Jiang Zemin, the Beijing faction is led by Hu Jintao, and the Zhenjiang faction is led by President Xi Jinping. Each one of the three is trying to nullify the influence of the other faction. Since 2012, when Xi Jinping took office political oppression has intensified and it has blanketed China. Press, social media, film, arts, literature, and the Internet in China is heavily censored. Many intellectuals, Tibetans, Uighurs, lawyers, university students have been persecuted for voicing their opinions in favor of democracy.

Cracks appeared in Xi Jinping's hold on the Chinese Communist Party over the catastrophic handling of the CCP pandemic. This opened an opportunity for the Shanghai faction and the Beijing faction.

2020 U.S. Presidential election interference

See also: United States presidential election, 2020

Di Dongsheng, a vice-dean at the School of International Relations at Renmin University in Beijing, made public statements before a large audience on November 28, 2020:

"We know that the Trump administration is in a trade war with us, so why can’t we fix the Trump administration? Why did China and the US used to be able to settle all kinds of issues between 1992 and 2016?" he asked. "I’m going to throw out something maybe a little bit explosive here. It’s just because we have people at the top. We have our old friends who are at the top of America’s core inner circle of power and influence."

"During the US-China trade war, Wall Street tried to help, and I know that my friends on the US side told me that they tried to help, but they couldn’t do much. But now we’re seeing Biden was elected, the traditional elite, the political elite, the establishment, they’re very close to Wall Street, so you see that, right?"

"Trump has been saying that Biden’s son has some sort of global foundation. Have you noticed that? Who helped [Hunter] build the foundations? Got it? There are a lot of deals inside all these."[125][126][127]

Dietary habits

China and obesity

China has the largest atheist population in the world.[128] In 2014, the British medical journal Lancet reported that the Chinese now have the second-highest obesity rate in the world.[129][130] A recent study published in the Obesity Reviews journal, found that Chinese teenagers' rate of diabetes was four times that of their American peers.[131]

See also: China and obesity and Atheism and obesity

In 2014, it was reported that China's obesity rate has skyrocketed in the last 30 years and the Chinese now have the second-highest obesity rate in the world.[132][133] The Wall Street Journal reported in 2014 that China had approximately 300 million overweight people.[134] In 2014, the British medical journal Lancet analyzed weight trends in 188 countries and reported that more than 28% of Chinese adult men and 27% of the country's adult women are now overweight or obese.[135]

According to a 2012 report by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the number of obese children in China has reached 120 million.[136] A recent study published in the Obesity Reviews journal, found that Chinese teenagers' rate of diabetes was four times that of their American peers.[137] Due to their past one-child policy, which had exceptions, China now has a lot of over-pampered and over-fed children.[138]

Matthew Crabbe, co-author of "Fat China: How Expanding Waistlines are Changing a Nation" declared that China's surging rate of obesity is "a ticking bomb" underneath the country's future economic growth and healthcare system.[139]

China and dog meat eating

See also: Atheists and dog meat eating and Atheism and China and Atheism and stealing Each year thousands of dogs are stolen in China and as many as 20 million dogs are killed in China to satisfy the dog meat industry.[140] In China, Chinese gangs have cropped up that kidnap pet dogs to sell to dog meat traders.[141]

China and cat meat eating

See also: Communist China and cat meat eating In 2009, The Star reported: "China's Chengdu Business Daily estimated recently that as many as 10,000 cats are consumed throughout Guangdong everyday.".[142]

Each year thousands of dogs are stolen in China and as many as 20 million dogs are killed in China to satisfy the dog meat industry.[143] See also: Atheists and dog meat eating.

In 2009, The Telegraph reported:

In Nanjing's north-western suburb of Pukuo, a hut stands in a field of rubbish.

The only clue to what goes on there is the pile of empty wooden crates at the back and the steel bars over the windows. Inside, there are crates full of cats, waiting to be shipped to the southern province of Guangdong, where they will feed a growing curiosity about the taste of cat meat.

At the back of the shack, a man sitting on a makeshift bed was warming himself next to a charcoal brazier.

"We collect 40 to 50 cats a day here," he said. "We ship them out when we have 100."

"We make around eight mao (8p) on each cat, after our costs. We buy them for 10 renminbi (£1) and sell them for not much more."

Each night, a train loaded with thousands of cats in crates heads south from a freight depot in Nanjing.

Chen Shi, 20, a mechanic working in a neighboring shop, said the depot had been in operation for three or four years. "The cats scream all night," he said. "Residents called the police but there's nothing illegal about it, so they couldn't do anything."

The fondness for eating dogs in northern China is well known, but cats are also prized in the country's south. One of the most famous Cantonese dishes is "Tiger and Dragon locked in Battle", in which the flavors of cat and snake vie for attention.

The Cantonese appetite has already made cats scarce and expensive in Guangdong itself, forcing restaurants to look elsewhere for a steady supply. Nanjing, with its excellent transport links and central position in China, has emerged as the hub of cat trading.[144]

Atheist controlled, mainland China admits its men have become too feminine. China promotes education drive to make boys more 'manly'

See also: Atheism and mental toughness In 2021, the BBC reported that the mainland Chinese government indicated that its men have become too feminine.[145] As a result, China promotes education drive to make boys more 'manly'.[146]

The BBC article also stated: "Last May, a delegate of China's top advisory body, Si Zefu, said that many of China's young males had become 'weak, timid, and self-abasing.'"[147]

China and baby meat-eating

See also: Communist China and baby eating and Atheists eat babies meme

China and Sewage Eating

It is common for street vendors in China to cook food in Gutter Oil, which is made from processed sewage.[148]

Further reading

  • Chow, Gregory C. China's Economic Transformation (2nd ed. 2007) excerpt and text search
  • Eberhard, Wolfram. A History of China (2005), 380 pages' full text online free
  • Entwisle, Barbara, and Gail E. Henderson, eds. Re-Drawing Boundaries: Work, Households, and Gender in China, U of California Press, 2000; on 1990; complete text online free
  • Fairbank, John King and Goldman, Merle. China: A New History. (1998). 546 pp.
  • Gries, Peter Hays. China's New Nationalism: Pride, Politics, and Diplomacy, U of California Press, (2004); recent history online edition free
  • Kang, David C. China Rising: Peace, Power, and Order in East Asia (2007), argues a strong China stabilizes East Asia
  • Naughton, Barry. The Chinese Economy: Transitions and Growth (2007), important new survey
  • Ogden S. (ed) China. (2006)
  • Oi, Jean C. Rural China Takes Off: Institutional Foundations of Economic Reform, U of California Press, (1999) complete text online free
  • Perkins, Dorothy. Encyclopedia of China: The Essential Reference to China, Its History and Culture. (1999). 662 pp.
  • Rawski, Thomas G. and Lillian M. Li, eds. Chinese History in Economic Perspective, University of California Press, 1992 online free
  • Roberts, J. A. G. A Concise History of China. (1999). 341 pp.
  • Schoppa, R. Keith. The Columbia Guide to Modern Chinese History. (2000). 356 pp. online edition
  • Shambaugh, David. China's Communist Party: Atrophy and Adaptation (2009)
  • Shambaugh, David. Modernizing China's Military: Progress, Problems, and Prospects U of California Press, (2003) complete text online free
  • Spence, Jonathan D. The Search for Modern China (1991), 876pp; well-written survey from 1644 to 1980s excerpt and text search; complete edition online
  • Wang, Ke-wen, ed. Modern China: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Nationalism. (1998). 442 pp.

See also

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  133. Chubby China: Nation of 300 Million Overweight People
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  147. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zrv78nG9R04

External links