Mohammed Amin Al-Husseini

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Adolf Hitler talking with Grand Mufti Mohammed Amin Al-Husseini

Haj Mohammed Amin Al-Husseini (1895-1973) was the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem during the early 20th century and during World War II.

Life

At least as early as 1920, al-Husseini began inciting the Arabs to attack the Jews. And in 1920-21 dozens were murdered by his linked or influenced groups.[1]

In 1929 Al-Husseini intensified agitating the Arabs to riot against the Jewish community, distributing leaflets and stirring up anti-Jewish sentiment. Among these were leaflets stating that the Jews were planning to take over the al-Aqsa Mosque.[2] These tirades led to the 1929 Hebron massacre, in which 67 Jews were slaughtered.

"If a man was a Jew, it was good enough for him to be killed or stamped out," wrote a senior British official serving abroad to his superiors in London in 1929.[3]

An outspoken anti-Semite, he had a very close friendship with Adolf Hitler and visited Islamic SS units, such as the Handschar Brigade. Al-Husseini also cheered Hitler's deadly "Final Solution." In 1943, after learning of the murder of European Jewry, the mufti declared that Germany had "decided to find a final solution to the Jewish danger that would remove their harm from the world."[4][5]

In 1945, Al-Husseini was captured with many Nazis at Nuremberg and was labeled a war criminal, but he escaped and fled to Egypt, where he lived until his death in 1974.

German official Wilhelm Melchers testified after the war, August 1947[6][7]:

The mufti was making protests everywhere … The mufti was an accomplished foe of the Jews and did not conceal that he would love to see all of them liquidated.


Highlights

1.

Began his dangerous incitement since at least the 1920.[8] "His speeches, pamphlets and articles in the newspaper Suria al Jenobia (Southern Syria) were primarily responsible for the outbreak of the 1920 pogrom in Jerusalem."[9] Nabi Musa Nassacre began after the mob was protesting the British, they turned on the Jews. British Court found al-Husseini main culprit.[10]

Historian Joseph Klausner noted that "Among the casualties and wounded were Jews of every ethnic background, of all classes, of all parties, Sephardim and Ashkenazim … devout rabbis and educated freethinkers. The enemy did not differentiate. No use was made of guns. A report by a British committee of inquiry set up to probe the riots described: "All the evidence indicates that these attacks were of a cowardly and traitorous nature. Most of them were against the elderly, women, and children. Most were attacked from the back."[11]

Author S. Honig describes[12] this pivotal event:

Cries of “Itbach el-Yahud” (“Slaughter the Jews”) filled the air. It was the first coordinated mass-murder offensive launched by infamous Jerusalem Mufti Haj-Amin el-Husseini (who would in time become an avid Nazi collaborator, Hitler’s personal guest in Berlin during World War II and a wanted war criminal).

Ever since, this land shook fitfully as rounds of massacres and wars followed each other in breathless succession... Those deadly landmark rampages were kick-started on April 4, 1920, exploiting Muslim celebrations to rally thousands of raiders at Nebi Musa in the Judean Desert. Serially inflamed by Husseini’s vitriolic harangues, they poured into Jerusalem, descended upon the Old City’s Jewish Quarter and began butchering, raping, pillaging and burning – all in the name of their God.

The premeditated atrocity lasted four days. Even passing reflections on its overlooked anniversary (it’s so uncool to recall crimes against Jews), can contribute considerably to our present-day perspectives.

This unprovoked killing-spree was launched before any of the excuses for Arab bloodlust – now so conveniently and commonly cited – existed. There was no Jewish state to fulminate against and no Israeli “occupation” with which to justify any outrage against Jews in the Jewish homeland.

There was no hint of what the Palestinians market so effectively as their nakba – catastrophe. There wasn’t a single Arab refugee. There was no war, no displacement, no reason to rage.

The 1920 victims were largely members of the old-time, traditional, pre-Zionist Jewish community that had long before then constituted Jerusalem’s majority. Yet this ancient community was deemed fair game. The subtext was that Jews have no rights – not even indigenous non-Zionists.

Considering their penchant for distorting history, Israel’s detractors are doubtless tempted to describe 1920’s predators as oppressed Palestinian peasants protesting against usurper Jews. It must, therefore, be a whopping downer to discover that none of this homicidal fury was unleashed on behalf of Palestine. The Arabs loathed the very name introduced to this country by its new British overlords.

It was the Jews who became known throughout the first half of the 20th century as Palestinians and it was the Arabs who scornfully rejected the moniker.

The executioners who swooped down on Jerusalem’s Jewish Quarter championed the cause of Greater Syria. On March 7, 1920, Britain crowned Feisal, a Hashemite princeling from today’s Saudi Arabia, as king in Damascus. By July that year the French would chuck him out. In response, London earmarked its latest invention, Iraq, for Feisal’s next monarchy. So much for the fictitious nature of Arab nationalities.

Feisal, incidentally, conferred with Dr. Chaim Weizmann, president of the World Zionist Organization, in January 1919 and they produced the Faisal-Weizmann Agreement for Arab-Jewish Cooperation.

Thereupon Faisal issued the following statement, which appears quite fantastic in view of all that ensued: ”We Arabs... look with the deepest sympathy on the Zionist movement… We will wish the Jews a most hearty welcome home... I look forward, and my people with me look forward, to a future in which we will help you and you will help us, so that the countries in which we are mutually interested may once again take their places in the community of the civilized peoples of the world.”


2.

Pushed to the Hebron 1929 massacre where an Arab "mob slaughtered 67 Jews while over 400 were saved by local Arab families."[13][14] "Jews of all ages were attacked at random – men, women and children alike were the targets of the fury of the Arab mob. Women were raped, children were bludgeoned to death, and men stabbed and mutilated.... Photographs from the time show a girl struck on the head by a sword with her brain spilling out, a woman with bandaged hands, people with their eyes gouged out, a man whose hand had been savagely amputated, and other grisly sights. It’s important to note that some Arabs did try to help Jews as the Hebron massacre unfolded. Nineteen Arab families saved dozens, if not hundreds, of Hebron’s Jews."[15] 

It is worthwhile to observe that his actions in 1929 were directed mainly against non-Zionist religious communities. Ultra orthodox.[16] Jews of all ages.[17]


3.

1935-9

In 1935 took control on clandestine jihadi gang jihad al-Muqaddas, with Abd al-Qadir (who founded it in 1931) it was behind the 1936-9 violent riots in Palestine.[18][19][20]

In March, 1935 the Vatican linked nazis to Arab drive on Jews, stating: "There is no doubt that Nashashibi, the Mufti and Nazis from Germany are behind this entire agitation". [21]

When in May 1935, delegates returned from an Arab youth conference in Haifa, their train to Afulah bore a Swastika chalked up on one of the coaches with an Arabic inscription beneath "Germany Over All." [22][23][24][25]

On July 1, 1935, it has been reported that Arabs in Haifa formed nazi club "The Red Moon".[26][27][28]

Shortly later, in July 27, 1935 Arab Youth telegram to Nazi Germany: "The Arab youth of Palestine respectfully ask the only Führer of Germany to prevent the sale of the German Schneller School and its land to the Jews, so that this sale does not contribute to the Jewification of the Holy Land." [29] [30]

Weeks later, in August of that year, Haj Mohammed Amin Al-Husseini visited Syria and Lebanon and had met with several local nationalist leaders. This visit was widely covered in the press.[31]

Author in 1948[32]: The Mufti of Jerusalem through his agent in Geneva, Emir Shekib Arslan, was in contact with Mussolini years before the war. Some of their intercepted correspondence was published as early as 1935 in Arab papers opposed to the Mufti.

In the 1930s, Palestinian Arab students educated in Germany returned to Palestine determined to found the Arab Nazi Party of Palestine. The the Mufti al-Husseini with Jamal Husseini used the Palestinian Arab Party to established the al-Futuwwa youth corps, named after an association of Arab knights of the Middle Ages and which was officially designated the Nazi Scouts. By 1936 the Palestinian Arab Party was sponsoring the development of storm troops patterned on the German model. These youths storm troops, outfitted in black trousers and red shirts and were to be divided into three sections per age groups. Recruits took the following oath: “Life—my right; independence — my aspiration; Arabism—my principle; Palestine—my country, and there is no room for any but Arabs. In this I believe and Allah is my witness.”  This was merely the prelude to the out- break of the Great Arab Revolt of 1936–1939.

The al-Futuwwa youth groups connected Palestinian Aeab youth to fascist youth movements elsewhere in the Middle East. As the Mufti was establishing youth groups in Palestine, al-Futuwwa groups were established in Iraq.[33][34]

The 1936-9 "revolt" was aided by Hitler.[35]

Dr. Said Abd al-Fattah al-Imam

Founded al-Nadi al-Arabi (The Arab Club). It was a vehicle for advancing Nazi goals in Syria. He was a young Syrian educated in Berlin during the inter-war years, who was close to both Quwatli and Barudi. In 1936, Imam travelled twice to Germany, once even meeting personally with Hitler to try to talk him in to shipping arms to the Palestinians and Syrians. [36]

In November and December 1937 Dr. Said Abd el-Fattah Imam, again visited Berlin. He represented the Mufti of Jerusalem and several Syrian nationalist organizations. [37]

There were a number of strong pre - war Arab - Nazi organizations — the Iron Shirts (led by Fakhri al-Barudi of the National Bloc, member of the Syrian Parliament to this day); the League for National Action (headed by Abu al-Huda al-Yafi, Dr. Zaki al-Jabi and others); the An - Nadi al-Arabi Club of Damascus (headed by Dr. Said Abd al-Fattah al-Imam); the “Councils for the Defence of Arab Palestine” (headed by well - known pro - Nazi leaders, such as Nabih al-Azma, Adil Arslan and others); the “Syrian National Party” (led by the Fascist Anton Saada, who escaped during the war to the Germans and was sent by them to the Argentine). The National Bloc, the principal party in Syria, and more particularly the Istiqlal group (headed by Shukri al - Kuwatli, now President of the Syrian Republic) had for many years been openly pro-Nazi. Before the war, Baldur von Schirach , leader of the Hitlerjugend, visited Syria on a special mission and established close contact with these circles and with the Arab youth organisation. [38][39][40][41]

On July 16th 1937 the Mufti of Jerusalem, visited the Reich Consul-General Bohle, marking probably the Mufti's first official contact with a Third Reich official. Later this personage was to play the top role in realising the Nazi plans. The Mufti stressed his sympathy suppprt for the 'new Germany' and expressed the hope that it would support the Arabs. "He pictured such support as taking a position in the press or manifesting in some other manner public opposition to the Zionist aspirations in Palestine." In addition, he requested the nazi Germans to maintain contact with his confidential agent, who was to proceed to Berlin.[42][43][44]

On that same day that the Mufti met Döhle in Jerusalem, two members of the HAC, Awni Abd el-Hadi and Muin el-Mahdi, met in Baghdad with Fritz Grobba, the German envoy.[45]

In the fall of 1937Eichmann, accompanied by his SS superior Herbert Hagen, visited Palestine to secure information on Zionist issues and meet with the Mufti. Finally it didn't take place due to British restrictions on the visit, yet Eichmann met with a journalist that belonged to Mufti's circle.[46]


4.

Mass terror, assasination of moderates.[47][48]

Author P. Mann[49]:
... So the Mufti hired terrorist gangs from Syria, headed by the notorious and highly paid Fawzi el Kawkji. In order to encourage the Palestinian Arabs to cooperate, the Syrian gangs first concentrated chiefly on them . One hundred and thirty - six of the most highly respected Palestinian - Arab leaders were assassinated by the Mufti's gunmen.

Among them were the ex - Mayor of Jerusalem and the Mayor of Hebron .

In addition , an unrecorded but admittedly high number of Arab workers in the cities and Arab felaheen in the countryside were slaughtered — those who had “cooperated” with the Jews and those who had refused to house and hide the Syrian henchmen. Often mutilated bodies were strung up in Arab villages - as warning . This form of persuasion proved effective.


5.

April 1, 1941. Pro-nazi Coup in Iraq. Mufti's involvement in the coup began at least in August 26, 1940.[50][51]


6.

Helped in Nazi inspired Arab massacre of Jews in Iraq, June 1-2 1941. The Farhud, where between 180 - 780 Jews died, 1,000 injured, and more than 12,000 people were pillaged,[52] at the hands of Arab-Nazi Futuwwa under Rashid 'Ali.[53][54] [55] [56][57][58] Aided in bloody incitement by, Jamal al-Husayni, head of the Arab Party; Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, a Nazi supporter who studied in Germany; Musa al-'Alami (1897–1984) who because of his involvement with the Arab rebellion, was dismissed from his position of the Palestine Government Advocate; and the Palestinian nationalist activist and poet Buhan al Din Al-Abbushi, who called for the people and the government of Iraq to expel or massacre the Iraqi Jews. As well as with nazi expert in the middle East Fritz Grobba's assistance.
Resulting in: Jews' houses and shops were looted, women and children were raped, and others were kidnapped and brutally killed. [59]


7.

In May 9, 1941, the Mufti issued a fatwa in a radio speech from Baghdad, calling Muslims to engage in a holy war against Great Britain.[60] A fatwa, announcing a Jihad (holy war) against Britain "and urged every Moslem to join in the struggle against the greatest foe of Islam." [61]


8.

October 27, 1941, Mufti meets Mussolini. Mussolini agrees to a joint Axis statement along the lines of al-Husayni's proposal to Hitler.[62]

From a report at the time [63]:

The ex-Mufti of Jerusalem, who recently flew from Rome to Berlin to confer with Nazi leaders on anti-British and anti-Jewish activities in the Near East has returned to the Italian capital, where he met with Premier Mussolini, it was announced today by Radio Rome. “In the course of a long and cordial conversation, problems concerning the future of the Arab countries in the Middle East were examined in detail,” Rome Radio said.


9.

Met Adolf Hitler in November-28-1941, whose agents had to convince themselves he is not "pure arab" in blood[64] yet, the nazi leader still refused to shake his hand[65] or drink coffee with him[66] for considering Arabs inferior. They agreed on cooperation against Jews.[67]

Hitler, from his racist perspective, the Arabs were alien and inferior, like the Jews. [68]

Mufti to Hitler:

The Arabs could be more useful to Germany as allies than might be apparent at first glance, both for geographical reasons and because of the suffering inflicted upon them by the English and the Jews.

Hitler's reply:

Germany was resolved, step by step, to ask one European nation after the other to solve its Jewish problem, and at the proper time to direct a similar appeal to non-European nations as well.[69]


Later he would write in his memoirs, "Our fundamental position for cooperating with Germany was a free hand to eradicate every last Jew from Palestine and the Arab world. I asked Hitler for an explicit undertaking to allow us to solve the Jewish problem in a befitting our national and racial aspirations, and according to the scientific methods innovated by Germany in the handling of its Jews. The answer I got was: 'The Jews are yours'." [70][71]


10.

1942, attempts, activities including military, while Hitler remarked that he "wanted nothing from the Arabs."

From The Holocaust Encyclopedia [72]:
On July 17, al-Husayni proposed to the Ciano and the chiefs of German and Italian military intelligence that he establish a center in Egypt for the coordination of all facets of collaboration between the Axis and the "Arab Nation." The center would conduct propaganda through radio broadcasts, publications, and brochures. It would also establish Arab partisan units to conduct sabotage and incite uprisings behind British lines, and regular Arab military units that would fight "shoulder to shoulder" with Axis troops. Al-Husayni insisted that military units wear Arab uniforms, be commanded by Arab officers, and speak Arabic as the language of command. Again, the Germans refused: Hitler remarked that he "wanted nothing from the Arabs." In late September 1942, al-Husayni proposed to found another pan-Arab center in Tunisia that would:

-"strengthen ties with Arabs in French North Africa
-ship weapons, agents, equipment, and money to stiffen Muslim resistance in the event of an Allied landing
-recruit and train Arab soldiers, who would stand prepared to defend North Africa "against any threat from the Allies, Bolshevism, and Judaism".

On December 18, 1942, Arab émigrés opened an "Islamic Central Institute" (Islamische Zentral-Institut) in Berlin, with al-Husayni as a senior sponsor and keynote speaker. In his speech, al-Husayni lashed out at the Jews, stating that the Koran judged the Jews "to be the most irreconcilable enemies of the Muslims." He predicted that the Jews would "always be a subversive element on the earth [and] are inclined to craft intrigues, provoke wars, and play the nations off against one another." Al-Husayni insisted that the Jews influenced and controlled the leadership of Great Britain, the United States, and the "godless communists." With their help and support, "world Jewry" had, he asserted, unleashed World War II. He called on Muslims to make the sacrifices necessary to liberate themselves from the persecution and suppression of their enemies. Nazi propagandists provided major coverage of the opening of the “Islamic Central Institute” and al-Husayni's remarks. The German news filmed his introductory remarks and the press published his anti-Jewish attacks. On December 23, 1942, the German Foreign Office broadcast his speech during a daily Arab-language newscast to the Middle East.

Letter from Amin al-Husayni and Raschid Ali al-Gailani to the German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, 28 April 1942:

(Note the repetition of "oppression" under British, in complaining to the authoritarian Nazi dictatorship).

To the Reichminister of Foreign Affirs.

Joachim von Ribbentrop

Rome, 28 April 1942

In our conversations with you we have conveyed the trust of the Arab people in the Axis powers and in their high goals, and we have expressed the national goals of the Arab lands currently suffering under British oppression. We have declared the readiness of the Arab people to join in the struggle against our common enemies until final victory. We ask now the German government to declare its readiness to guarantee to the Arab lands currently suffering under British oppression all possible support in their struggle for liberation, to recognize the sovereignty and independence of the Arab lands of the Near East currently suffering under English oppression and their unity if the participating states so desire, as well as to agree to the elimination of the Jewish National Home in Palestine.

We are in agreement that the text and the content of this letter must be kept secret, until this can he changed by mutual agreement. Please accept, herr Reichsminister, the assurance of our highest regards. Amin al-Husayni

Raschid Ali al-Gailani [73]

From a July 7, 1942 report[74]: The Axis radio broadcast, “Voice of Free Arabs,” which is supervised by the ex-Mufti of Jerusalem, today urged the Arabs in Egypt and Palestine to launch pogroms against the Jews and to take away their property. The broadcaster stated: “Take your revenge on them. Break them before they break you. Kill them. Set their houses on fire. Close their stores.”


11.

Active in organizing SS Nazi Muslim division (1943)[75] in Yugoslavia especially detriment to Hungarian Jews.[76] And to Christians in the Balkan.[77]

When the SS decided in February 1943 to recruit among Bosnian Muslims for a new division of the Waffen-SS, SS Main Office Chief Berger enlisted al-Husayni in a recruiting drive in Bosnia from March 30 and April 11. On April 29, Berger reported that 24,000–27,000 recruits had signed up and noted that the "visit of the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem had had an extraordinarily successful impact." Both al-Husayni and the SS repeatedly referred to the success of the 13th Waffen-SS Mountain Division (also known as "Handschar"). Al-Husayni spoke to the military Imams of the division...[78]


12.

From early 1943, for at least six months, he, repeatedly, kept uging, the Nazis to bomb Jerusalem, Tel-Aviv, Haifa port.[79] [80] [81][82][83]



13.

Broadcasted over the airways to the Muslim world anti Jewish incitement to kill Jews wherever they "find them."[84][85] That this "pleases Allah".[86][87][88][89] Most notable in 1944.[90][91][92][93] Worth mentioning, that 1944 was after he was convinced, nazi Germany isn't and wouldn't help him in anything and that he couldn't even prevent the very little Jewish immigration from the Germans in exchange for Germans held in British custody.[94]


14.

Prevented rescue of children of Bialystok, 1943.[95][96] As well as interrupting saving other thousands of children which were to be swapped by Germans.[97]


16.

November 2, 1943. It was already after the defeat of the Axis in North Africa in El-Alamain, and the prospect of “liberation” for the Arab countries was clearly nil, yet, el-Husseini did not end his anti-Jewish diatribes. To mark the anniversary of the Balfour Declaration, he organized a protest rally in Berlin on. His speech on this occasion was again full of anti-Semitic stereotypes and agitation against the Yishuv...[98]


16.

December 17, 1944.

It was the final phase of the war, el- Husseini gave a radio address on the occasion of the Islamic New Year's celebration, which was broadcast to the entire Arab world, he declared: "We will not be satisfied with less than what the free nations have fought for—genuine independence that does not allow entry to foreigners and that leaves no room for Jews, in which the entire Arab fatherland is available to the Arab people alone." [99]


17.

Under his leadership, the 1944 Atlas-Operation, with the intention of poisoning Tel Aviv's wells[100] failed, where (some estimate) "a quarter of million people would have died if the plot had succeeded".[101]


18.

Post WW2:

On May 7, 1945, the day of the German surrender, al-Husayni flew to Bern, Switzerland. The Swiss authorities denied his appeal for asylum, detained him, and turned him over to French border authorities. French authorities placed al-Husayni under house arrest at a villa near Paris. Though the British initially wanted custody of al-Husayni, there were significant obstacles to obtaining a conviction against him before an international tribunal. Moreover, both Britain and France, seeking to reestablish their influence in the Arab world, saw serious liabilities in holding al-Husayni in custody. In late 1945, the Yugoslav government withdrew its extradition request for al-Husayni.
On May 29, 1946, carrying a passport issued to Ma'ruf al-Dawalibi, al-Husayni escaped from French custody and flew to Cairo, Egypt.[102]


9 May, 1945. In days of anti-French unrest in Lebanon, on May 9, 1945, clashes between Palestinians and the French had erupted when Palestinian soldiers paraded under a portrait of Palestinian Mufti Amīn al-Husaynī and a flag bearing a swastika.[103]


On May 7, 1946, the Non-Sectarian Anti-Nazi League - NSANL submitted a petition to President Truman, which was presented to Congress by representative Emmanuel Celler from New York. The memorandum urged the president to launch an investigation into the activities of the Arab Office, alleging that its anti-Zionist campaign was inciting religious and racial hatred in order to advance foreign political goals. The memorandum accused Arab Office director Khulusi Khairy and Anwar Bekir Nashashibi of having cooperated with the far-right activist Gerald L.K. Smith and the anti-Semitic Blue Star Mothers group. Through its institution of an anti-Jewish boycott in November 1945 and in appointing the Mufti as the rightful representative of the Arabs in Palestine, the Arab League had revealed itself as an “anti-democratic and authoritarian body,” the petition continued.[104][105][106]

Associates

Legacy

Terrorist Yasser Arafat was a distant cousin of him and always revered him as his beloved hero and mentor. In April 1985 Arafat explained he took “immense pride” in being Al-Husseini’s student and emphasized that the Palestine Liberation Organization “is continuing the path” he set.[107][108]

On January 4, 2013, President of the so-called "State of Palestine" Mahmoud Abbas, spoke glowingly of the legacy of the Godfather of the PLO, the Mufti of Jerusalem.[109]


Further links and influences

Among his admirers, was:

Sufi Hamid[110][111] (convert to Islam), known in the 1930's as Black Hitler calling to drive out Italians and Jews in NY.[112] 


Among his hemchmen: 

1. Issa Nakhleh, [113] the liar, Holocaust denier already in 1972,[114][115] (uttering his vile lying denial, only less than 3 decades after the horrors). Then denying again in 1978 to disrupt the historic peace summit between Begin and Sadat at Camp David Accords.[116] In the 1950s he founded and edited the journal "America y Oriente", known for its systematical anti-jewish campaign and its glorification of the totalitarian regimes, particularly of the Nazi Germany.[117]

Tied to Palestinian-Arab immigrant in Chile Jorge Sabaj Zurob - Mundo Arabe, who in 1933 glorified and hailed Hitler, promoted infamous protocoles forgery in the 1940s and in the 1950s. It was banned during WW2 and was threatened in 1949 to be banned again by leading media in that country.[118]

In 1963 wrote to The Canadian Fuhrer Adrien Arcand.[119]

Linked to major neo nazis since the 1960s, spoke at holocaust deniers IHR in the 1980s[120][121] on behalf of Muslim Congress,[122] worked with the neo Nazis,[123] wrote for them and defended infamous denier Ditlieb. 

His book - so-called "Palestine encyclopedia," described by American Library Association as just an anti-Israel propaganda piece.[124]

(This Nazis' linked fraud, was the first known to hurl "racism" label at Israel and even "worse," at his memorandum to UN on June 17, 1949. He made the Nazi comparison and even worse, before he openly denied Nazi atrocities altogether. His diatribe terminology was "adopted" and reaffirmed by another of Mufti's men, Ahmad Shukairy in 1960-62 at the UN[125]).


2. Ahmad Shukairy, on the Nazi side during WW2,[126] fighting for them in Mufti's fanatical gang.[127][128]

In 1946, after joining the Arab Higher Committee Shukairy repeated Goebbels' Nazi propaganda rhetoric, justifying the Holocaust.[129]

In August 1946, ahead of the UN September 23 meeting on Palestine, Shukairy rejected that the US should be involved, insisting Russia should be instead; that Western democracy has "failed;" that they will not sit with the Jews to roundtable talks; that partition into Arab and Jewish parts is out of the question and threatened violent actions ("fight") from the Arabs if the Brits insist on it.[130] [131]

Hypocritical "liberator". From 1947 publication: Ahmed Shukeiri, present head of the so-called Palestine Liberation Organization, is a large landowner, an unmistakable heir of the revanchist chauvinism of the pro-Nazi Arab, who dares to proclaim himself leader of a national liberation...[132] Decades later he was exposed on Saudi TV as one who "lived his entire life in five-star hotels and fought through microphones."[133]

In 1961 he used that old antisemitic canard of questioning "loyalty" on a Catholic, stating Uruguayan rep. prof. Enrique Rodriguez Fabregat is supposedly Jewish, therefore he can not be loyal representative of his country. In his response at the time: Fabregat regrets that Shukairy has used the kind of language he has and says that such language “is much more fitting to past ages.” It might well follow that many of the other statements made by the Arab spokesman are as groundless, he pointed out.[134]

He's known for his calls for genocide,[135][136][137] and for inventing[138] apartheid slander in Oct.17.1961, a little over a year before he saluted Nazi gang[139][140] [141][142][143] [144] [145][146] (though he tried to act later on, when under fire, as if he didn't know the Nazi nature of the gang, but he actually quoted the New York Times September of that year article, but intentionally omitting the Nazi nature mentioned in the headline of the very article[147]) just a little over 5 months after that gang (in June 1962) kidnapped a 19 years old Jewish student and carved on her a swastika as "revenge" for killing Adolf Eichmann.[148] It has caused his removal[149] [150][151][152][153] from UN post. 

(The infamous Tacuara was always considered fascist, even nazi.[154][155][156][157][158][159])

From the Forward[160] report on days before his removal:

1962. More and more evidence is coming to light that a number of Arab countries are actively courting former Nazis and bringing them over, a fact that makes Israel quite nervous. Israel’s ambassador to the United Nations, Michael Camay, spoke to the U.N. Assembly in regard to the growing connections between the Arab world and the neo-Nazi movement. This is apparently a continuation of the activity that took place when the mufti served as Hitler’s propaganda machine and was involved in plans to exterminate the Jews. Ahmed Shukairy, Saudi Arabia’s current representative to the U.N., was a close collaborator with the mufti. He continues to spread Nazi-style hatred of Jews, even in the United Nations.

Shukairy fired up his followers into Jihad, and said that anyone "who ever dares to speak in public of Arab friendship-with the United States in any Arab village or town would be torn to pieces."[161]

Heading the PLO, before the 1967 six-day war, he vowed to set up a "purely Arab government" for all of Palestine.[162][163]

After his demise, Arabs' defeat at the six-day 1967 war, at times he tried to rewrite his annihilation statement made before that war. Yet, even author Moshe Shemesh concluded that his words lents credibility that he meant annihilation.[164] On other occasions Shukairy admitted it but lamented that he is singled out for this among other Arab leaders, (explaining that this was the "accepted official Arab outlook" pre 1967 war) as Swiss journalist reported,[165] as well as a report of his own publication in 1971.[166]

References

  1. "Documents Officiels." Volume 1,p.13. United Nations Security Council (1973). On 4 April 1920, Husseini launched an attack on the Jews of the old city of Jerusalem, massacring, burning and pillaging for four days. In the following year, 47 Jews were killed in terrorist attacks organized by him and his murder groups.
  2. Segev, Tom One Palestine, Complete New York: Metropolitan Books (1999) ISBN 0-8050-4848-0
  3. The Mufti and the Holocaust, Revisited. by Ben Cohen. JNS.org. Oct. 2015. [1][2]
  4. 'The Eichmann Trial,' Deborah Esther Lipstadt - Nextbook/Schocken, 2011, p.104
  5. Nazi Palestine:The Plans for the Extermination of the Jews in Palestine. Volume 8 of Publications of the Ludwigsburg Research Unit, Stuttgart University Volume 8 of Veröffentlichungen der Forschungsstelle Ludwigsburg der Universität Stuttgart, by Klaus-Michael Mallmann, Martin CüppersTranslated by Krista Smith, Enigma Books, 2013, p.97
  6. The Mufti of Jerusalem: Shedding New Light on the Mufti’s Alliance With the Nazis | CAMERA
  7. Joseph B. Schechtman, "The Mufti and the Fuehrer: The Rise and Fall of Haj Amin El-Husseini", (T. Yoseloff, 1965) p.156
  8. The Evening Star, Bradford, Pa., June 12, 1946, p.3, MacKenzie Column: 'The Grand Mufti Is on the Loose Again.'
  9. The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, Volume 5, Isaac Landman, ‎Louis Rittenberg, ‎Simon Cohen, 1941, p.507
  10. David Brog, 'Reclaiming Israel's History: Roots, Rights, and the Struggle for Peace,' 2017
  11. 'The end of innocence. Some 100 years after the 1920 riots, which signified the opening shot in the Israeli-Arab conflict, what has changed? A great deal, and very little.' By Nadav Shragai, Israel Hayom, published on  05-01-2020 11:33, last modified: 05-11-2020 12:52
  12. Another tack: The postulate of illegitimacy. By Sarah Honig. Jerusalem Post, April 3, 2014
  13. 'This Week in History: The 1929 Hebron Massacre,' by Michael Omer-Man, Jerusalem Post, Aug. 26, 2011
  14. 'Moslems Denounce Mufti of Palestine,' by Joseph M. Levy. Staff Correspondent of the New York Times, Sept. 19, 1929
  15. 90 Years Ago: The Hebron Massacre of 1929. By Emanuel Miller, H.R., August 23, 2019
  16. The Israel-Palestine Conflict: Contested Histories, Neil Kaolan, 3011, p.93
  17. 'Jihad and Genocide,' Richard L. Rubenstein, 2010, p.63
  18. Bennî Môrîs, "'Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-1999", (Knopf, 1999) [ISBN: 9780679744757], p.126 Arab radicalism in the early 1930s was also expressed in clandestine violence. A number of jihaddiyyah, or secret fighting societies, emerged. In the Jerusalem area, the Jihad al-Muqaddas (the holy war society) was led by 'Abd al-Qadir al-Husseini (1907–1948), Musa Kazim's son. Organized in five-man cells, it began to collect money and arms in 1934. About 100 rifles and pistols were bought and hundreds of recruits were trained. In 1935, Amin al-Husseini assumed personal control of the society.
  19. "Asian and African Studies," Volume 17, (Jerusalem Academic Press, 1983), p.206 Around the same time, a secret organization called al-Jihād al - Muqaddas also came into being. Led by 'Abd al-Qădir al-Husaynī (and from 1935 also by Hājj Amin alHusaynī ), its power base was the central area of Palestine. During and after the Arab Rebellion of 1936-1939 the cries for a jihād became more frequent.
  20. Fabio De Leonardis, "Palestina 1881-2006: una contesa lunga un secolo", (2007) p.114 ... reazione, al-Husayni raccolse alcuni suoi veterani e ricostituì l'Esercito della Jihad (Jaish al-Jihad al-Muqaddas) una sua formazione che era stata attiva negli anni ' 30  ... e lo avevano fatto secondo il modello della Grande Rivolta Araba del 1936 - 39: furono ricostituite le bande guerrigliere ... [al - Husayni gathered some of his veterans and reconstituted the Jihad Army (Jaish al - Jihad al - Muqaddas) a formation of his that had been active in the 1930s... and they had done so according to the model of the Great Arab Revolt of 1936 - 39: guerrilla bands were reconstituted]
  21. "Vatican Links Nazis to Arab Drive on Jews". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. March 1, 1935 .... special article deals with the increased anti-Jewish propaganda in Palestine which is now disturbing the Palestine government and because of which two Arab newspapers were suspended for three months each a few days ago. “There is no doubt that Nashashibi, the Mufti and Nazis from Germany are behind this entire agitation,” the Papal organ states.
  22. Heidemarie Wawrzyn. "Nazis in the Holy Land 1933-1948". Walter de Gruyter, Aug 1, 2013. p.95 Arab youth also expressed compassion with Nazi - Germany. When in 1935 delegates returned from an Arab youth conference in Haifa, their train to Afulah bore a Swastika chalked up on one of the coaches with an Arabic inscription beneath "Germany Over All."
  23. Heidemarie Wawrzyn, "Ham and Eggs in Palestine: The Auguste Victoria Foundation 1898-1939". 2005. p.92
  24. 'Palestine Post', 13 May, 1935. 7
  25. "Palestine Train Flies Swastika". New York Times. May 13, 1935 p.8
  26. Arab Youths Found Nazi Club in Haifa‬ - The Sentinel, 11/07/1935
  27. The Canadian Jewish Chronicle - Jul 5, 1935
  28. "Arabs in Haifa form nazi club, well financed". JTA, July 1, 1935
  29. AA memorandum, July 27, 1935, BAB, R 43 II/1420.
  30. Klaus-Michael Mallmann, ‎Martin Cüppers, "Nazi Palestine: The Plans for the Jews in Palestine". Enigma Books, Oct 18, 2013. p.30 And from Jerusalem he received the following telegram: "The Arab youth of Palestine respectfully ask the only Führer of Germany to prevent the sale of the German Schneller School and its land to the Jews, so that this sale does not contribute to the Jewification of the Holy Land."
  31. Götz Nordbruch, "Nazism in Syria and Lebanon: The Ambivalence of the German Option, 1933–1945". (2009). p.159 The Palestinian rebellion further added to Amīn al- Husaynī's reputation in Syria and Lebanon. Already in August 1935, Husaynī had visited Syria and Lebanon and had met with several local nationalist leaders. This visit was widely covered in the press, see also 'Visita di Amin el-Huseini alla Siria e sue ragioni politiche', Oriente Moderno, no. 10, 1935, pp. 511–12.
  32. Samuel Rolbant, "The Arabs: Politics and People", Amal Publications, 1948. pp.24-25. The Middle East and Arab Countries: A Collection of Pamphlets.  Issue 11 of The Middle East and Arab Countries: A Collection of Pamphlets. pp.24-25: The attempts Britain had made to meet what were considered legitimate Arab political demands were interpreted as symptoms of fatal weakness; and British propaganda on Nazi brutality only served to confirm Arab belief in Germany's strength and the wisdom of being on her side. Thus, even the few proBritish Arab leaders felt obliged to conceal their opinions and to pose as anti - British , in order not to forfeit the support of their following. Significant evidence as to the way the Arab world felt during the war has been given by an 'Englishman particularly qualified to speak, Glubb Pasha, Commander of the Transjordan Arab Legion. Discussing the Iraqi revolt of 1941, he wrote:  “The British, of course, always knew we were going to win the war, but at the time of these operations every Arab was perfectly convinced that Britain was finished for ever, and that it could only be a question of weeks before Germany took over Arabia. The Iraqis were perfectly sure of this or they would not have declared war on us...“ In brief, during the six weeks before the fall of Baghdad, every Arab was convinced that we were done for. Every Arab force previously organised by us mutinied and refused to fight for us, or faded away in desertions. The men of the Arab Legion alone not only stood firmly by us, but played a most active, energetic and valuable part in our little campaign."' (Appendix to Somerset De Chair's "Golden Carpet") Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Syria and the Lebanon did not declare war on Germany until February 1945, when the end of hostilities was imminent and victory had become absolutely certain. These declarations of war at the eleventh hour were merely formal, since none of these states took any direct part in military operations.  The declarations were obviously aimed at securing seats in the United Nations Organization in the establishment of which at San Francisco only those nations were permitted to participate which had declared war on the Axis before March 1, 1945. One Arab principality did declare war on Germany as early as 1939. It was Transjordan which was under British mandatory rule and was not independent, having to rely mainly, as it still does, on grants - in - aid from the British Government, which also maintains the country's military force, the Arab Legion. Iraq declared war in January, 1943, after the reversal of the fortunes of war at El-Alamein had proved definite. This declaration was clearly motivated by the need to atone for the stab in the back Iraq had given the Allied cause in 1941. The general attitude of the - Arab States was a reflection of the long - standing relationship between certain Arab circles and the Axis Powers.  The trips by Arab students to Germany and Italy, the visits of German politicians and agents to the Arab East, the flow to Arab countries of money and of Arabic newspapers and magazines from Germany and Italy, the propaganda broadcasts in Arabic by the radio stations of the Axis - all these activities had over the years created the state of affairs which was exploited during the war. In the case of Palestine, it is by now generally acknowledged that the Arab Riots of 1936 – 1939 were stimulated and subsidized by Nazi and Fascist sources. The Mufti of Jerusalem through his agent in Geneva, Emir Shekib Arslan, was in contact with Mussolini years before the war. Some of their intercepted correspondence was published as early as 1935 in Arab papers opposed to the Mufti. In Syria and the Lebanon connections between certain groups of Syrian leaders and the Axis States were of long standing. There were a number of strong pre-war Arab - Nazi organizations — the Iron Shirts (led by Fakhri al-Barudi of the National Bloc, member of the Syrian Parliament to this day); the League for National Action (headed by Abu al-Huda al-Yafi, Dr. Zaki al-Jabi and others); the An-Nadi al-Arabi Club of Damascus (headed by Dr. Said Abd al-Fattah al-Imam); the “Councils for the Defence of Arab Palestine” (headed by well - known pro - Nazi leaders, such as Nabih al-Azma, Adil Arslan and others); the “Syrian National Party” (led by the Fascist Anton Saada, who escaped during the war to the Germans and was sent by them to the Argentine). The National Bloc, the principal party in Syria, and more particularly the Istiqlal group (headed by Shukri al - Kuwatli, now President of the Syrian Republic) had for many years been openly pro-Nazi.  Before the war, Baldur von Schirach , leader of the Hitlerjugend, visited Syria on a special mission and established close contact with these circles and with the Arab youth organisation. In Iraq , xenophobia has long been characteristic of the political mentality of the country's leaders , and even the so - called proBritish group was not entirely free of it. The Army played an important part both in domestic and foreign policy, and it was entirely pro-Nazi before the war. In Iraq, as in Syria, there were a number of pro-Nazi clubs and associations which were in contact with the German Ambassador, Dr. Grobba. Among them may be mentioned the Al-Muthanna Club, founded by Dr. Amin Ruweiha, Said Thabit and others, and the Al-Futuwa Club , which sent delegates to the Nuremberg rallies.  In the early part of the war, Iraqi politicians had relations with the German ambassadors in Baghdad and Ankara. Von Papen's top contact man with Middle Eastern Arab circles was the well-known Iraqi politician, Naji Shawkat. At the beginning of the war there were a considerable number of political emigrés in Iraq; most of them had come from Palestine, were violently anti-British and had close connections with the Germans. These included Haj Amin al-Husseini, Jamal al-Husseini, Munif al-Husseini, Daud al-Husseini, Is'haq as-Salah al-Husseini, Amin Tamimi, Hasan Abu Saud, Fawzi Qauqji, Izz - ad - Din ash-Shawa, Is'haq Darwish, Dr. Amin Ruweiha, Salim Abd ur - Rahman, Darwish Maqdadi and many others. With the help of the Iraqi Government , some of them had become civil servants and teachers in Iraq, and were thus in a position to propagate their doctrines among the masses of the people.  Haj Amin al-Husseini, ex-Mufti of Jerusalem, was the central figure in the group. When he had come to Iraq from Syria in mid-October, 1939, he was received by Nuri Said, then Prime Minister of Iraq, with the state pomp and ceremony usually accorded a visiting hero.  On October 22nd, Nuri Said gave an official banquet in his honour, attended by members of the Cabinet, the Presidents of the House of Representatives and the Senate, Rashid Ali el Kailani, and many other notables. This was the first of a series of similar receptions and celebrations , attended among others, by Taha el Hashimi, Minister of Defence, and Ali Jawdat el Ayyubi, at present Iraqi Minister to Washington. The hospitality of the Iraqi Government did not end with these banquets. The ex-Mufti was voted voted £18,000 by the Iraqi Parliament and was further paid the sum of £1,000 a month out of the Iraqi Secret Service Funds in addition to the...
  33. David M. Rosen,  "Armies of the Young: Child Soldiers in War and Terrorism", (Rutgers University Press, 2005) p.106
  34. Michael J Cohen, "Britain's Moment in Palestine: Retrospect and Perspectives, 1917-1948". (Routledge, Feb 24, 2014), p.388. During this decade, a plethora of political organizations and paramilitary youth movements modelled on Fascist and Nazi organizations sprouted up in the Arab world. In Iraq there was the al-Futuwwa, a youth organization modelled on the Hitler Youth, and the influential, pan-Arab, Fascist al- Muthanna Club, both openly supportive of the Nazis. In Syria, there were Fahkri al-Barudi's Iron Shirts and Antoun (Antoine) Sa'ada's Socialist National Party, founded in Beirut in 1932... Sa'ada adopted the Fascist paradigm – the cult of the individual, emphasis on racial purity and mystical nationalism. He advocated the restoration of a Greater Syrian state. The party's rituals included a Hitler-style salute, an anthem set to the music of the Nazi anthem, and a flag with a curved swastika called called “the red hurricane”. In the Lebanon, a number...
  35. Sarah Honig, "Another Tack: Stolen Arab art. In the netherworld Goebbels must have been rubbing his hands in glee. His Big Lie yet thrives." Jerusalem Post, January 26, 2006. ...the Arabs adored Hitler and were unequivocally, enthusiastically and actively on the Axis side. Their revered leader Haj Amin el-Husseini spent WWII in Berlin as Hitler's personal guest and head of a pan-Arab government-in-exile. The Third Reich generously funded him. He recruited Muslim volunteers from Bosnia and Kosovo to the Axis forces, broadcast venomous anti-Jewish tirades in Arabic, visited Auschwitz, blueprinted its replica near Nablus, hobnobbed with Hitler, Himmler and Eichmann, foiled the exchange of 10,000 Jewish children and sealed Hungarian Jewry's fate. His association with Nazi Germany predates his wartime services to it. His bloody uprising in 1936-39 was financed by Hitler and actively abetted by German Templers resident here since the 19th century. Already in 1937 Goebbels noted that "in Palestine they hoist Nazi flags and deck their homes with swastikas and portraits of Hitler." Indeed Arabs latched onto Nazi ideology with relish. Fascist parties proliferated - from Syria's Nationalist Socialists headed by Anton Saada to Ahmed Hussein's Young Egypt. During the war Mufti disciples hoarded arms, trained to assist Rommel's invading Afrika Korps, sheltered German paratroopers, engaged in espionage, disseminated German propaganda and greeted each other with Nazi salutes and loud "Heil Hitlers." Even postwar they continued to name newborns after Hitler and Eichmann (like PLO luminary Salim el-Mahri, a.k.a. Abu-Hitler, chief of Arafat's Force-17). THE LINK between Arab enmity to the Jewish state and the Nazi "final solution to the Jewish problem" remains inextricable. Yet while objectives haven't altered, oratory took a brazen turn. The trend now is to claim that Arabs are actually Nazism's true victims, that the Christian world, whining about the Jews, attempted to expiate its guilt at the expense of peace-loving Arabs by dumping a foreign Jewish entity in their midst. That was the gist of what Arab UN representatives, those who chose to opine about International Holocaust Remembrance Day, imparted. That's why they found it irresistible to diminish the Holocaust's enormity by likening it to Kosovo and Bosnia. That's why the Egyptian ambassador lectured that "no one can claim a monopoly on suffering." We're uncompetitive. We'd rather not have suffered any more than the Bosnians and Kosovars...
  36. "Syria and the USA: Washington's Relations with Damascus from Wilson to Eisenhower". Sami Moubayed. Bloomsbury Publishing, Feb 7, 2012. pp.42-43. Prominent nationalists in Syria took up Hitler's cause, notably the youth leader Fakhri al-Barudi, and the Damascus notable Shukri al-Quwatli, aided by King Farouk of Egypt, who was also vehemently pro-Nazi. One vehicle for advancing Nazi goals in Syria was al-Nadi al-Arabi (The Arab Club) a secular organization that preached Arab nationalism and emancipation from European control. It was founded by Said Fattah al-Imam, young Syrian educated in Berlin during the inter-war years, who was close to both Quwatli and Barudi. In 1936, Imam travelled twice to Germany, once even meeting personally with Hitler to try to talk him in to shipping arms to the Palestinians and Syrians...
  37. Łukasz Hirszowicz: "The Third Reich and the Arab East". Routledge, Nov 10, 2016
  38. American Christian Palestine Committee (1946) "The Arab War Effort: A Documented Account." p.7[3]
  39. "Arabs: Politics and People". Samuel Rolbant. Amal Publications, 1948. Page 25
  40. Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the ... Congress United States. Congress · 1967 [June 15, 1967]. p.3044
  41. The Middle East and Arab Countries: A Collection of Pamphlets - Issue 11 of The Middle East and Arab Countries: A Collection of Pamphlets] - p.25
  42. Łukasz Hirszowicz, "The Third Reich and the Arab East". Routledge, Nov 10, 2016. [4]
  43. Yehuda Taggar, "The Mufti of Jerusalem and Palestine: Arab Politics, 1930-1937". Garland, 1986. p.451
  44. Menahem Mansoor, "Political and Diplomatic History of the Arab World, 1900-1967: 1900-41". NCR Microcard Editions, 1972. p.15
  45. Michael J Cohen, "Britain's Moment in Palestine: Retrospect and Perspectives, 1917-1948"(Routledge, Feb 24, 2014). On 16 July 1937 – the same day that the Mufti met Döhle in Jerusalem – two members of the HAC, Awni Abd el-Hadi and Muin el-Mahdi, met in Baghdad with Fritz Grobba, the German envoy. They too sought German support, and asked to be received in Berlin. Although Grobba was also non-committal, some of the Mufti's  They too sought German support and asked to be received in Berlin. Some of the Mufti's agents were received by German officials in Berlin before the war.
  46. Richard L. Rubenstein, "Jihad and Genocide" (Rowman & Littlefield, 2010) p.88 In the fall of 1937, Eichmann, accompanied by Herbert Hagen, his SS superior, visited Palestine to secure information on Zionist issues and meet with the Mufti. The meeting did not take place because the British decided to restrict the visit to forty - eight hours. However, Eichmann did meet in Cairo with a Jerusalem journalist who belonged to the circle of the Mufti.
  47. M. Pearlman, "Mufti of Jerusalem; the Story of Haj Amin El Husseini." 1947. p.21
  48. Elliot Jager, "Jewish Ideas Daily: The fate of Muslim moderates. Particularly vulnerable are those who advocate coexistence with Israel, and most vulnerable of all are Palestinians inclined in that direction". Jerusalem Post, March 27, 2011. HISTORICALLY, THE leadership of Palestinian society was divided between fanatics led by the former mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin al-Husseini, and relative moderates whose ranks included notable families like the Nashashibis. The moderates reluctantly concluded that the Zionists could not be defeated, and that coexistence was thus in the Palestinian interest. But by the 1920s and ’30s, efforts were already under way to radicalize village leaders and incite violence against “collaborators.” The story, told by the researcher Hillel Cohen in Army of Shadows, culminated in a succession of murderous riots that, by the time Israel was established in 1948, had taken the lives of hundreds of Palestinian moderates.
  49. Peggy Mann, "Golda: The Life of Israel's Prime Minister", (1971) - pp. 116-117 [5][6]
  50. The Iraq coup of Raschid Ali in 1941, the Mufti Husseini and the Farhud (Farhoud) Husseini was being supported, morally and apparently financially, from Berlin and Rome. On August 26, 1940, Husseini had sent his secretary Kemal Hadad to Berlin. Hadad acted as a liaison between the Axis powers and four pro-Nazi staff officers known as the "the Golden Square" (Salah al-din al Sabag, Fahmi Said, Mahmud Salman and Kemal Shabib). Hadad made another trip in December of 1940 because "funds were running low."
    In February of 1941, Haddad again traveled to Berlin with a letter requesting military aid...
    The Coup - On April 1, 1941,  the "Golden Square" and the chief of staff of the Iraqi army staged the coup, and  appointed Rashid 'Ali al-Keilani head of the government. Nuri as Said was forced to flee Iraq along with the regent and young king Faysal II. On April 3, a letter from the German Secretary of State Von Weizacker answered Haddad's letter favorably, but the letter arrived after the coup. Rashid 'Ali  stated on April 10 that he would honor the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930, apparently fearing British reprisals .On April 16, Rashid responded to a  request for landing of  British troops at Basra cautiously. He replied that they could land, but must embark immediately for Palestine or Egypt. The British began landing troops on April 16 or 18  at Basra, at first in compliance with Rashid Ali's conditions, and later in violation of the conditions, since the troops did not leave. The British played for time and made pretences of accepting the new situation. However, reinforcements from India kept arriving at Basra.
  51. Golden Square | Encyclopedia.com The original "Four" included the leader, Salah alDin al-Sabbagh, and Kamil Shabib, Fahmi Saʿid, and Mahmud Salman. They organized after the 1936 Bakr Sidqi coup and then joined with three other officers, Aziz Yamulki, Husayn Fawzi, and Amin al-Umari, to form a military opposition bloc to the government. Jamil al-Midfaʿi's government in 1938 tried to transfer the officers out of Baghdad, but succeeded only in making them more politically active.
    The officers supported the goals of the Jerusalem mufti (chief Muslim jurist), Hajj Amin alHusayni, who arrived in Baghdad and solicited Germany's help to achieve total Iraqi independence from Britain and the pan-Arab goal of Arab unity of the Fertile Crescent. They opposed Prime Minister Nuri al-Saʿid's severance of relations with Germany in 1939. In 1940 and 1941, the officers and the mufti were in contact with the Japanese and the Italians through their missions in Baghdad and supported Rashid Ali al-Kaylani's government (31 March 1940 to 31 January 1941) as the British pressured Iraq to declare war on Germany. When Rashid Ali resigned, the pro-British regent, Abd al-Ilah, asked General Taha al-Hashimi, who had worked with the Four, to form a government, thinking that he could control the generals. But Taha's weakness and the attempt by the regent to transfer Kamil Shabib out of the capital led them, in collusion with the mufti, to take control of the government in April 1941, with Rashid Ali again as the prime minister.
  52. Micha Bar-Am, Rut Porṭer, "Jews in Arab Lands Today: Photographs" (Beth Hatefutsoth, the Nahum Goldmann Museum of the Jewish Diaspora, 1996). p.16 World War II demonstrated to the Jews of Arab lands with painful clarity just how vulnerable they were. In Iraq, during the pogrom of June 1-2, 1941, known as the Farhud, Jews had seen the kind of violence that could be visited upon them by a native regime: 179 Jewish men, women and children were murdered, 586 businesses were looted, and more than 12,000 people were pillaged.
  53. Edwin Black: 'The Farhud: Roots of the Arab-Nazi Alliance During the Holocaust,' C-Span, Dec.19.2010
  54. Eric Davis, "Memories of State: Politics, History, and Collective Identity in Modern Iraq" (University of California Press, Feb 28, 2005), p.70 there was no political authority to enforce public order. The one member of Rashid Ali al-Gaylani's government who refused to leave Baghdad was Yunis al-Sabawi. An active member of the al-Muthanna Club, which, under German ambassador Fritz Groba's influence developed a youth organization, the al-Futuwwa, modeled on European fascist lines, alSabawi had developed strong anti-Jewish sentiments. Known in colloquial Iraqi Arabic as the Farhud (Pogrom), a mob led by al-Muthanna Club members and its youth organization attacked the Baghdad Jewish community on June 1 and 2, 1941...
  55. 'When Nazism met Arabism. When Baghdad Burned: The June 1941 Farhud Massacre.' E. Black, Israel National News, 27/05/15
  56. 'By the Rivers of Babylon,' Khalid Kishtainy, Quartet, 2008, pp.76,90
  57. 'Farhud memories: Baghdad's 1941 slaughter of the Jews.' By Sarah Ehrlich, Reporter, Witness, BBC, 1 June 2011
  58. Carole L. Basri: 'The Jews of Iraq: A Forgotten Case of Ethnic Cleansing,' 2003, p.12
  59. T. Morad, ‎D. Shasha, "Iraq’s Last Jews: Stories of Daily Life, Upheaval, and Escape from Modern Babylon", - (Springer, 2008), p.6 Iraqi and Palestinian nationalists increased their pro-Nazi activities, forming the quasi- military organization Al-Futuwwa and the nationalist that incited violence against the Jews. The resulting anti-Jewish, Pan-Arabic sentiment.. Hebrew language lessons at Jewish schools were abolished in 1936 and quotas were imposed on Jews in institutions of higher learning. Jewish teachers from Palestine were expelled. Palestinian leaders were given hospitality, support, and the freedom of political activity in Iraq. They included the Mufti of Jerusalem, Hajj Amin al-Husayni, who had been expelled from Jerusalem by the British; Jamal al-Husayni, head of the Arab Party; Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, a Nazi supporter who studied in Germany; Musa al-'Alami (1897–1984) who because of his involvement with the Arab rebellion, was dismissed from his position of the Palestine Government Advocate; and the Palestinian nationalist activist and poet Buhan al Din Al-Abbushi, who called for the people and the government of Iraq to expel or massacre the Iraqi Jews.The activity of these Palestinian nationalists and of Dr. Fritz Grobba, Germany's consul in Baghdad, led to the establishment of the pro-Nazi government headed by Rashid 'Aali al-Gilani in April, 1941. At the encouragement of the Mufti of Jerusalem and his entourage, Gilani instigated war with the British. The war was short. The British reoccupied Iraq to protect the flow of oil to the allies and out of fear of a broader German invasion to the Middle and Far East. The British victory over the Iraqi army at the end of May, 1941, created a brief vacuum of leadership and security in Iraq that led to the pogrom against the Jews of Baghdad known as the Farhoud (June 1–2, 1941) in which 130 Jews in Baghdad and 9 Jews outside Baghdad were killed and some 2,500 injured. During the Farhoud, the British army was camped outside Baghdad, abstaining from interfering under the pretext that the violence was an internal matter. Jews' houses and shops were looted, women and children were raped, and others were kidnapped and brutally killed. The Palestinians took active part in the incitements against the Jews.
  60. Hajj Amin al-Husayni: Key Dates | The Holocaust Encyclopedia
  61. Joseph B. Schechtman: 'The Mufti and the Fuehrer: The Rise and Fall of Haj Amin El-Husseini,' 1965, p.110
  62. Hajj Amin al-Husayni: Key Dates | The Holocaust Encyclopedia
  63. "Mufti Returns to Rome for Conferences with Mussolini" JTA, December 8, 1941 5:00 am
  64. 'The Arabs and the Holocaust: The Arab-Israeli War of Narratives,' Gilbert Achcar, Henry Holt and Company, Apr 27, 2010, p.156
  65. Britain's Unfulfilled Mandate for Palestine,' Nick Reynold, Lexington Books, Jun 12, 2014, p.237
  66. 'The Evasive Neutral: Germany, Britain, and the Quest for a Turkish Alliance in the Second World War,' Frank G. Weber, University of Missouri Press, 1979, p.104
  67. 'The Mufti of Jerusalem,' Philip Mattar, 1992, p.102
  68. Lionel Gossman, "The Passion of Max Von Oppenheim: Archaeology and Intrigue in the Middle East from Wilhelm II to Hitler". Open Book Publishers, 2013. p.235
  69. "Full official record: What the mufti said to Hitler. The Arabs were Germany’s natural friends, Haj Amin al-Husseini told the Nazi leader in 1941, because they had the same enemies — namely the English, the Jews and the..." At TOI. By TOI Staff. 21 October 2015
  70. Israel on Israel, Michel Korinman, John Laughland, Vallentine Mitchell, 2008, p.72
  71. David Patterson: A Genealogy of Evil: Anti-Semitism from Nazism to Islamic Jihad,' 2010, p.120
  72. Hajj Amin al-Husayni: Wartime Propagandist | The Holocaust Encyclopedia
  73. Francis R. Nicosia, Boğaç A. Ergene: Nazism, the Holocaust, and the Middle East: Arab and Turkish Responses, 2018, p.242
  74. No Direct Danger for Palestine. Shertok Says; Arabs Urged to Launch Pogroms on Jews JTA, July 7, 1942
  75. Francis R. Nicosia, "Nazi Germany and the Arab World". (Cambridge University Press, Nov 28, 2014) p.279 Through late 1943 and 1944, the Mufti concluded that Germany had never been in a position to help secure Arab independence after all and that it had in fact never really intended to do so. Indeed, he even found himself unable to stop Germany's decision to, once again, send Jewish refugees, albeit in relatively small numbers, from German-occupied Europe to Palestine in exchange for exchange for German nationals who had been in British custody since the beginning of the war. Moreover, the Mufti's role in the formation of the Muslim Waffen SS (Handschar) division in Bosnia in 1943 had little if anything to do with Arab independence and the Arab world...
  76. 'The Arab chapter of the Holocaust,' By Dr. M. Kedar, IsraelHayom, May, 2, 2019
  77. 'Britain's Moment in Palestine: Retrospect and Perspectives, 1917-1948,' Michael J Cohen, Routledge, Feb 24, 2014 , p.433
  78. Hajj Amin al-Husayni: Wartime Propagandist | The Holocaust Encyclopedia
  79. Moshe Avital, "Not to Forget, Impossible to Forgive", (Mazo Publishers, 2004), p.291 According to a report of the Luftwaffe , the German Air Force , the Jerusalem Mufti demanded in March 1944 to bomb Tel Aviv , the Haifa Port , the Israeli electric power installations and the Jewish Agency headquarters in Jerusalem.
  80. The Mufti of Jerusalem: Shedding New Light on the Mufti’s Alliance With the Nazis | CAMERA . In early 1943, while the Second World War still raged, the mufti urged Germany to bomb Tel Aviv and Jerusalem. He also proposed parachuting forces into Palestine for sabotage operations. The plans included partitioning up Jewish property and Jewish women.
  81. Klaus-Michael Mallmann, ‎Martin Cüppers , "Nazi Palestine: The Plans for the Extermination of the Jews in Palestine", (2013), p.199
  82. Nation Associates (New York, N.Y.), ([1948]) The record of collaboration of King Farouk of Egypt with the Nazis and their ally, the Mufti; the official Nazi records of the King's alliance and of the Mufti's plans for bombing Jerusalem and Tel Aviv. Memorandum submitted to the United Nations June 1948. Retrieved from the Digital Public Library of America, http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/000487097
  83. David G. Dalin, John F. Rothmann, "Icon of Evil: Hitler's Mufti and the Rise of Radical Islam". Random House Publishing Group, Jun 24, 2008, p.170
  84. Jihad and International Security, J. Roshandel, ‎S. Chadha, 2006, p.31
  85. The Control Factor: Our Struggle to See the True Threat,' 2012, p.114
  86. Aaron Murad, Orit Murad Rehany: A River of Tears, the River of Hope: The Saga of Two Torah Scrolls, AuthorHouse, Dec 16, 2013 p.75
  87. David Patterson: A Genealogy of Evil: Anti-Semitism from Nazism to Islamic Jihad, Cambridge University Press, Oct 18, 2010, p.20
  88. Christopher Hale: Hitler's Foreign Executioners: Europe's Dirty Secret, The History Press, Apr 11, 2011
  89. Eli Malka: Jacob's Children, Syracuse University Press, Jun 1, 1997 , p.88
  90. 'A Genealogy of Evil: Anti-Semitism from Nazism to Islamic Jihad,' David Patterson, Cambridge University Press, Oct 18, 2010, p.258
  91. Bat Yeʼor, "The Dhimmi: Jews and Christians Under Islam". (Associated University Press, 1985) p.390 On 1 March 1944 at 12:30 P.M., speaking on Radio Berlin, the Mufti, after vilifying Jews, Britain, and America, called on the Arabs “to rise...
  92. Eli Malka, "Jacob's Children". (Syracuse University Press, Jun 1, 1997) p.114 His daily broadcasts in Arabic on Berlin radio called upon all Arabs to “kill the J... wherever you find them.. documented Hag Amin El-Husseini's broadcasts by citing the following extract from the German radio records : "On 1 March 1944 at 12:30 P.M., speaking on Radio Berlin... 
  93. Moshe Pearlman, "Mufti of Jerusalem; the Story of Haj Amin El Husseini" (V Gollancz, 1947) p.51
  94. Francis R. Nicosia, "Nazi Germany and the Arab World". (Cambridge University Press, Nov 28, 2014) p.279
  95. 'The Jews of Bialystok During World War II and the Holocaust,' Sara Bender, UPNE, 2008, p.273
  96. 'Jews for Sale?: Nazi-Jewish Negotiations, 1933-1945,' p.88 Yehuda Bauer, Yale University Press, 1994
  97. Another Tack: The unbroken link - part II S. Honig. The Jerusalem Post. Jan 11, 2007. Lebel's list includes the mufti's sabotage of plans to allow the emigration of 80,000 Romanian Jews, save 5,000 Jewish orphans from Transnistria to which Romanian Jews were deported, swap 10,000 Jewish orphans in Slovakia and Hungary and groups of children in fascist Croatia. Thousands of children from Macedonia were handed over for execution in Treblinka by Bulgaria at Husseini's explicit insistence. Eichmann and Himmler consented to the April 1943 agreement to exchange 4,000 Jewish children and 500 adult escorts from the Balkans via Bulgaria for 20,000 Germans "of child-bearing age," but the mufti fired an angry protest to Bulgarian premier Bogdan Piloff, insisting the children be put "under active control in Poland" - a euphemism for gas chambers. Dieter Wisliceny, Eichmann's deputy, who was subsequently executed for his war crimes, testified at the Nuremberg Trials that he had already given orders to transfer the aforementioned 10,000 Jewish orphans to Theresienstadt in preparation for the projected exchange, only to be informed by Eichmann that everything was canceled due to the mufti's agitation.
  98. Klaus-Michael Mallmann, Martin Cüppers, "Nazi Palestine: The Plans for the Extermination of the Jews in Palestine", (Enigma Books, Oct 18, 2013), p.97
  99. Klaus-Michael Mallmann, Martin Cüppers, "Nazi Palestine: The Plans for the Extermination of the Jews in Palestine", (Enigma Books, Oct 18, 2013), p.97
  100. David Dalin, "Icon of Evil: Hitler's Mufti and the Rise of Radical Islam". (Routledge, Jul 12, 2017). In 1944, a German-Arab commando unit, under Husseini's command, parachuted into Palestine and with the intention of poisoning Tel Aviv's wells.
  101. 'Hitler's war against Jews continues in 'Palestine',' by Richard Mather, Jerusalem Post, March.11.2015
  102. Hajj Amin al-Husayni: Wartime Propagandist | The Holocaust Encyclopedia
  103. Götz Nordbruch, "Nazism in Syria and Lebanon: The Ambivalence of the German Option, 1933–1945" (Routledge, Jan 13, 2009), p.131
  104. "Arab states, Arab interest groups and anti-Zionist movements in Western Europe and the US" Rickenbacher, Daniel. Posted at the Zurich Open Repository and Archive, University of Zurich DOI University of Zurich, Faculty of Arts. PDF (pp.204-5)
    The Non-Sectarian Anti-Nazi League (NSANL), a group which monitored and infiltrated pro-Nazi groups under the chairmanship of professor James H. Sheldon, is particularly noteworthy. The NSANL sought to prove the connection between the domestic anti-Semitic and far-right scene and the foreign propagandists. On May 7, 1946, the NSANL submitted a petition to President Truman, which was presented to Congress by representative Emmanuel Celler from New York. The memorandum urged the president to launch an investigation into the activities of the Arab Office, alleging that its anti-Zionist campaign was inciting religious and racial hatred in order to advance foreign political goals. The memorandum accused Arab Office director Khulusi Khairy and Anwar Bekir Nashashibi of having cooperated with the far-right activist Gerald L.K. Smith and the anti-Semitic Blue Star Mothers group. Through its institution of an anti-Jewish boycott in November 1945 and in appointing the Mufti as the rightful representative of the Arabs in Palestine, the Arab League had revealed itself as an “anti-democratic and authoritarian body,” the petition continued. The memorandum further stated that the Arab Office was coordinating with the Institute of Arab American Affairs, which it correctly identified as a successor organization of the Arab National League. The ANL, it reminded its readers, had itself collaborated with the German-American Bund and had been praised by Nazi newspapers. The propaganda of these pro-Arab organizations was anti-Semitic and “bears many of the most obvious ideological criteria of fascism or Nazism – for example, in its insistence of an ultra-nationalism based on religious and racial lines, and in its demand for a total Arab hegemony even in areas such as the Lebanese Republic where the Christian population constitutes a definite numerical majority.” The NSANL’s accusations were based on facts. The connection to the Mufti ran even deeper than was known at the time; Musa Alami, the head of the Arab Offices, formally reported to the Mufti, despite the fact that the two did not get along. According to Cecil Hourani, the Mufti was plotting with Arab League Secretary, Azzam Pasha, against Musa Alami, persuading all Arab governments except for Iraq to cut their financial donations to the Arab Offices. However, the extreme right was hardly the main target of the Arab Office propaganda effort, as the Arabs and foremost Cecil Hourani were aware that contacts to open anti-Semites were pernicious to their efforts. He insisted in his autobiography that the Arab Office strove “not to associate with the fringe groups..." Non-Sectarian Anti-Nazi League, “Memorandum Concerning Propaganda Activities of the Arab Office in the United States,” Congressional Record - Appendix (Washington, May 7, 1946), CZA S25/4153.
  105. Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the ... Congress, Volume 92, Part 11. United States. Congress. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1946 pp.2634-5 "Arab office Linked with Fascist Jew Baters -- President Truman Is Asked to Investigate Arab Propaganda in the United States". Extension of remarks of hon. Emanuel Celler of New York in the House of Representatives. Thursday, May 7, 1946
  106. "Truman Urged to investigate Arab Office in Washington". The Detroit Jewish News Digital Archives - May 17, 1946 - Image 8
  107. Hitler's Mufti, by David G. Dalin, First Things, August 2005
  108. 'The Mufti's Violent Legacy,' by David Bedein, May 19, 2012, Aish
  109. PA Chairman Mahmoud Abbas Commemorates "Martyrs" from Fatah, Hamas, and Other Factions, MEMRI, Jan 4, 2013
  110. What Went Wrong?..., Murray Friedman, Simon and Schuster, Sep 11, 2007, p.93
  111. Page 12-A The Jewish Floridian/Friday, January 10, 1986: Farrakhan In Top Echelon of America's Blacks...Yet Nazi Germany in 1935 had no monopoly on anti-Semitism, nor was black America immune. The Louis Farrakhan of that era was Sufi Abdul Hamid. New York's self-styled -Black Hitler." ...An admirer of Haj Amin el Husseim. the notorious Grand Mufti of Jerusalem...
  112. 'BLACK HITLER' JAILED TO AWAIT SENTENCE.' The New York Times, Jan. 16, 1935, p.7
  113. The Nation, Volume 164, J.H. Richards, 1947, p.561
  114. National Lampoon, 1973, p.58
  115. Jewish Observer and Middle East Review, Volume 2, p.7, William Samuel & Company Limited, 1972
  116. Icon of Evil: Hitler's Mufti and the Rise of Radical Islam,' David G. Dalin, John F. Rothmann, Random House Publishing Group, Jun 24, 2008, p.120
  117. Anti Jewish Activities Arabs In Argentina, DAIA, 1958. Chapter 5: The Arab League in Argentina. Its representative until lately was Issa Nakhle, who, inter alia, published under his editorship the journal "America y Oriente", starting from November 20, 1952, until he left the country in "AMERICA Y ORIENTE" was a very efficient arm of the Arab propaganda, and reached wide circulation ... antisemitic nationalist groups, nazi elements and university circles... Issa Nakhle had started his activity in Buenos Aires several years earlier as Press Attache to the Egyptian Embassy, later he was the founder and editor of the journal "America y Oriente", known for its systematical anti-jewish campaign and its glorification of the totalitarian regimes, particularly of the nazi Germany.
  118. "Popular Chilean Newspaper Charges Arab Publication with Incitement Against Jews". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. August 1, 1949.   A demand that the Chilean Government take action against the Chilean Arab newspaper Mundo Arabe if it continues its anti-Jewish campaign is voiced in the widely read Santiago newspaper Noticias de Ultima Hora, just received here. [...] It adds that the Arabe Mundo served as a propaganda organ of the Nazis during the late war and as such was blacklisted by the Allies.
  119. The Canadian Fuhrer: The Life of Adrien Arcand,' Jean-Francois Nadeau, 2011, p.35 'Issa Nakhleh, letter to Adrien Arcand, New York, 30 December 1963
  120. 'Holocaust Denial,' Kenneth Saul Stern, American Jewish Committee, 1993, p.170
  121. Ian Barnes, "Propaganda Spurs Invitation to Join Rising White Army' ". The Jewish Floridian and Shofar of Greater Hollywood. October 29, 1982. Page 7-B .. The third convention included a paper entitled "Axis Involvement with Arab Nationalists," and Issa Nakhleh head of the Palestine-Arab delegation in New York, spoke..
  122. 'The Holocaust Denial: Antisemitism, Racism & the New Right,' Gill Seidel, Beyond the Pale Collective, 1986, p.28
  123. 'The American Spectator,' Volume 19, 1986, p.20
  124. Reference & User Services Quarterly, Volume 45, Issues 1-4, 2005, p.78, American Library Association
  125. Middle East Record, 1961, p.189. An equation..... could only be made "by someone who is , either totally ignorant of what Nazism was, or was : indifferent to it." Indeed, she added , Shukairy had once been a member of the Arab Higher Committee whose leader had spent the war years in Germany..
  126. Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the ... Congress, United States Congress, 1965, p.456
  127. Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the ..., Volume 107, Part 24, United States Congress 1961, p.5735 Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the... Congress, 1961. p.35. United States. Congress. U.S. Government Printing Office In 1946, Shukairy joined the “Arab Higher Committee which was also headed by the ex Mufti. Shukairy got his start in “politics" in the early 1930s when he belonged to a group of fanatical extremists led by the ex-Mufti. This gang cooperated with the Communists and prior to the Hitler-Stalin Pact sought in every possible way to sabotage the Allied war effort against the Nazis in the Middle East. However, when Soviet Russia joined the Allies, Shukairy's group split with the ommunists, and went all out for Hitler
  128. Ahora, Issue 95; Issue 101; Issue 119; Issue 124; Issue 133; Issue 136; Issue 143; Issue 162; Issue 186. Publicaciones !Ahora!, 1965, p.9 (Translated)... However, after Hitler attacked Russia and communists around the world changed positions, the fierce and unpredictable Shukairy aligned himself with Hitler for his anti-Jewish programs.
  129. The Wisconsin Jewish Chronicle from Milwaukee, Wisconsin. July 12, 1946. Page 7 British Actions in Palestine By Bernard Lerner.. rebellion in Iraq against the war-shattered Allies; when his aide-de-camp, Jamal el Husseini, assisted the Mufti in a coup d'etat to help the Axis wrest the Mediterranean from the democratic powers, Moshe Shertok, chief of the Jewish Agency's Political Department was traveling across the face of Palestine ... I met Achmed Shukeiri, chief of the Arab Office who restituted in his conversation the words of Goebbel, the murder of six million Jews ... I met Jamal el Husseini; he issued the same warning as Shukeiri (he being Shukeiri's chief) ... and reiterated his justification of the mass murder of six million Jews "for Hitler couldn't be all wrong . . . you have got to see both sides of a question, my man, both sides of a question." Jamal Husseini saw both sides so well, that he joined in igniting, at a time most critical for the Allies, the Iraq coup d'etat in an effort to gauleiter the Middle East into Hitler's Welt-Raum scheme. And now those gentlemen have been joined by a third. It is a matter of minutes and they get straight through to Cairo for instructions from Haj Amin el Husseini, the former Mufti of Jerusalem... According to Jewish legend Mother Rachel weeps at midnight over the plight of her children, the people of Israel... 
  130. Menahem Mansoor, "Political and Diplomatic History of the Arab World, 1900-1967: 1942-52". ,(NCR Microcard Editions, 1972) p.1 August, 1946 August 8. Ahmad Shukairy, Director of the Arab Office in Jerusalem, declared that "the Arab World is looking eagerly for the stand Moscow will take" on the Palestine problem, and he saw no reason why "America should be a party to the Palestine case and not Russia."
  131. La Grande Observer, La Grande, Oregon. Thursday, August 8, 1946. Page 5 Arabs Seek Russian Aid in Preventing Holy Land Split Delegation May Be Sent to Moscow in Effort to Enlist Help Against British. JERUSALEM, Aug. 8 (UP) Ahmad Shukairy. head of the Arab office, discussed today that unofficial contacts have been made with Moscow with view to obtaining Soviet support for Palestine Arabs in opposing Britain's proposed partition of the Holy Land. Shukairy said that it was possible that an Arab delegation would be sent Moscow even before the Palestine issue is raised before the United Nations general assembly now scheduled to meet Sept. 23 in New York City. "We are already somewhat late in doing this," he said, but added that unofficial, contacts with the Soviet had- been made and that official contacts, will follow... Shukairy emphasized that Arabs oppose in strongest fashion the British-plan to split Palestine into separate Arab and Jewish provinces under British control. He predicted that the Arab states will not participate in the discussions Britain- has scheduled so long as partition is on the agenda. He also reemphasized that Arabs would hot participate in any round-table discussion with the Jews. Arab States which already have accepted invitations to the London conference, he said, did so before they knew that Britain had the partition plan in mind.. He said that western democracy and democratic principles had failed in Palestine.. "Palestine now provides an acid test for the Soviet regime," he said, "whether it will project its philosophy toward assisting the Arabs." If Britain insists on proceeding with its partition plan, he said thaf Palestine "which is on the verge of struggle will fight."
  132. Irving Louis Horowitz, "Israeli Ecstasies/Jewish Agonies." (Oxford University Press, 1974) p.11
  133. "Saudi Journalist Mishal Al-Sudairy Criticizes Palestinian Leaders For Multiple Missed Opportunities For Peace. Memri, Jun 13, 2018. Source: MBC TV (Saudi Arabia). In a June 13 TV interview, Saudi journalist Mishal Al-Sudairy recounted the history of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, from Mufti Hajj Amin Al-Husseini, who allied himself with Hitler in WWII, through his successor Ahmad Al-Shukeiri, who "lived his entire life in five-star hotels and fought through microphones," to Yasser Arafat, who, in contrast to Egypt and Jordan, rejected negotiations with Israel.
  134. Near East Report, Volumes 5-6, Isaiah L. Kenen, Near East Report Incorporated, 1962, p.59 Fabregat interrupts, pointing out that his "philosophy is governed by his Spanish Christian... to be respectful of every type of religious or philosophical belief." Fabregat regrets that Shukairy has used the kind of language he has and says that such language “is much more fitting to past ages.” It might well follow that many of the other statements made by the Arab spokesman are as groundless, Fabregat points out.. It is no exaggeration to say that Shukairy's tirades against the Israelis remind one of Goebbel's attacks against the Jews in the 1940s.
  135. 'New Middle East,' Issues 16-39, 1970, p.4
  136. Two Palestinian dreams: Exterminate Israel and a real nation-state,' by Clifford D. May, Washington Times, February 4, 2020
  137. The Palestinians' Self-Inflicted Wounds, WashPost, Dec. 18, 1983
  138. 'History's Worst Serial Abusers,' CJnews, December 8, 2014
  139. Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the ..., By United States. Congress, 1965, Volume 111, Part 12, p.15916
  140. Congress Bi-weekly, Volume 29, Issues 9-17, p.2, American Jewish Congress., 1962
  141. Congress Bi-weekly, Volume 30, 1963, p.5 ... at the UN to praise the Tacuara for proclaiming a crusade against Zionism and Jews. The answer by Argentina's delegate to the UN, Garcia del Solar, to the paean of praise to genocide by Ahmad Shukairy, the Saudi Arabian delegate, was prompt and biting. He declared: ... My delegation feels that the contribution of Argentina to the strengthening and progress of the freedoms of mans, his happiness and survival, are more worthy to be mentioned than the genocidal intention attributed to a group of Nazis, on which the delegate of Saudi Arabia saluted my country.
  142. Michael Curtis, Susan Aurelia Gitelson: Israel in the Third World, 1976, p. 158 ... in 1962: Ahmed Shukairy, then head of the Saudi Arabian delegation, openly praised the Argentine Nazi group Tacuara. The Argentine delegate expressed dismay that Saudi Arabia had saluted his country by praising a group of Nazis.
  143. "Facts," Volumes 15-17. Anti-defamation League of B'nai B'rith., 1963. p.424 1962 at the U.N., Shukairy even went so far as to praise the militant, anti-Jewish and neo-Nazi storm-troop gang in Argentina known as Tacuara. He said: "Recently in Argentina, as was reported in The New York Times, a national movement under the name of Tacuara has started, for which Argentina should be saluted..."
  144. New Jersey Jewish News - January 4, 1963 "Arab Spokesnen Help The Cause of Israel". By Robert E. Segal Fourteen years after the Palestine Conciliation Commision tried to establish peace between Israel and the Arab states that made war on the Jewish state a borning, the ghost of Adolf Hitler haunts the halls of the United Nations. Hitler's shrill voice has bellowed through Ahmad Shukairy... Shukairy made the mistake of saluting the Tacuara... Praise of Argentina's fascistic Tacuara movement brought instant criticism from the Argentine and Chilean delegates, thoroughly enbarrased by this aping of Hitler's methods in their countries... Tacuara is symptomatic also of the influence of nazis who have hidden out in Latin American nations ever since Hitler pulled the scaffolding of destruction down upon him and his murderous cohorts. It is significant, too, that one of the chief spokesmen for the Arabs crudely saluted the Tacuara; for again and again it has been established that old nazi hands are active in the United Arab Reublic .... helping especially in putting into action the nazi propaganda weapons of the big lie, the wide smear, and the shrill threat.
  145. "Arab Attitudes to Israel - Yehoshafat Harkabi." (2017). Regarding them as their allies, the Arabs have established contacts with the anti-Semitic movements... The offices of the Arab League are used as a centre for the dissemination of anti-Jewish material. Arab publications issued abroad, especially in South America, contain incitement against the Jews. For example, virulent anti-Jewish material, including extracts from The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, has been published in Nacion Arabe, a periodical published in Argentina. Jose Baxter, leader of the Tacuara in Argentina, has visited Egypt... Shukairy defended the Tacuara at the UN, expressing the hope that it would spread to other Latin-American countries and that the UN would adopt its principles.
  146. The Canadian Jewish news, December 21, 1962, page 4 | SFU Digitized Newspapers A "Progressive Approach" ... Ahmed Shukairy, the Saudi Arabian delegate, shocked the U.N. by anti-Semitic language unheard of in the history of the organization. Ahmed Shukairy, who is not. even a Saudi Arabian, but a hired diplomat of the Arabian king, praised tlie most vicious Argentine Nazi gang, the notorious Tacuara for their anti-Jewish activities. The Argentine ambassador denounced Shukairy for his vile language. Other U.N. representatives expressed their dismay ... "progressive" Saudi Arabian representative, a spokesman for a country, where slavery is legal and up to date...
  147. "Argentine Youths in Nazi Group Salute and Cry: 'Hail Tacuara!'; Anti-Semitic Organization, Said to Be Growing, Asserts It Fights 'Zionism, Capitalism and Communism' Tells About Drills He Doubts Charges". The New York Times, Sept. 16, 1962 Note: speaking of communism mentioned in the NYTimes headline and his hypocrisy, he actually made his pro nazi statement after arriving from the Soviet Union: "Gromyko Host to Shukairy". The New York Times, Sept. 14, 1962 Anita L. P. Burdett, "Records of Saudi Arabia 1961-1965: 1962." Archive Editions, (1997 Great Britain), p.656: Ahmed Shukairy is now back in new york. As you know he is something of a thorn in the flesh and it would certainly be of interest here to know what he was up to in Moscow and why he was unvited.
  148. Richard S. Levy: Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and and Persecution, Volume 1, 2005. Movimiento Nacionalista Tacuara , widely known for its struggle against the Jews, was a nationalist and neo-Nazi group that emerged in Argentina in the early 1960s. ... for violence against Jews after the abduction of Adolf Eichmann in Buenos Aires and his trial and execution in Israel. Early on, its members expressed deep admiration for German Nazism, Italian Fascism , and Spanish Falangism ... the kidnapping of Gabriela Sirota, a Jewish student, and for tattooing swastikas on her breasts in 1962.
  149. 'Recall of Arab Delegate from U.N. is Sought; ‘saluted’ Tacuara,' JTA, December 3, 1962
  150. The Detroit Jewish News December 07, 1962. Bigotry's Internationalization Leads to Tests in UN, Appeal to World to Avoid Resurgence. Dramatic exposes of attempts to internationalize the anti-Semitic movement, an Arab spokesman's brazen appeal to bigotry at the United Nations and the revelations of the extent of the worldwide movement of hate contained in current studies of the issue marked the Week's development in many spheres...The move for the recall by Saudi Arabia of its permanent representative to the UN, Ahmad Shukairy, appeared to be under way with Arab diplomats heading the drive. The desire for Shukairy's removal from the UN scene, long contemplated by more moderate Arabs here, gained heavy impetus after the official Saudi Arabian spokesman...
  151. "Israel Hits Back at Arab Anti-semitic Calumnies at the United Nations". JTA. December 7, 1962 CHARGES ARABS ARE PART OF NEO-NAZI, NEO-FASCIST INTERNATIONAL. The full time chief of the Israel delegation then came to the anti-Semitic barrage which has been led here by Hussein Zulfacar Sabri, Egypt’s Deputy Foreign Minister, and Ahmad Shukairy, Saudi Arabian delegation chairman backed by a half-dozen other Arab spokesmen. He referred also to Shukairy’s endorsement of the anti-Semitic TACUARA movement in Argentina and his call for “adoption” of Tacuara by the United Nations. He told the committee: “What surprises one is that the cry of Nazism is raised by those whose associations with it make them so vulnerable.” Mr. Comay alluded to the fact that Egypt has given “key” positions to former SS officers, especially in its propaganda apparatus against Israel and against Jews. He told of the many thousands of survivors from the Nazi holocaust who finally found refuge in Israel and said: “These are among the people whom Mr. Sabri, Mr. Shukairy and their friends have the monumental indecency to smear as Nazis and Fascists. Their attitude has sinister contemporary overtones as well.” He charged by implication that the Arab delegations are part of a new neo-Nazi-neo Fascist international, saying: “We have known for some time that certain Arab representatives and propagandists in the United States, Latin America and elsewhere, have been maintaining contacts with neo-Nazi and Fascist groups, and seeking cooperation with them in order to exploit anti-Semitism as a political weapon. (When I say anti- Semitism, I know quite well that the Arabs are also of Semitic stock, but my colleagues in the Committee will understand in what sense I use the term.) Some reflection of this association is beginning to creep into our debates. “We would hope that Mr. Shukairy’s blessing bestowed upon the Tacuara group will serve to focus attention on this phenomenon, and produce a backwash of public sentiment inside and outside the United Nations. Not everyone, however, makes statements as revealing as that of the representative of Saudi Arabia. The technique of Mr. Sabri is a little less clumsy. It consists in trying to pin the Nazi label onto Israel and Zionism, in the hope that the public mind may be confused as between Hitlerism and those to whom it has caused such untold suffering. The public mind will draw its own conclusions.”
  152. Israel’s Relations with Non-arab Lands in Middle East Irk Arabs, JTA, September 12, 1963. The political committee then decided to invite Ahmed Shukairy, former Saudi Arabian delegation head at the United Nations, to join the body as a Palestine “expert.” Mr. Shukairy was fired from his UN post by the Saudi Arabian Government last winter, after some Arab representatives felt he had gone too far in the diatribes against Israel by calling upon the UN to encourage formation of anti-Semitic organizations similar to the Tacuara movement in Argentina. In addition to Jordan’s disagreement about the “Palestine entity” plan, another inter-Arab split was seen in regard to Israel when Lebanon sought revision of a resolution calling for a boycott of banks and firms that deal with Israel. The Beirut Government had previously been reported feeling that the boycott hurts some of the Arab countries more than Israel. However, the Beirut delegation’s proposal was defeated.
  153. Israel Urges UN Adopt Direct Peace Talk Move. The Jewish Floridian, December 21, 1962, p.1a One of the principal Arab detractors of Israel was missing today, and the Saudi Arabian position in the committee chamber was vacant. Shukairy left here Saturday, unannounced but not unnoticed. Having been recalled from his post by Saudi Arabia's King Feisal. A number of delegates, including Arabs embarrased by his volatile speeches stirring anti-Semitism and endorsing the neo-Nazi Tacuara movement of Argentina, had asked King Feisal to take him away from the already highly charged UN scene.
  154. O. Rich. Tacuara! White slavery and the Nazi Party in Buenos Aires.
  155. Gutman, Daniel (17 January 2020). Una cruz esvástica marcada en el pecho y la sombra de Eichmann: el estremecedor ataque a una joven judía (español).
  156. "Los árabes apoyan en la ONU a los nazis de Tacuara", en La Luz, año 32, nº 816, 14 de diciembre de 1962, pp. 3 y 8 ["The Arabs support at the UN the Nazis of Tacuara"]
  157. Sebastian Rotella, "Argentine Official Quits Amid Outcry Over Neo-Nazi Past." The Los Angeles Times. 12 July, 1996. Barra admitted belonging as a teenager to Tacuara, a neo-Nazi organization that committed acts of anti-Semitic brutality in the 1960s. As a 27-year-old student, he allegedly participated in a violent purge of a national university led by an openly fascist rector.
  158. Levy, Richard S. (2005). Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution (in en). ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-439-4.  Tacuara Movimiento Nacionalista. Tacuara, widely known for its struggle against the Jews, was a na- tionalist and neo-Nazi group that emerged in Argentina in the early 1960s.
  159. Nazis in Argentina | Library of Congress. (Published 1962 August 20) Photographs show members of two Nazi youth groups in Argentina, the Tacuara and the Guardia Restauradora Nacionalista. Includes members of the Tacuara in combat training outside Buenos Aires; Guardia members holding meetings; portraits of the leaders of both groups, including Tacuara leaders José Baxter and Alberto Ezcurra Uriburu, Guardia spiritual advisor Rev. Julio Meinvielle and Juan Carlos Coria, head of Guardia. Photos also show some views in Buenos Aires: a swastika painted on a city wall, a street sign smeared with tar, people walking in front of a department store advertising a close-out sale.Contributor NamesHarrington, Phillip, photographerCreated / Published 1962 Aug. 20 (date added to Look's library) Subject Headings-  Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario Tacuara (Argentina)--People.-  Guardia Restauradora Nacionalista (Argentina)--People.-  Argentines--Political activity.-  National socialists.-  Youth organizations.-  Argentina.-  Argentina.
  160. Looking Back: December 14, 2012." December 5, 2012, 50 Years Ago. The Forward, Decembef 14, 2012
  161. The Los Angeles Times, Sunday, December 31, 1967, p.28 Shukairy Steps Down It Might Be Said that Terror is his middle name. "We will wipe Israel off the face of the map and no Jew will survive," warned Ahmed Shukairy last June. As head of the clandestine Palestine Liberation Organization for the past four years, Shukairy has been responsible for the murders of dozens of Israeli men, women and children in bloody midnight raids across the borders of Jordan and Syria. A Jowly heavy-lidded Haifa lawyer, he fired up his followers with injunctions for a "sacred war," like the Koran's: "Kill them wherever you find them. Drive them out of the places from which they drove you." Israel and the Jews have by no means been Shukairy's only targets. He hates the United States nearly as much and isn't terribly fond of Jordan either. With characteristic temperance he once said that anyone "who ever dares to speak in public of Arab friendship-with the United States in any Arab village or town would be torn to pieces." He once described Jordan's moderate king as the "tyrant of Amman, Hussein; who betrayed Allah, the Prophet...
  162. The Progress-Index from Petersburg, Virginia, June 13, 1967, p.4: Palestine Liberation Group Badly Mauled. By Michael Goldsmith, Beirut, Lebanon (AP). The Arab defeat in the Middle East war leaves a big question mark over the future of the Pafestine Liberation Organization and its firebrand leader - leftist Ahmed Shukairy. Shukairy narrowly escaped capture by Israeli forces in Jerusalem and many of his "Liberation Army" are now prisoners of the Israelis. "We will wipe Israel off the face of the map and no Jew will survive," Shukairy declared two days before the war broke out June 5. He vowed to lead the vanguard of his troops into the Israeli sector of Jerusalem and set up a "purely Arab government" there for all of Palestine.
  163. 'What Is Future Of Palestine Liberation Forces,' Fort Lauderdale News, June 13, 1967, p.9
  164. Moshe Shemesh: 'Israel Studies,' volume 8, 2003, p.78 '...At the same time, his statement "in my estimate none of them would remain alive" obviously sounded like the intention to destroy or liquidate the Jews and that their fate was sealed. It certainly lent credibility to the claim that he had called for throwing the Jews into the sea.'
  165. The New Middle East, Issues 16-39, New Middle East 1970,p.4: Mr Shukairy claims that when in his days of glory he publicly advocated the liquidation of Israel and "sweeping of the Jews into the sea," he reflected the accepted official Arab outlook, an outlook that was changed only by the outcome of the war of 1967. Mr Shukairy is indignant that such extremism should be fathered on him alone.
  166. 'Arab Guerilla Power,' 1967-1972, Edgar O'Ballance, 1973, p.37: Shukairy sank into obscurity, and later (in May 1971) published his apologia, which he called Dialogues and Secrets with Kings (in Beirut in Arabic). In it he defended his notorious demand 'to liquidate the state of Israel and throw the Jews into the sea' as being the accepted view then of the Arab heads of state, Arab politicians, who had since turned on him and prised him from office and the Arab press.