|Nickname||The Beaver State|
|Governor||Kate Brown, D|
|Senator||Ron Wyden, D |
|Senator||Jeff Merkley, D |
|Ratification of Constitution/or statehood||February 14, 1859 (33rd)|
|Motto: "She Flies with Her Own Wings"|
The state Constitution of Oregon, like all of the other 50 states, acknowledges God or our Creator or the Sovereign Ruler of the Universe. It says:
- All men shall be secure in the Natural right, to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences.
- 1 Politics
- 2 History
- 3 Population
- 4 People from Oregon
- 5 Elected Officials
- 6 See also
- 7 Notable Oregon Companies and Major Employers
- 8 Biblography - Further Reading
- 9 External links
- 9.1 Archives, Oregon State
- 9.2 Agriculture, Department of
- 9.3 Elections, Secretary of State, Department of
- 9.4 Employment Department, Oregon
- 9.5 Legislature, Oregon State
- 9.6 Parks and Recreation, Department of
- 9.7 Revenue, Department of
- 9.8 Transportation, Department of
- 9.9 University of Oregon Libraries
- 9.10 Water Resources Department
- 10 References
Although Oregon has been a blue state in presidential elections since 1988, Eastern Oregon is one of the major conservative red state parts of Oregon along with Southwest Oregon. Oregon had voted for Republican Presidential candidates from 1964 to 1984. For example, in the 2012 Presidential election, Mitt Romney received at least 60% of the vote in every county in Eastern Oregon.
Liberal Portland versus conservative Eastern and Southwestern Oregon
The high population density northwest areas of the state (Portland, Eugene, Salem) are very liberal leaning especially in the area of environmentalism. The southwest area of the state (such as the Rogue Valley, Josephine County and Jackson County) and the portion east of the Cascades are very conservative. Hence, Eastern Oregon (Palouse, Harney Basin, High Desert, Treasure Valley and East Central Oregon) is considered to be conservative.
In 2021, disgusted with Oregon's fascist liberal Democrat leadership, crime and domination, voters in Eastern and Southern counties voted to secede from Oregon and be annexed to Greater Idaho.
Murder of peaceful protesters
- See also: FBI scandal
In a letter sent to President Barack Obama, Oregon Democrat governor Kate Brown stressed her frustration and asked for help to bring a nearly three week long occupation of the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge to a swift resolution.
“I conveyed the harm that is being done to the citizens of Harney County by the occupation, and the necessity that this unlawful occupation end peacefully and without further delay from federal law enforcement,” she wrote of an earlier conversation with FBI Director Jimmy the Weasel Comey. “On behalf of all Oregonians, I appreciate your consideration of our desire to see this situation come to a close, and I thank you for your timely attention to this matter.”
In a press conference Brown publicly aired her frustrations with how President Obama handled the occupation. The occupation saw little action from federal authorities, with peaceful protesters free to come and go as they please.
“The residents of Harney County have been overlooked and underserved by federal officials’ response thus far,” Brown said at the press conference. “I have conveyed these very grave concerns directly to our leaders at the highest levels of our government.”
In a second letter addressed to FBI director James Comey and U.S. Attorney General Loretta E. Lynch, Brown outlined those conversations and referred to the occupants led by Ammon and Ryan Bundy as “armed radicals.” Brown wrote,
“As you are both aware for more than two weeks now, these radicals have been allowed to stay unlawfully in the refuge approximately 30 miles to the south of Burns, Oregon, in Harney County. While it is easy to assume that an occupation in such a remote location does not threaten public safety and does not harm any victims, that perception is far from accurate. What adds to the tensions felt by the community is the reality that multiple ‘supporters’ of these individuals have joined, staying in local motels in the City of Burns, and the criminals on the refuge are allowed to travel on and off the premises with little fear of law enforcement contact or interaction."
Brown argued to Lynch and Comey that because the occupation is on federal land, it is the federal authorities’ responsibility to lead law enforcement’s response to the occupation.
“For the citizens of Harney County and indeed all Oregonians, I must insist on a swift resolution to this matter. Efforts to negotiate have not been successful, and now it is unclear what steps, if any, federal authorities might take to bring this untenable situation to an end and restore normalcy to this community.
LaVoy Finicum, a spokesman for the Malheur occupiers, was murdered by Brown's state police and Comey's FBI agents.
Michael Strickland case
Michael Strickland is a journalist and Second Amendment activist who reported on far-leftist politicians and corruption in Portland, Oregon. In 2015 Strickland was assaulted, robbed and seriously injured by an anti-gun activist named Skye Fitzgerald. Although the attack was caught on video, Multnomah County refused to prosecute Fitzgerald. Strickland was unable to work for months due to his injuries.
On July 7, 2016 Michael Strickland was assaulted in a pre-planned attack by a large Black Lives Matter mob on the streets of Portland. Strickland pulled a lawfully concealed handgun, warned his attackers to stay back, and made every effort to withdraw. Strickland was then arrested by Portland Police dressed in riot gear, charged with menacing, and released. The following day Strickland arrived in court for arraignment. The Multnomah County district attorney charged Strickland with 21 multiple felonies, and Strickland was hauled off to jail with a quarter of a million-dollar bail placed on him.
2020 Antifa riots
In September 2020 Portland marked 100 consecutive nights of protests marred by vandalism, chaos, and even killing. Those bent on violence regularly started fires, threw projectiles at law enforcement officers, and destroyed property. Numerous law enforcement officers, among others, suffered injury. Shootings increased by more than 140% in June and July 2020 compared to the same period last year. In the midst of this violence, the Portland City Council cut $15 million from the police bureau, eliminating 84 positions. Crucially, the cuts included the Gun Violence Reduction Team, which investigates shootings, and several positions from the police team that responds to emergency incidents. In August 2020, Portland Mayor Ted Wheeler sent a letter to President Trump expressly rejecting the Administration’s offer of federal law enforcement to stop the violent protests. The Democrat Attorney General Ellen Rosenblum sued the Trump administration on behalf of the rioters.
Antifa broke into the Portland, Oregon Justice Center, housing the central police precinct and the sheriff's office, and set a room on fire with occupants still inside the building. A man carrying an American flag was beaten by white Antifa terrorists. Small businesses were vandalized and looted. Stolen cars were driven into stores. A Chase Bank branch was attacked and set on fire. Virtually all offenders in these incidents were white. Antifa terrorists attempted to blind police with laser lights. Communist protesters tore down a statue of Thomas Jefferson, author of "all men are created equal." Antifa terrorists toppled the George Washington statue. Washington is commonly referred to as the "father of the nation."
Portland has been the hotbed of subversive Anti-American communist and anti-Trump activity since 2017. More than 100 fires were set in and around downtown. After the Minneapolis George Floyd riot, Portland was under siege by leftwing white supremacists nightly for over a month. More than 100 people were injured and over $20 million in damages. Oregon Democrat governor Kate Brown did absolutely nothing to stop the violence.
A white Antifa racist, Blake David Hampe, stabbed a gay Black Trump supporter. Hampe the assailant, a leftwing racist and homophobe, previously was convicted of child pornography. The Antifa white supremacist stalked and menaced the Black man for several blocks before the stabbing. The victim believes that ANTIFA fascists doxxed his identity and posted his location on social media before he was stabbed.
Oregon was originally settled by many Native Americans before the Lewis and Clark expedition brought greater attention to the area from the United States and Britain. The British had control of the majority of the territory until the Oregon Trail started in the 1840s and American settlers began moving in. Eventually, the land was ceded to the United States in the resolution of a boundary dispute.
Oregon is infamous for its history of racist left-wing progressivism. In 1922, left-wing Democrat Walter M. Pierce ran for governor with the backing of the Ku Klux Klan against anti-KKK Republican governor Benjamin W. Olcott and won the general election. The Klan and their allies, including Pierce, in that election cycle pushed for a ballot measure to ban school choice in the state by forcing all children to public schools rather than letting parents decide between government and parochial institutions.
Although the KKK held a significant influence in Oregon for the first half of the 1920s, moral scandals and hypocrisy surrounding their leadership costed them membership; by the 1930s, the statewide organization collapsed as only local groups remained.
Pierce lost re-election in 1926 and was later elected to the U.S. House of Representatives as a staunch liberal New Dealer. When World War II broke out, he adamantly supported – like most progressives – President Franklin D. Roosevelt's mass internment of Japanese-Americans by race. Pierce also voted against anti-lynching legislation in 1940.
The population density is concentrated in the fertile Willamette Valley from Portland to Eugene. The Cascade mountains divide the state into wet and dry halves, much like neighboring Washington State, but Eastern Oregon lacks the irrigation works of the Columbia basin and much more resembles Nevada. Oregon supports a significant logging industry, largely concentrated in the western half of the state. Environmental restrictions have severely hurt the industry, producing conservative opinions inland, but the liberal cities of Portland and Eugene generally support environmentalism.
People from Oregon
Oregon is the birthplace of author Lance Goldman, and football quarterback Harry Shields.
- Sen. Ron Wyden (D)
- Sen. Jeff Merkley (D)
- Rep. Suzanne Bonamici [D, OR–01]
- Rep. Cliff Bentz [R, OR–02]
- Rep. Earl Blumenauer [D, OR–03]
- Rep. Peter DeFazio [D, OR–04]
- Rep. Kurt Schrader [D, OR–05]
- Governor Kate Brown (D) - Oregon's second woman governor is America's first openly bisexual governor. Brown won the governorship in a special election in November 2016. She was sworn in after corrupt liberal Democrat John Kitzhaber, the elected governor was forced to resign in February 2015 due to an ethics scandal involving he and his fiancé and the George Soros-funded Energy Foundation.
- Attorney General Ellen Rosenblum (D)
- Secretary of State Dennis Richardson (D)
- State Treasurer Tobias Read (D)
- Commissioner of Labor and Industries Brad Avakian
Former United States Senators:
Notable Oregon Companies and Major Employers
- Backwoods Home Magazine – conservative libertarian self-sufficiency preparedness magazine founded by Dave Duffy.
- Benchmade – Knife maker since 1979. Official website Benchmade.com
- Brøderbund – Software maker
- Bob's Red Mill – "nation's leading miller of diverse whole-grain foods". Founded 1978. Official website BobsRedMill.com
- Columbia River Knife and Tool – Knife maker since 1994. Official website CRKT.com
- Columbia Sportswear, near Beaverton
- Consumer Cellular
- Dutch Bros. Coffee – America's largest drive-though coffee chain. Official website DutchBros.com
- Fred Meyer – Oregon's largest grocery store / superstore. Like Wal-Mart, they sells firearms too. Official website FredMeyer.com
- Gerber Legendary Blades – knife maker since 1939. Official website
- Henry Weinhard's – Brewery since 1856
- Hollywood Video
- Home Power Magazine – Alternative energy, solar, wind power, hydroelectric etc. since 1987. Official website HomePower.com
- InFocus – Maker of flat screens and LCD projectors.
- Intel – largest private employer - 17,000+ employees.
- Jeld-Wen – 20,000 employee windows and doors maker since 1960.
- Kershaw Knives – Official website kaiusaltd.com
- Kettle Foods – Chip maker since 1978. Official website KettleBrand.com
- Kimber Manufacturing - Maker of top quality M1911 pistols and knives. Official website KimberAmerica.com
- LaCie – Hard drive maker
- LaCrosse Footwear
- Leatherman – multitool and knife maker since 1983. Official website Leatherman.com.
- Les Schwab Tire Centers
- Leupold and Stevens – Maker of rifle scopes since 1907. Official website Leupold.com
- Nike Inc., near Beaverton
- Nosler – Maker of ammunition, bullets and handloading components since 1948. Official website Nosler.com
- The Old Spaghetti Factory
- Oregon Chai – maker of chai tea since 1994. Official website OregonChai.com
- Oregon Scientific – maker of electronic weather stations and other products. Official website OregonScientific.com
- Pacific Seafood – one of the largest seafood companies in North America. Founded in 1941. Official website PacSeafood.com
- Pendleton Woolen Mills – famous woolen sweater and blanket maker. Official website Pendleton-USA.com
- Powell's Books – Claims to be the largest independent new and used bookstore in the world. Official website Powells.com
- Stash Tea Company – Tea maker since 1972. Official website StashTea.com
- Soloflex – Maker of exercise equipment
- Tazo Tea Company – herbal tea maker since 1994. Official website Tazo.com
- Tillamook County Creamery Association – Major cheese maker since 1909. Official website Tillamook.com
Biblography - Further Reading
- Corning, Howard McKinley, ed. Dictionary of Oregon History. (2d ed. 1989). 281 pp.
- DeMarco, Gordon. A Short History of Portland. (1990). 158 pp.
- Dodds, Gordon B. The American Northwest: A History of Oregon and Washington. (1986). 359 pp.
- Dodds, Gordon B. Oregon: A Bicentennial History. (1977). 240 pp., popular history by leading scholar
- Pomeroy, Earl. The Pacific Slope: A History of California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Utah, and Nevada. (1965) 412pp
- Robbins, William G. Landscapes of Promise: The Oregon Story, 1800-1940. (1997). 392 pp. standard history of the state
- Schwantes, Carlos. The Pacific Northwest: An Interpretive History. (1996)
- Abbott, Carl. Greater Portland: Urban Life and Landscape in the Pacific Northwest. (2001). 242 pp. by a leading historian
- Allan, Stuart; Buckley, Aileen R.; and Meacham, James E. Atlas of Oregon. (1976). 301 pp.
- Bataille, Connie Hopkins. The Oregon Book: Information A to Z. (1998). 677 pp.
- Boag, Peter G. Environment and Experience: Settlement Culture in Nineteenth-Century Oregon. (1992). 227 pp. advanced new social history
- Bourke, Paul and DeBats, Donald. Washington County: Politics and Community in Antebellum America. (1995). 407 pp., advanced history
- Carlson, Laurie Winn. On Sidesaddles to Heaven: The Women of the Rocky Mountain Mission. (1998). 253 pp.
- Clark, Malcolm, Jr. Eden Seekers: The Settlement of Oregon, 1818-1862. (1981). 327 pp.
- Dodds, Gordon B. and Wollner, Craig E. The Silicon Forest: High Tech in the Portland Area, 1945-1986. (1990). 226 pp.
- Douthit, Nathan. A Guide to Oregon South Coast History: Traveling the Jedediah Smith Trail. (1999). 224 pp.
- Drukman, Mason. Wayne Morse: A Political Biography. (1997). 545 pp. liberal senator 1945-69
- Drury, Clifford M. Marcus and Narcissa Whitman and the Opening of Old Oregon. (2 vol. 1973). 911 pp. pioneer Methodist missionaries massacred by Indians in 1847
- Farmer, Judith A. et al. Historical Atlas of Early Oregon. (1973). 53pp.
- Gilmore, Janet C. The World of the Oregon Fishboat: A Study in Maritime Folklife. (1986). 271 pp.
- Haarsager, Sandra. Organized Womanhood: Cultural Politics in the Pacific Northwest, 1840-1920. (1997). 427 pp.
- Heider, Douglas and Dietz, David. Legislative Perspectives: A 150-Year History of the Oregon Legislature from 1843 to 1993. (1995). 227 pp.
- Johnson, David Alan. Founding the Far West: California, Oregon, and Nevada, 1840-1890. (1992). 474 pp.
- Kesselman, Amy. Fleeting Opportunities: Women Shipyard Workers in Portland and Vancouver during World War II and Reconversion. (1990). 192 pp.
- Lang, William L. and Carriker, Robert C., eds. Great River of the West: Essays on the Columbia (1999). 181 pp.
- Mason, Thomas L. Governing Oregon: An Inside Look at Politics in One American State. (1994). 251 pp.
- May, Dean L. Three Frontiers: Family, Land, and Society in the American West, 1850-1900. (1994). 313 pp. advanced social history of Sublimity, Oregon, and two other towns
- Mullins, William H. The Depression and the Urban West Coast, 1929-1933: Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and Portland. (1991). 176 pp.
- Murrell, Gary. Iron Pants: Oregon's Anti-New Deal Governor, Charles Henry Martin. (2000). 228 pp.
- Neal, Steve. McNary of Oregon: A Political Biography. (1985). 249 pp. conservative GOP Senator Charles McNary, who served from 1917 to 1944 and was the 1940 VP nominee under Wendell Willkie.
- Robinson, Thomas; Gifford, Benjamin and Terrill, Steve, photographer. Oregon Then and Now. (2000). 192 pp. photo history
- Schwantes, Carlos Arnaldo. Hard Traveling: A Portrait of Work Life in the New Northwest. (1994). 234 pp. labor history by leading historian
- Shirley, Gayle. More Than Petticoats: Remarkable Oregon Women. (1998). 139 pp., popular
- Applegate, Shannon and O'Donnell, Terence, eds. Talking on Paper: An Anthology of Oregon Letters and Diaries. (1994). 324 pp.
- Beckham, Stephen Dow, ed. Many Faces: An Anthology of Oregon Autobiography. (1993). 330 pp.
- Dodds, Gordon B., ed. Varieties of Hope: An Anthology of Oregon Prose. (1993). 330 pp.
- Wendt, Ingrid and St. John, Primus, eds. From Here We Speak: An Anthology of Oregon Poetry. (1994). 332 pp.
- Butruille, Susan G. ed. Women's Voices from the Oregon Trail. (1993). 251 pp., primary sources
- Unruh, John D., Jr. The Plains Across: The Overland Emigrants and the Trans-Mississippi West, 1840-1860. (1979). 565 pp. standard scholarly history
- State of Oregon official government website
- Oregon Quickfacts from the United States Census Bureau
- Real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Oregon from the United States Geological Survey
Archives, Oregon State
- Oregon Blue Book - The Oregon Blue Book is the official state directory and fact book about all levels of government in Oregon, and much more. Published since 1911, it is produced and updated by the Oregon State Archives, a division of the Secretary of State's Office.
- Travel Oregon - This website provides information on natural places of beauty, lodging, outdoor activities and attractions. Databases allows users to search for hotels, B&B's, resorts, RV parks and outdoor adventures. Also available is a searchable calendar of local and regional events taking place throughout Oregon.
- Oregon Historic Photograph Collections - This database includes over 10,000 viewable photographs and related descriptions from the holdings of the Salem Public Library, the Oregon State Archives, and the Marion County Historical Society. The images date from the mid-1800s to the 1990s and depict a wide range of subjects such as Oregon towns, homes, businesses, occupations, scenic vistas, disasters, festivities, and recreational pursuits. The database is searchable by keyword and is maintained by the Salem Public Library.
- Oregon State Databases, searchable public domain databases produced by Oregon state agencies. Compiled by the Government Documents Roundtable of the American Library Association.
Agriculture, Department of
- List of Departmental Databases - The Oregon Department of Agriculture provides access to a number of databases from this page including but not limited to: Oregon Products Database, Available Livestock Brands, Oregon Veterinarians and Clinics, Wholesale Seed Dealer licenses, Agricultural Resources Directory, Pesticide Related Licenses, and Nursery and Christmas Tree Licenses.
Elections, Secretary of State, Department of
- Initiative, Referendum and Referral Search -Search a database of Oregon ballot initiatives and referendum by year, status and type; includes both historical and current records. 1998–present
Employment Department, Oregon
- Current Employment by Industry - Provides employment data for industry both for the last 12 months and for the last two months with figures for the previous year for various industries in Oregon, its counties, and metropolitan areas.
- Employer Database - Provides information on thousands of Oregon employers. Searchable by area, industry or employer name.
- Job Listings - Lists current Employment Department job listings. Searchable by occupation, location, job listing number or keyword.
Legislature, Oregon State
- Bills and Laws Search - Searchable database of bills and laws by either full measure text or specific measure number.
- Find your Legislator - Enter an Oregon address to find a list of the state and U.S. legislators for that area.
Parks and Recreation, Department of
- Search for a park - Search for an Oregon state park by clicking on a region of a map of Oregon or by clicking on the appropriate box. Add details such as type of campsite or yurt, beach access, horse or hiking trails, setting (forest, desert, waterfalls, etc.), events or ADA accessibility.
Revenue, Department of
- ORMAP - Statewide property tax parcel base map searchable by county and township-range grid, which provides file lists of scanned taxlot maps from county assessors. Also provides links to some county assessor websites, offering other searching capabilities.
Transportation, Department of
- Tripcheck - Provides information regarding the current status of road conditions throughout Oregon, as well as links to commercial airports, rideshare opportunities, public transit systems and bicycle information. Includes current weather conditions and maps showing rest areas, sno-parks, scenic byways and road cams.
University of Oregon Libraries
- Data for Local Communities - This database contains records for State of Oregon or other websites containing statistical, spatial and descriptive data about the cities and counties of Oregon and Washington. Many of the sites are access points for agency databases.
- Historic Oregon Newspapers - Part of the "Chronicling America" program, which covers various Oregon papers from 1848-1922. New content added on a regular basis. Valuable to anyone researching the Western frontier, Indian wars, etc. Searchable by keyword.
- Oregon Newspapers Index - 977,000+ searchable records including The Oregon Daily Emerald. Eugene (Or.), the University of Oregon campus newspaper, 1900-1979. 102,000+ records.; The Portland Oregonian. Portland (Or.), 1852 - 1987. 839,000+ records and The Register-Guard. Eugene (Or.), 1963 - 2004. 30,000+ records. Index may be searched by title, subject, author, or keyword. Records may be limited by date.
Water Resources Department
- Historical Streamflow and Lake Level Data - Provides historical graphic statistics on streamflows in Oregon, searchable by basin, gaging station, station status, and date range. Includes searchable watershed and hydrological unit maps in Google Earth or Maps format, with information on gaging stations, including number and description, township, range and section, longitude and latitude, and date range of available data from which to search.
- Real Time Streamflow Information - Provides links to sites, mostly U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), giving preliminary realtime streamflow data. USACE and USBR provide graphic data in cubic feet over a course of days, and USGS data also includes station number and name, location (including map), drainage area, period of record, gage, remarks, and extremes for period. Offers a choice of discharge or gage height parameters, as well as a choice of output format and number of days.
- Water Rights Mapping Tool - Allows the user to view water rights and other pertinent information such as ground water limited areas, watermaster districts, water availability basins, etc. Browse by basin, search for a township, or search for an application using this program.
- Well Log Query - Provides searchable database for well log information. Searchable by township, range, and section, county, constructor, owner name, company, completed and received dates, start card, well log ID, well tag, and taxlot numbers. Results also provide street of well, first water, completed depth, static water level, and yield.
- US Election Atlas, Oregon 2012 Presidential Election. US Election Atlas.
- McCoy, Robert R. The Paradox of Oregon's Progressive Politics: The Political Career of Walter Marcus Pierce. JSTOR. Retrieved September 25, 2021.
- Ku Klux Klan. Oregon Encyclopedia. Retrieved September 25, 2021.
- Robbins, William G. Walter Pierce (1861-1954). Oregon Encyclopedia. Retrieved September 25, 2021.
- A Mixed Reception: Japanese Americans Return to Oregon. Oregon Secretary of State. Retrieved September 25, 2021.
- TO PASS H.R. 801, A BILL TO MAKE LYNCHING A FEDERAL CRIME.. GovTrack.us. Retrieved September 25, 2021.
- Meet America's First Openly Bisexual Governor. MSN. Published February 16, 2015. Accessed February 20, 2015
- Long-time Democratic Oregon Gov. John Kitzhaber announces his resignation amid ethics scandal. Published February 13, 2015. Accessed February 20, 2015
- The governor’s "fiancé, Cylvia Hayes, was taking money as a private consultant to" George Soros-funded "environment groups and then pushing their policies in her public role as “First Lady” of the state. Most infamously, she ordered state employees to follow a policy she was being paid $25,000 by an advocacy group to promote. Apparently, some of the money also wasn't reported on tax returns." Another Corrupt Democrat Governor Resigns – Oregon Governor Kitzhaber Announces His Resignation…. Published February 13, 2015. Accessed February 20, 2015
- "Kitzhaber’s response to the scandal has been egregious. The Willamette Week reported that his “office last week requested state officials destroy thousands of records in the governor’s personal email accounts.” Indeed, the governor’s executive assistant actually ordered all of his personal e-mail accounts to be removed from state servers. Such revelations have prompted Oregon senate president Peter Courtney and house majority leader Tina Kotek, both Democrats, to meet with Kitzhaber and urge him to resign." Fund, John, "Environmental Scandal Engulfs Oregon Governor, Where Is National Media?". National Review. Published February 13, 2015. Accessed February 20, 2015.
- Redden, Jim, "Report shows Intel tax breaks a net plus for state, county." Beaverton Valley Times, Published January 9, 2014
- Powell's Books on Burnside. Powell's City of Books. Retrieved on 2015-02-20.