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Vietnamization, also known as the Nixon Doctrine was a corollary of the Truman Doctrine of Containment. The Truman Doctrine of Containment was the foundation of United States foreign policy in relation to the Soviet Union, declaring the U.S. would resist Soviet expansionism by force. The Nixon Doctrine and the policy of Vietnamization added as a corollary the U.S. would provide arms, material, training, and support to regimes and resistance movements willing to provide the necessary fighting force.

The policy of Vietnamization was the first application of the Nixon Doctrine; it was later applied by President Jimmy Carter to the Afghani Mujahedeen resisting Soviet expansion in Afghanistan, and later President Ronald Reagan to the Nicaraguan Contras.