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Shah is the title taken by rulers of Iran or Persia equivalent to "king" in English. The word was sometimes compounded to create an even more grandiose title, shahansha, "king of kings" and padshah or "lord king" being examples. Rulers of other countries in central and south Asia also took the title.

In modern times the title is perhaps most closely associated with Mohammad Reza Pahlavi the Shah of Iran who ruled as an absolute monarch until he was deposed in the Iranian Revolution in 1979.