The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod is a major Protestant denomination, and is the second largest Lutheran body in the United States, with a (2010) baptized membership of 2.28 million and a (2010) confirmed membership of 1.76 million.
It was founded in April 1847, when 12 pastors representing 15 congregations signed a constitution that established "The German Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Missouri, Ohio and Other States." The members were German immigrants from Saxony, outraged that the forced unification of the Lutheran and Reformed churches had created too liberal a national church.
In 2010, the church reported 6,158 churches, with 5,369 active, ordained clergy. It is concentrated in the Midwest, to the north and northwest of its headquarters in St. Louis, Missouri. It takes a conservative position on theological and social issues, and has expelled those who doubt the inerrancy of the Bible.
- Coburn, Carol K. Life at Four Corners: Religion, Gender, and Education in a German-Lutheran Community, 1868-1945. (1992). 227 pp.
- Graebner, Alan. Uncertain Saints: The Laity in the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod, 1900-1970. (1975). 284 pp.
- Lueker, Erwin Louis, ed. Lutheran cyclopedia (1954) 1160 pages covering all topics.
- Meyer, Carl S. Log Cabin to Luther Tower: Concordia Seminary During One Hundred and Twenty-Five Years. Toward a More Excellent Ministry, 1839-1964 (1966)
- Todd, Mary. Authority Vested: A Story of Identity and Change in the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod. (2000). 336 pp.
- Synod stats: membership drops, giving increases Hoops, Linda C., The Reporter Online, the Official Newspaper of the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod, reporter.lcms.org, retrieved October 26, 2011