Demiurge is a Greek term, originally meaning literally "public worker". The word eventually came to mean a being responsible for maintaining the existence of the universe, or even responsible for participating in the creation of the universe, and in some belief systems even the creator of the physical universe, as distinct from the creator of the heavenly existence, or the levels of heavenly existence, the heavens.
In Gnosticism and other theological systems the demiurge is a heavenly being, subordinate to the Supreme Being, a subordinate heavenly being that is considered to be the controller of the material world and antagonistic to all that is purely spiritual.
Some religious groups teach that Jesus is a lesser being than the Father, not equal in deity, but a subordinate being. The most well-known of these are the Arians, the Marcionites, the Jehovah's Witnesses and the Seventh-day Adventists.
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- Demiurge - Merriam-Webster Dictionary
- Demiurge - Wikipedia
- Demiurge - Catholic Encyclopedia
- Demiurge - New World Encyclopedia
- Demiurge - Encyclopedia.com
- What is the Demiurge? (gotquestions.org)
- What is Gnostic Demiurge? Compiled by Lewis Loflin (sullivan-county.com)
- Is Jesus Really Michael the Archangel? Eric Lyons, M.Min (apologeticspress.org)
- Seventh-Day Adventists Teach Jesus is Michael the Archangel (jesus-is-savior.com)
- Is Michael Jesus Christ? By Robert K. Sanders (truthorfables.com)
Sanders cites directly from Ellen G. White's writings her teaching that Jesus is indeed Michael the Archangel, and he refutes her error with the Bible.