Chiliasm is the doctrine based on Revelation 20:4-6 that Christ will reign on earth a thousand years. The word chiliasm is from Greek chiliasmos, from chilias, from chilioi thousand. A chiliad is literally a thousand, also a period of a thousand years.
Heresy, or true doctrine?
Chiliasm has been condemned as a heresy in the East and West since A.D. 381. It is defended as a true doctrine of Christianity by several Christian denominations and literalist schools of biblical interpretation since the beginning of the Reformation. See 12 schools of interpretation and Millennium
- The Reader's Digest Great Encyclopedic Dictionary including Funk & Wagnalls Standard College Dictionary, copyright 1966, The Reader's Digest Association, Inc., Pleasantville, New York. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 66-21606. page 237a
- A Preliminary Study of the Greek Words Xilias and Xilioi, by Kenneth Fortier pdf. (kenfortier.com)
Multiple commentaries on Revelation 20:4
Commentaries verse by verse
- BibleHub multiple commentaries (biblehub.com) includes access links to: • Alford • Barnes • Bengel • Benson • BI • Bonar • Cambridge • Clarke • Darby • Ellicott • Expositor's • Exp Dct • Exp Grk • Gaebelein • GSB • Gill • Gray • Guzik • Haydock • Hastings • Homiletics • ICC • JFB • Kelly • KJT • Lange • MacLaren • MHC • MHCW • Meyer • Newell • Parker • PNT • Poole • Pulpit • Sermon • SCO • TTB • VWS • WES • TSK
- New American Bible, Revised Edition NABRE: Book of Revelation (usccb.org)
- Scofield Reference Bible Notes: Revelation (biblestudytools.com)
- Book of Revelation. eCampus.com at (biblestudytools.com) Table of contents outline with links to particular sections of the book of Revelation. Each accessed link to the NIV text offers links to several online classical commentaries on that particular passage.
Rejection of Chiliasm in the East and West since A.D. 381
- The Inconsistency of Chiliasm (Orthodox). The Second Ecumenical Council (381) and the Condemnation of Apollinarius (orthodoxphotos.com)
- The Inconsistency of Chiliasm, Bishop Alexander (Mileant) - Russian Orthodox (pravoslavie.ru)
- Orthodox America: 381 - The Second Ecumenical Council - 1981. From the "Last Farewell" of St. Gregory the Theologian to the 150 Fathers of the Second Ecumenical Council (on his resignation as Patriarch) (roca.org)
- Fides et Historia 36:2 (Summer/Fall 2004): 83-95. Millenialism and the Early Church Councils: Was Chiliasm Condemned at Constantinople?, by Francis X. Gumerlock, Saint Louis University (francisgumerlock.com)
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Millenium and Millenarianism (newadvent.org)
- The Phantom Heresy: Did the Council of Ephesus (431) Condemn Chiliasm?, Michael Svigel
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Second Council of Constantinople (553) Fifth Ecumenical Council (newadvent.org)
- Georg Albert Schieferdecker 19th century (condemnation) Lutheran (zoominfo.com)
- The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Transformation of Early Christianity From an Eschatological to a Socialized Movement. Lyford Patterson Edwards, D.D., The University of Chicago. 1919 (gutenberg.org) - Apollinarianism
- "The History of Chiliasm", William Masselink (the-highway.com)
- There Is No Future Physical Millenium, Mike Blume (mikeblume.com)