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Pseudoscience

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'''Pseudoscience''' is [[theoryhypothesis]] or speculation which has the trappings and [[rhetoric]] of [[science]], and is presented as science, but does not follow the [[scientific method]]. Pseudoscientific theories are typically not [[falsifiable]], and their purveyors show unwillingness to allow outsiders to observe, test, or replicate their findings.  == Misconceptions== Although the word "theory" is often used interchangeably with hypothesis, an actual [[scientific theory]] requires significant proof and must meet a variety of standards.
== Falsifiability ==
== Public belief ==
Despite evidence and logic against pseudoscientific theories, many remain popular among the public. Homeopathic medicine is available at most health-food stores and is a multi-billion dollar business, and 31% of Americans believe in astrology.
 
Notably, twice as many [[Democrats]] believe in astrology as [[Republicans]], showing a strong bent of irrationality and scientific [[illiteracy]] among [[liberals]].<ref>http://www.harrisinteractive.com/harris_poll/index.asp?PID=359</ref>
There is no definitive or objective definition of the term "pseudoscience", so it is also sometimes used as a pejorative term. Pseudoscientists consider their work to be real science rather than pseudoscience. In addition to this, oftentimes theories which conflict with their theories are considered by them to be pseudoscience. Theories which are considered to be psuedoscience by the public may transition into being considered science if substantial evidence is found to support the theory. For example, before the theory of plate tectonics was fully developed, it was considered pseudoscience, whilst its predecessors, theories which involved an expanding Earth, are now considered pseudoscience.<ref>R. G. A. Dolby, ''Uncertain Knowledge: An Image of Science for a Changing World'', Published by Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN 0521892627, 9780521892629, 380 pages. [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=xd3ylT3WTLEC&pg=PA191&dq=pseudoscience+pejorative&num=100&as_brr=3 Page 191]</ref><ref>Brian Stableford, ''Science Fact and Science Fiction'', Published by CRC Press, 2006, ISBN 0415974607, 9780415974608, 729 pages. [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=uefwmdROKTAC&pg=PA410&dq=pseudoscience+pejorative&num=100&as_brr=3 Page 410]</ref>
==Examples of pseudosciences==
[[Image:5712dawkins.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Within the [[evolution|evolutionary]] science community and the [[creation science]] community, Richard Dawkins has faced charges of engaging in pseudoscience and also has faced charges of committing elementary errors.<ref>http://www.truefreethinker.com/articles/send-clowns-–-richard-dawkins-obliges</ref><ref>http://creation.com/the-greatest-hoax-on-earth/main.php</ref> For more information, please see: [[Richard Dawkins and pseudoscience]] ]]
* [[Animal magnetism]]
* [[Astrology]]
* [[Big Bang]] astronomy
* Much of the work of [[Richard Dawkins]]<ref>http://www.truefreethinker.com/articles/send-clowns-–-richard-dawkins-obliges</ref><ref>http://creation.com/the-greatest-hoax-on-earth/main.php</ref> (see: [[Richard Dawkins and pseudoscience]])
* [[Biodynamic agriculture]]
* [[Darwinism]]* [[DianeticsSocial darwinism]]
* [[Dominionism]]
* [[Environmentalism]]
* [[Evolution|Evolutionary biology]]<ref>http://www.icr.org/home/resources/resources_tracts_scientificcaseagainstevolution/</ref><ref>http://www.grisda.org/origins/04004.htm</ref><ref>http://www.uncommondescent.com/darwinism/there-is-no-theory-of-evolution/</ref> <ref>http://members.iinet.net.au/~sejones/PoE/pe05scnc.html</ref><ref>http://www.parentcompany.com/science_kit/sk3b.htm</ref><ref>http://www.apologeticspress.org/rr/reprints/Evolution-Fact-or-Theory.pdf</ref>
* [[Free Energy]]
* [[Graphology]]* [[Global warming]]*Much of the work of [[Stephen Hawking]]* [[Homeopathy]]
* [[Iridology]]
* [[Lysenkoism]]
* [[Mesmerism]]
*Much of the work of [[PZ Myers]]<ref>http://www.truefreethinker.com/articles/pz-myers-pseudoscienceblogscom</ref>
* [[Old earth]] geology
* [[Orgone therapy]]
* [[Parapsychology]]
* [[Reflexology]]
* [[Self-projection as God]] (also known as [[vicarious autotheism]])
* Much of the work of [[Carl Sagan]]
* [[Transgenderism]]
* [[Ufology]]
== See also ==
* [[Scientism]]
* [[List of atheist and agnostic pseudoscienceshypothesis]]
Humor:
* [[Essay: You obviously don't understand how science works|You obviously don't understand how science works]] - Humor/[[Satire]]
 
=== Refutations of Pseudoscience ===
* [[Counterexamples to Evolution]]
* [[Counterexamples to Global Warming]]
* [[Counterexamples to an Ice Age]]
* [[Counterexamples to an Old Earth]]
* [[Counterexamples to Relativity]]
* [[Counterexamples to String Theory]]
==References==
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