Difference between revisions of "William M. McCulloch"

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'''William Moore “Bill”'''<ref>Thomas, Jeffrey W (2013). [https://library.osu.edu/finding-aids/ohio-congressional-archives/mccullochfindingaid.pdf William M. McCullochPapers]. ''The Ohio State University''. Retrieved July 24, 2021.</ref> '''McCulloch''' (November 24, 1901 – February 22, 1980) was an [[Ohio]] [[Republican]] congressman from the rural fourth congressional district who represented the area in the [[United States House of Representatives]] from 1947 until his retirement in 1973. He was an adamant [[conservative]] and known for his strong advocacy of [[civil rights]],<ref name=nytimes>Keller, Bill (January 19, 2014). [https://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/20/opinion/keller-an-unsung-hero-of-civil-rights.html An Unsung Hero of Civil Rights]. ''The New York Times''. Retrieved July 24, 2021.</ref><ref>Purdam, Todd S. (July 24, 2021). [https://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2014/03/the-movers-behind-the-civil-rights-act-105216/ The Republican Who Saved Civil Rights]. ''Politico''. Retrieved July 24, 2021.</ref> having been shaped by his early experiences of witnessing the injustices of Southern [[Jim Crow]] [[segregation]].<ref name=fascinatingpolitics>FascinatingPolitics (January 8, 2020). [https://fascinatingpolitics.com/2020/01/08/william-mcculloch-the-civil-rights-engine-of-congress/ William McCulloch: The Civil Rights Engine of Congress]. ''Mad Politics: The Bizarre, Fascinating, and Unknown of American Political History''. Retrieved July 24, 2021.</ref>
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'''William Moore “Bill”'''<ref>Thomas, Jeffrey W (2013). [https://library.osu.edu/finding-aids/ohio-congressional-archives/mccullochfindingaid.pdf William M. McCullochPapers]. ''The Ohio State University''. Retrieved July 24, 2021.</ref><ref name=politico>Purdam, Todd S. (July 24, 2021). [https://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2014/03/the-movers-behind-the-civil-rights-act-105216/ The Republican Who Saved Civil Rights]. ''Politico''. Retrieved July 24, 2021.</ref> '''McCulloch''' (November 24, 1901 – February 22, 1980) was an [[Ohio]] [[Republican]] congressman from the rural fourth congressional district who represented the area in the [[United States House of Representatives]] from 1947 until his retirement in 1973. He was an adamant [[conservative]] and known for his strong advocacy of [[civil rights]],<ref name=nytimes>Keller, Bill (January 19, 2014). [https://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/20/opinion/keller-an-unsung-hero-of-civil-rights.html An Unsung Hero of Civil Rights]. ''The New York Times''. Retrieved July 24, 2021.</ref> having been shaped by his early experiences of witnessing the injustices of Southern [[Jim Crow]] [[segregation]].<ref name=fascinatingpolitics>FascinatingPolitics (January 8, 2020). [https://fascinatingpolitics.com/2020/01/08/william-mcculloch-the-civil-rights-engine-of-congress/ William McCulloch: The Civil Rights Engine of Congress]. ''Mad Politics: The Bizarre, Fascinating, and Unknown of American Political History''. Retrieved July 24, 2021.</ref>
  
 
McCulloch previously served in the state House of Representatives, of which he became speaker for five years.<ref name=fascinatingpolitics/>
 
McCulloch previously served in the state House of Representatives, of which he became speaker for five years.<ref name=fascinatingpolitics/>
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Mostly a staunch [[conservative]] similar to Ohio senator [[Robert A. Taft]],<ref name=fascinatingpolitics/> McCulloch supported [[fiscal responsibility]], [[school prayer]], [[gun rights]], and opposed foreign aid.<ref name=nytimes/> He was largely a restrictionist on [[immigration]],<ref name=fascinatingpolitics/> though voted for the [[Hart-Celler Act]]. During the 1960s, his conservatism began to [[moderate]]; although he scored 100% from the [[American Conservative Union]] in 1961, it waned to only 61% by 1968.<ref name=fascinatingpolitics/> However, he was one of the few members of Congress to vote against the liberal [[Equal Rights Amendment]],<ref>[https://www.govtrack.us/congress/votes/92-1971/h197 TO PASS H.J. RES. 208.]. ''GovTrack.us''. Retrieved July 24, 2021.</ref> which ultimately was defeated by a grassroots coalition under the leadership of activist [[Phyllis Schlafly]].
 
Mostly a staunch [[conservative]] similar to Ohio senator [[Robert A. Taft]],<ref name=fascinatingpolitics/> McCulloch supported [[fiscal responsibility]], [[school prayer]], [[gun rights]], and opposed foreign aid.<ref name=nytimes/> He was largely a restrictionist on [[immigration]],<ref name=fascinatingpolitics/> though voted for the [[Hart-Celler Act]]. During the 1960s, his conservatism began to [[moderate]]; although he scored 100% from the [[American Conservative Union]] in 1961, it waned to only 61% by 1968.<ref name=fascinatingpolitics/> However, he was one of the few members of Congress to vote against the liberal [[Equal Rights Amendment]],<ref>[https://www.govtrack.us/congress/votes/92-1971/h197 TO PASS H.J. RES. 208.]. ''GovTrack.us''. Retrieved July 24, 2021.</ref> which ultimately was defeated by a grassroots coalition under the leadership of activist [[Phyllis Schlafly]].
  
On [[civil rights]], McCulloch, like Taft, favored a "conservative" approach to ensuring equality for blacks, opposing a mandatory Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC) though supporting a voluntary one that would not take forceful actions on businesses.<ref name=fascinatingpolitics/> He gave support to "Powell Amendments" that would oppose the construction of segregated VA hospitals. McCulloch also voted for the [[Civil Rights Act]]s of [[Civil Rights Act of 1957|1957]]<ref>[https://www.govtrack.us/congress/votes/85-1957/h42 HR 6127. CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1957.]. ''GovTrack.us''. Retrieved July 24, 2021.</ref> and 1960,<ref>[https://www.govtrack.us/congress/votes/86-1960/h106 HR 8601. CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1960. APPROVAL BY THE HOUSE OF THE SENATE'S AMENDMENTS.]. ''GovTrack.us''. Retrieved July 24, 2021.</ref> though was frustrated over the weakening of the legislation masterminded by Southern Democrats in the Senate.<ref name=fascinatingpolitics/>
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On [[civil rights]], McCulloch, like Taft, favored a "conservative" approach to ensuring equality for blacks, opposing a mandatory Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC) though supporting a voluntary one that would not take forceful actions on businesses.<ref name=fascinatingpolitics/> He gave support to "Powell Amendments" that would oppose the construction of segregated VA hospitals. McCulloch also voted for the [[Civil Rights Act]]s of [[Civil Rights Act of 1957|1957]]<ref>[https://www.govtrack.us/congress/votes/85-1957/h42 HR 6127. CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1957.]. ''GovTrack.us''. Retrieved July 24, 2021.</ref> and 1960,<ref>[https://www.govtrack.us/congress/votes/86-1960/h106 HR 8601. CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1960. APPROVAL BY THE HOUSE OF THE SENATE'S AMENDMENTS.]. ''GovTrack.us''. Retrieved July 24, 2021.</ref> though was frustrated over the weakening of the legislation masterminded by Southern Democrats in the Senate.<ref name=fascinatingpolitics/> In 1962, he, along with the vast majority of congressional Republicans, voted for the [[24th Amendment]] to prohibit the use of the [[poll tax]] in all federal-level elections.<ref>[https://www.govtrack.us/congress/votes/87-1962/h193 S.J. RES. 29. CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT TO BAN THE USE OF POLL TAX AS A REQUIREMENT FOR VOTING IN FEDERAL ELECTIONS.]. ''GovTrack.us''. Retrieved July 24, 2021.</ref>
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==

Revision as of 16:40, July 24, 2021

William M. “Bill” McCulloch
William Moore McCulloch.jpg
U.S. Representative from Ohio's 4th Congressional District
From: November 4, 1947 – January 3, 1973
Predecessor Robert F. Jones
Successor Tennyson Guyer
Speaker of the Ohio House of Representatives
From: 1939–1944
Predecessor ???
Successor ???
State Representative from Ohio
From: 1933–1944
Predecessor ???
Successor ???
Information
Party Republican
Spouse(s) Mabel Harris

William Moore “Bill”[1][2] McCulloch (November 24, 1901 – February 22, 1980) was an Ohio Republican congressman from the rural fourth congressional district who represented the area in the United States House of Representatives from 1947 until his retirement in 1973. He was an adamant conservative and known for his strong advocacy of civil rights,[3] having been shaped by his early experiences of witnessing the injustices of Southern Jim Crow segregation.[4]

McCulloch previously served in the state House of Representatives, of which he became speaker for five years.[4]

Political career

During his tenure as Speaker of the Ohio House of Representatives, McCulloch worked with the strongly conservative then-governor (and later U.S. senator) John W. Bricker in eliminating the state deficit and replacing it with a surplus.[4]

U.S. House of Representatives

Following the resignation of incumbent congressman Robert F. Jones, McCulloch ran in the 1947 special election and defeated Democrat opponent Joseph B. Quatman by eleven percentage points.[5] He won re-election to a full term in 1948 by a similar margin,[6] Most of his following re-election bids faced no serious challenges, though the coattails of Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964 amidst the concurrent presidential race that aided his opponent reduced his margin of victory significantly that year.[7]

Mostly a staunch conservative similar to Ohio senator Robert A. Taft,[4] McCulloch supported fiscal responsibility, school prayer, gun rights, and opposed foreign aid.[3] He was largely a restrictionist on immigration,[4] though voted for the Hart-Celler Act. During the 1960s, his conservatism began to moderate; although he scored 100% from the American Conservative Union in 1961, it waned to only 61% by 1968.[4] However, he was one of the few members of Congress to vote against the liberal Equal Rights Amendment,[8] which ultimately was defeated by a grassroots coalition under the leadership of activist Phyllis Schlafly.

On civil rights, McCulloch, like Taft, favored a "conservative" approach to ensuring equality for blacks, opposing a mandatory Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC) though supporting a voluntary one that would not take forceful actions on businesses.[4] He gave support to "Powell Amendments" that would oppose the construction of segregated VA hospitals. McCulloch also voted for the Civil Rights Acts of 1957[9] and 1960,[10] though was frustrated over the weakening of the legislation masterminded by Southern Democrats in the Senate.[4] In 1962, he, along with the vast majority of congressional Republicans, voted for the 24th Amendment to prohibit the use of the poll tax in all federal-level elections.[11]

See also

References

  1. Thomas, Jeffrey W (2013). William M. McCullochPapers. The Ohio State University. Retrieved July 24, 2021.
  2. Purdam, Todd S. (July 24, 2021). The Republican Who Saved Civil Rights. Politico. Retrieved July 24, 2021.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Keller, Bill (January 19, 2014). An Unsung Hero of Civil Rights. The New York Times. Retrieved July 24, 2021.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 FascinatingPolitics (January 8, 2020). William McCulloch: The Civil Rights Engine of Congress. Mad Politics: The Bizarre, Fascinating, and Unknown of American Political History. Retrieved July 24, 2021.
  5. OH District 04 - Special Election Race - Nov 04, 1947. Our Campaigns. Retrieved July 24, 2021.
  6. OH - District 04 Race - No 02, 1948. Our Campaigns. Retrieved July 24, 2021.
  7. Candidate - William M. McCulloch. Our Campaigns. Retrieved July 24, 2021.
  8. TO PASS H.J. RES. 208.. GovTrack.us. Retrieved July 24, 2021.
  9. HR 6127. CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1957.. GovTrack.us. Retrieved July 24, 2021.
  10. HR 8601. CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1960. APPROVAL BY THE HOUSE OF THE SENATE'S AMENDMENTS.. GovTrack.us. Retrieved July 24, 2021.
  11. S.J. RES. 29. CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT TO BAN THE USE OF POLL TAX AS A REQUIREMENT FOR VOTING IN FEDERAL ELECTIONS.. GovTrack.us. Retrieved July 24, 2021.

External links

  • Profile at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
  • Profile at Find a Grave