Difference between revisions of "Urine"

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'''Urine''' is liquid [[biology|biological]] waste excreted by the [[kidney]]s. The [[human]] body produces urine, as do all [[mammals]], [[reptile]]s, [[birds]], [[fish]], and [[amphibian]]s. Urine is mostly [[water]], and also contains [[urea]], [[creatinine]], waste [[enzymes]] and [[hormone]]s, [[protein]]s, [[carbohydrate]]s and fatty [[acid]]s.<ref>[http://www.ivy-rose.co.uk/Topics/Urinary_System_Composition_Urine.php Urinalysis - The composition of Urine]</ref> Urine also contains large numbers of [[bacteria]], so coming into contact with or ingesting it is unhygienic and can be harmful.
 
'''Urine''' is liquid [[biology|biological]] waste excreted by the [[kidney]]s. The [[human]] body produces urine, as do all [[mammals]], [[reptile]]s, [[birds]], [[fish]], and [[amphibian]]s. Urine is mostly [[water]], and also contains [[urea]], [[creatinine]], waste [[enzymes]] and [[hormone]]s, [[protein]]s, [[carbohydrate]]s and fatty [[acid]]s.<ref>[http://www.ivy-rose.co.uk/Topics/Urinary_System_Composition_Urine.php Urinalysis - The composition of Urine]</ref> Urine also contains large numbers of [[bacteria]], so coming into contact with or ingesting it is unhygienic and can be harmful.
  
Sociologically, urine's smell and the potential harm it can cause in terms of infection make it [[taboo]] in many cultures. Urinating on objects [[desecration by urine|is sometimes done]] in order to show extreme disapproval, or to humiliate, although such behavior has no place in civilized society.
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Urine has been used since ancient times for bleaching cloth and even for brushing teeth. Roman emperor [[Vespasian]] levied a tax on stale urine, obtained from street latrines and urns placed for the purpose of collection, and stored for several days, which allowed bacteria to development abundant ammonia content, commonly used for bleaching cloth<ref>See the following articles:<br>[http://www.wisegeek.com/is-it-true-that-people-can-use-urine-for-bleaching.htm Is It True That People can Use Urine for Bleaching? (wisegeek.com)]<br>[http://www.ancient-origins.net/history-ancient-traditions/money-does-not-stink-urine-tax-ancient-rome-003408 Money Does Not Stink: The Urine Tax of Ancient Rome (ancient-origins.net)]</ref>.
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Sociologically, urine's smell and the potential harm it can cause in terms of infection make it [[taboo]] in many cultures. Urinating on objects [[desecration by urine|is sometimes done]] in order to show extreme disapproval, or to humiliate, although such behavior has no place in civilized society. In [[James Clavell]]'s novel ''Shõgun'' the [[Portugal|Portuguese]] ship's captain Thorn is punished for insulting his Japanese captor, by literally doing to Thorn what Thorn had figuratively said to him, as a "lesson".
  
 
==References==
 
==References==

Revision as of 04:18, 28 July 2017

Urine is liquid biological waste excreted by the kidneys. The human body produces urine, as do all mammals, reptiles, birds, fish, and amphibians. Urine is mostly water, and also contains urea, creatinine, waste enzymes and hormones, proteins, carbohydrates and fatty acids.[1] Urine also contains large numbers of bacteria, so coming into contact with or ingesting it is unhygienic and can be harmful.

Urine has been used since ancient times for bleaching cloth and even for brushing teeth. Roman emperor Vespasian levied a tax on stale urine, obtained from street latrines and urns placed for the purpose of collection, and stored for several days, which allowed bacteria to development abundant ammonia content, commonly used for bleaching cloth[2].

Sociologically, urine's smell and the potential harm it can cause in terms of infection make it taboo in many cultures. Urinating on objects is sometimes done in order to show extreme disapproval, or to humiliate, although such behavior has no place in civilized society. In James Clavell's novel Shõgun the Portuguese ship's captain Thorn is punished for insulting his Japanese captor, by literally doing to Thorn what Thorn had figuratively said to him, as a "lesson".

References

  1. Urinalysis - The composition of Urine
  2. See the following articles:
    Is It True That People can Use Urine for Bleaching? (wisegeek.com)
    Money Does Not Stink: The Urine Tax of Ancient Rome (ancient-origins.net)