Special election

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A by-election is an election that takes place for a single representative district or constituency following the resignation, death or removal of the sitting representative or MP. The term stands in contrast to a general election, when all or several of the seats in a constituency are up for election. The term by-election derives from the Old Scandinavian by, 'town'.

The term is more prevalently used in British-speaking countries; the term "special election" is most commonly used in America.