Roman Republic

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The Roman Republic is the term used to refer to the second era of Roman history, between the kingship and the empire. The origins of the Republic are dubious and legendary at best, and utterly fictional at worst. However, the Romans had a concrete sense of the foundation date of their city, and referred to it frequently in histories. From Roman reckoning, historians place the pivotal events of the beginning of the Roman Republic at 509 B.C.

Historians also debate the time of the fall of Rome, based on their private conceptions of what Roman republicanism truly meant. In a sense, the end of the Republic was inevitable after the rise of Marius, but the true end of the Republic is often placed at either the death of Julius Caesar (when Republican government first truly ceased), the Battle of Actium (Augustus' victory over Marc Antony), or the Constitutional Settlement of Augustus Caesar, which recognized that ruler as princeps, or "first citizen," with plenary power over Roman holdings. Most historians agree to use the date of the Constitutional Settlement as the date when all possibility of the restoration of the Republic finally ended, bringing the Republic to its true close, in 27 B.C.

Early Years

A Short Primer on Eturian Influence on Rome

The Rape of Lucretia, and Overthrow of the Tarquins

The Gauls and Other Foundation Myths

The Myth of Romulus and Remus

Regarding the founding of the city itself, according to legend, Romulus and Remus were the twin sons of Mars, the god of war. They were were rescued from the mighty Tiber River by a mother wolf. She nursed them back to health, and raised the two boys. In 753 BC, Romulus and Remus founded the city of Rome.

The Conquest of Italy

The Struggle of the Orders: the Gracchi

The Punic Wars: Nascent Roman Imperialism

The Jugurthine War, Marius, and the Beginning of the End

The Long Fall

Sulla and Pompey: "More Worship the Rising Sun than the Setting"

The First Triumvirate

The Fall of the Republic

Roman Legacies

Republican Overtones in the Early Empire

Republican Terminology and Symbology Today

References

1. Spodek, Howard. The World's History. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2006. 163-164.