Difference between revisions of "Institute of Pacific Relations"

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The '''Institute of Pacific Relations''' (IPR) was established in 1925 to provide a forum for discussion of Asian problems and relations between Asia and the West. To promote greater knowledge of the Far East, the IPR established a large research program, which was supported financially by grants from the [[Rockefeller Foundation]], the [[Carnegie Corporation]], and other major corporations. Professor Carroll Quigley said of the IPR and person associated with it, "Many of these experts which were favored by the Far East "establishment" in the Institute of Pacific Relations were captured by Communist ideology. Under its influence, they propagandized, as experts, erroneous ideas and sought to influence policy in mistaken directions. <ref>''Tragedy and Hope: A History of the World in Our Time'', Carroll Quigley, Collier-Macmillan, 1966, pg. 936. ISBN 0-945001-10-X</ref>
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The '''Institute of Pacific Relations''' (IPR) was established in 1925 to provide a forum for discussion of Asian problems and relations between Asia and the West. To promote greater knowledge of the Far East, the IPR established a large research program, which was supported financially by grants from the [[Rockefeller Foundation]], the [[Carnegie Corporation]], and other major corporations. Professor Carroll Quigley said of the IPR and person associated with it, "Many of these experts which were favored by the Far East "establishment" in the Institute of Pacific Relations were captured by Communist ideology. Under its influence, they propagandized, as experts, erroneous ideas and sought to influence policy in mistaken directions." <ref>[http://sandiego.indymedia.org/media/2006/10/119975.pdf ''Tragedy and Hope: A History of the World in Our Time''], Carroll Quigley, Collier-Macmillan, 1966, pg. 936. ISBN 0-945001-10-X</ref> "[T]he whole subject is of major importance in understanding the twentieth century." <ref>''Tragedy and Hope''' Quigley, pg. 935.</ref>
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==Influence on public and policymaking==
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Prof Quigley states there is considerable truth in the contention that the American experts on China were organized into an  interlocking group of a [[Leftish]] character. It is also true that this group, from its control of funds, academic recommendations, and research of publication opportunities, could favor persons who accepted their consensus and could injure, financial or in professional advancement, persons who did not. And this group, by its influence on book reviewing in the ''[[New York Times]]'', the ''Herald Tribune'' and the ''Saturday Review'', a few magazines and professional journals, could advance or hamper any specialist's career. Porfessor Quigley goes on to state it is true these things were done in the United States by the Institute of Pacific Relations, that this organization had been [[infiltrate]]d by Communists and Communist sympathizers, and that much of this group's influence arose from its access and control over the flow of funds from financial foundations to scholarly activities.<ref>''Tragedy and Hope''' Quigley, pg. 935.</ref>
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The IPR was a private association of ten independent national councils in ten countries concerned with affairs in the Pacific. <ref>''Tragedy and Hope''' Quigley, pg. 946.</ref>
  
 
==OWI disinformation==
 
==OWI disinformation==
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==SISS investigation==
 
==SISS investigation==
  
The 1952 [[Senate Internal Security Subcommittee]] (SISS) reviewed some 20,000 documents from the files of IPR, including letters, memoranda, minutes and reports  The finding was beyond all doubt, that the IPR was a vehicle for pro-Communist leverage on American policy in China, a strikingly different conclusion than that reached by the [[Tydings Committee]].
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The 1952 [[Senate Internal Security Subcommittee]] (SISS) reviewed some 20,000 documents from the files of IPR, including letters, memoranda, minutes and reports. <ref>[http://www.archives.gov/legislative/guide/senate/chapter-13-judiciary-1947-1968.html#SISS National Archives and Records Administration, Senate Internal Security Subcommittee]</ref> The finding was beyond all doubt, that the IPR was a vehicle for pro-Communist leverage on American policy in China, a strikingly different conclusion than that reached by the [[Tydings Committee]].
  
The SISS discovered IPR was run by a circle of insiders, Edward Carter, Owen Lattimore, Frederick Field, and a few others. They were in constant communication, discussing lines of policy, materials to appear in newspapers, magazines and books, or the agenda for some impending conference. Connected to this inner cadre was a far-flung network of writers, researchers, speakers and policy experts, including a substantial number who moved back and forth among the IPR, the press corps, the academy, and the government.  Also revealed in the investigation was an extremely large number of Communists.  
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The SISS discovered IPR was run by a circle of insiders, Edward Carter, Owen Lattimore, Frederick Field, and a few others. They were in constant communication, discussing lines of policy, materials to appear in newspapers, magazines and books, or the agenda for some impending conference. Connected to this inner cadre was a far-flung network of writers, researchers, speakers and policy experts, including a substantial number who moved back and forth among the IPR, the press corps, the academy, and the government.  Also revealed in the investigation was an extremely large number of Communists. <ref>[http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?print=yes&id=455 McCarthyism: Waging the Cold War in America], by M. Stanton Evans, ''Human Events'', 05/30/1997. Updated 05/08/2003.</ref>
  
 
A list of invited attendees to an IPR conference of 1942, as recommended by Philip Jessup, revealed 30-plus individuals who had been identified under oath as members of the Communist secret apparatus. Committee counsel Robert Morris summarized the situation as follows:
 
A list of invited attendees to an IPR conference of 1942, as recommended by Philip Jessup, revealed 30-plus individuals who had been identified under oath as members of the Communist secret apparatus. Committee counsel Robert Morris summarized the situation as follows:
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:''"Indeed, the difficulty with the IPR from the Communist point of view was that it was too stuffed with Communists, too compromised by its Communist connections. [[Elizabeth Bentley]] testified that her superior in the [[CPUSA#Secret_apparatus|Soviet espionage apparatus]], [[Jacob Golos]], warned her away from the IPR because ‘it was as red as a rose, and you shouldn’t touch it with a 10-foot pole.’ "
 
:''"Indeed, the difficulty with the IPR from the Communist point of view was that it was too stuffed with Communists, too compromised by its Communist connections. [[Elizabeth Bentley]] testified that her superior in the [[CPUSA#Secret_apparatus|Soviet espionage apparatus]], [[Jacob Golos]], warned her away from the IPR because ‘it was as red as a rose, and you shouldn’t touch it with a 10-foot pole.’ "
  
:''"The IPR has been considered by the American Communist Party and by Soviet officials as an instrument of Communist policy, propaganda and [[military intelligence]]. The IPR disseminated and sought to popularize false information including information originating from Soviet and Communist sources. . . . Members of the small core of officials and staff members who controlled IPR were either Communist or pro-Communist. . . . Over a period of years, John Carter Vincent was the principal fulcrum of IPR pressure and influence in the State Department. . . . The IPR was a vehicle used by the Communists to orientate American far eastern policies toward Communist objectives. . ."
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:''"The IPR has been considered by the American Communist Party and by Soviet officials as an instrument of Communist policy, propaganda and [[military intelligence]]. The IPR disseminated and sought to popularize false information including information originating from Soviet and Communist sources. . . . Members of the small core of officials and staff members who controlled IPR were either Communist or pro-Communist. . . . Over a period of years, John Carter Vincent was the principal fulcrum of IPR pressure and influence in the State Department. . . . The IPR was a vehicle used by the Communists to orientate American far eastern policies toward Communist objectives. . ." <ref>Hearings before the Senate subcommittee investigating the Institute of Pacific Relations.</ref>
  
 
It should be noted Ozaki Hozumi was a member of [[Richard Sorge]]'s Soviet espionage ring in Tokyo during [[World War II]]. Maj. Gen. Charles A. Willoughby who was Gen. [[Douglas MacArthur]]'s chief of Intelligence in the Pacific, wrote in ''Shanghai Conspiracy'' that Guenther Stein was also a member of this ring, as was the well-known Communist writer [[Agnes Smedley]], also involved in the ''Amerasia Affair''.
 
It should be noted Ozaki Hozumi was a member of [[Richard Sorge]]'s Soviet espionage ring in Tokyo during [[World War II]]. Maj. Gen. Charles A. Willoughby who was Gen. [[Douglas MacArthur]]'s chief of Intelligence in the Pacific, wrote in ''Shanghai Conspiracy'' that Guenther Stein was also a member of this ring, as was the well-known Communist writer [[Agnes Smedley]], also involved in the ''Amerasia Affair''.
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
* ''Hearings before the Senate subcommittee investigating the Institute of Pacific Relations''
 
*[http://www.archives.gov/records_of_congress/senate_guide/chapter_13_judiciary_1947_1968.html#SISS National Archives and Records Administration, Senate Internal Security Subcommittee]
 
 
 
<references/>
 
<references/>
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
*[http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?print=yes&id=455 McCarthyism: Waging the Cold War in America], by M. Stanton Evans, ''Human Events'', 05/30/1997. Updated 05/08/2003.
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*FBI Silvermaster file, [http://education-research.org/PDFs/Silvermaster106.pdf Vol. 106, pgs. 10 - 56] pdf, April 8, 1947. 55-page report on Maynard Gertler [http://qnc.queensu.ca/gazette/3da3166a3d136.pdf] a former State Department and [[Office of Strategic Services]] employee said by the [[FBI]] to have "in his possession approximately 1,000 documents, some of which are stamped restricted, confidential and top secret." According to FBI surveillance and background checks, Gertler was a contact of Philip Dunaway, [[Maurice Halperin]], David Wahl, Bowen Smith, and others of their circle. His academic connections included Robert Brady, [[Franz Neumann]], Robert Lynd, and [[Owen Lattimore]].
 
*FBI Silvermaster file, [http://education-research.org/PDFs/Silvermaster106.pdf Vol. 106, pgs. 10 - 56] pdf, April 8, 1947. 55-page report on Maynard Gertler [http://qnc.queensu.ca/gazette/3da3166a3d136.pdf] a former State Department and [[Office of Strategic Services]] employee said by the [[FBI]] to have "in his possession approximately 1,000 documents, some of which are stamped restricted, confidential and top secret." According to FBI surveillance and background checks, Gertler was a contact of Philip Dunaway, [[Maurice Halperin]], David Wahl, Bowen Smith, and others of their circle. His academic connections included Robert Brady, [[Franz Neumann]], Robert Lynd, and [[Owen Lattimore]].
  
  
 
[[Category:Espionage]]
 
[[Category:Espionage]]

Revision as of 04:52, 16 August 2007

The Institute of Pacific Relations (IPR) was established in 1925 to provide a forum for discussion of Asian problems and relations between Asia and the West. To promote greater knowledge of the Far East, the IPR established a large research program, which was supported financially by grants from the Rockefeller Foundation, the Carnegie Corporation, and other major corporations. Professor Carroll Quigley said of the IPR and person associated with it, "Many of these experts which were favored by the Far East "establishment" in the Institute of Pacific Relations were captured by Communist ideology. Under its influence, they propagandized, as experts, erroneous ideas and sought to influence policy in mistaken directions." [1] "[T]he whole subject is of major importance in understanding the twentieth century." [2]


Influence on public and policymaking

Prof Quigley states there is considerable truth in the contention that the American experts on China were organized into an interlocking group of a Leftish character. It is also true that this group, from its control of funds, academic recommendations, and research of publication opportunities, could favor persons who accepted their consensus and could injure, financial or in professional advancement, persons who did not. And this group, by its influence on book reviewing in the New York Times, the Herald Tribune and the Saturday Review, a few magazines and professional journals, could advance or hamper any specialist's career. Porfessor Quigley goes on to state it is true these things were done in the United States by the Institute of Pacific Relations, that this organization had been infiltrated by Communists and Communist sympathizers, and that much of this group's influence arose from its access and control over the flow of funds from financial foundations to scholarly activities.[3]

The IPR was a private association of ten independent national councils in ten countries concerned with affairs in the Pacific. [4]

OWI disinformation

When, on June 15 1943, Owen Lattimore instructed Joseph Barnes[5] to replace the non-Communist Chinese of the Office of War Information (OWI) with Communists, OWI did so. On July 14 Thomas A. Bisson, in the Institute of Pacific Relations publication, Far Eastern Survey, referred to Moaist forces as the "democratic China." The disinformation was widely repeated among journalists and academics. In July and August 1943, the Chinese Communist forces -- in the midst of the war -- joined with the Japanese armies to inflict a serious defeat on the Kuomintang troops allied with the United States. [6]

"agrarian reformers"

Columbia University's Nathaniel Peffer, Owen Lattimore, Frederick Field and others, in the New York Times of May 14, 1944, wrote of China's "agrarian reformers." Vice-President Henry Wallace, celebrated July 4, 1944, in Chita, Soviet Siberia accompanied by John Hazard, Lattimore, and John Carter Vincent, on an official fifty-two-day, twenty-seven-thousand-mile junket to Soviet Asia and China and was the guest of Sergei Arsenevich Goglidze and Ivan Nikoshov, dreaded masters of the Soviet Siberian slave-labor camps.[7]

The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee (SISS) described the IPR in 1952 as "a vehicle used by Communists to orientate American Far Eastern policy toward Communist objectives."

IPR was linked closely with the Amerasia publication, sharing writers, offices, and a general policy view, and appeared to mirror the United States Department of State in matters pertaining Asian policy.

Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin repeatedly criticized IPR and its former chairman Philip Jessup. McCarthy observed Frederick V. Field, T.A. Bisson, Owen Lattimore were very active in IPR and worked to turn American China policy in favor of the Communist Party of China. John Carter Vincent, John Service, Alger Hiss, and John Paton Daviesall had links to IPR. Jessup in 1949 was the principal editor of the State Department "white paper" on China that abandoned Chiang Kai-chek and the Nationalist Chinese governmemnt.

SISS investigation

The 1952 Senate Internal Security Subcommittee (SISS) reviewed some 20,000 documents from the files of IPR, including letters, memoranda, minutes and reports. [8] The finding was beyond all doubt, that the IPR was a vehicle for pro-Communist leverage on American policy in China, a strikingly different conclusion than that reached by the Tydings Committee.

The SISS discovered IPR was run by a circle of insiders, Edward Carter, Owen Lattimore, Frederick Field, and a few others. They were in constant communication, discussing lines of policy, materials to appear in newspapers, magazines and books, or the agenda for some impending conference. Connected to this inner cadre was a far-flung network of writers, researchers, speakers and policy experts, including a substantial number who moved back and forth among the IPR, the press corps, the academy, and the government. Also revealed in the investigation was an extremely large number of Communists. [9]

A list of invited attendees to an IPR conference of 1942, as recommended by Philip Jessup, revealed 30-plus individuals who had been identified under oath as members of the Communist secret apparatus. Committee counsel Robert Morris summarized the situation as follows:

"In reply to [a] question about the 10 people who have been identified as part of the Communist organization on that . . . list recommended by Mr. Jessup, I will point out that we have had testimony that Benjamin Kizer was a member of the Communist Party, testimony that Lauchlin Currie was associated with an espionage ring and gave vital military secrets to the Russian espionage system, the military secret being, in one case, the fact that the United States had broken the Soviet code. . . .
"John Carter Vincent has been identified as a member; Harry Dexter White as a member of an espionage ring; Owen Lattimore as a member of the Communist organization; Len DeCaux as a member of the Communist Party; Alger Hiss as a member of the Communist Party; Joseph Barnes as a member of the Communist Party; Frederick V. Field as a member of the Communist Party; and Frank Coe as a member of the Communist Party."

In the final report the SISS reported:

"The IPR itself was like a specialized political flypaper in its attractive power for Communists. . . . British Communists like Michael Greenberg, Elsie Fairfax-Cholmeley or Anthony Jenkinson; Chinese Communists like Chi Chao-ting, Chen Han-seng, Chu Tong, Y.Y. Hsu; German Communists like Hans Moeller (Asiaticus) or Guenther Stein; Japanese Communists (and espionage agents) like Saionji and Ozaki (Hozumi); United States Communists like James S. Allen, Frederick V. Field, William M. Mandel, Harriet Moore, Lawrence Rosinger, and Alger Hiss.
"Indeed, the difficulty with the IPR from the Communist point of view was that it was too stuffed with Communists, too compromised by its Communist connections. Elizabeth Bentley testified that her superior in the Soviet espionage apparatus, Jacob Golos, warned her away from the IPR because ‘it was as red as a rose, and you shouldn’t touch it with a 10-foot pole.’ "
"The IPR has been considered by the American Communist Party and by Soviet officials as an instrument of Communist policy, propaganda and military intelligence. The IPR disseminated and sought to popularize false information including information originating from Soviet and Communist sources. . . . Members of the small core of officials and staff members who controlled IPR were either Communist or pro-Communist. . . . Over a period of years, John Carter Vincent was the principal fulcrum of IPR pressure and influence in the State Department. . . . The IPR was a vehicle used by the Communists to orientate American far eastern policies toward Communist objectives. . ." [10]

It should be noted Ozaki Hozumi was a member of Richard Sorge's Soviet espionage ring in Tokyo during World War II. Maj. Gen. Charles A. Willoughby who was Gen. Douglas MacArthur's chief of Intelligence in the Pacific, wrote in Shanghai Conspiracy that Guenther Stein was also a member of this ring, as was the well-known Communist writer Agnes Smedley, also involved in the Amerasia Affair.

References

  1. Tragedy and Hope: A History of the World in Our Time, Carroll Quigley, Collier-Macmillan, 1966, pg. 936. ISBN 0-945001-10-X
  2. Tragedy and Hope' Quigley, pg. 935.
  3. Tragedy and Hope' Quigley, pg. 935.
  4. Tragedy and Hope' Quigley, pg. 946.
  5. Tongue-Tied, Time magazine, Feb. 07, 1944.
  6. The Yalta Betrayal, Felix Wittmer, Caxton Printers, 1953, pg. 36.
  7. Yalta Betrayal, Wittmer, 1953, pg. 58. Retrieved from GELO.com of Czechoslovakia 05/08/07.
  8. National Archives and Records Administration, Senate Internal Security Subcommittee
  9. McCarthyism: Waging the Cold War in America, by M. Stanton Evans, Human Events, 05/30/1997. Updated 05/08/2003.
  10. Hearings before the Senate subcommittee investigating the Institute of Pacific Relations.

External links

  • FBI Silvermaster file, Vol. 106, pgs. 10 - 56 pdf, April 8, 1947. 55-page report on Maynard Gertler [1] a former State Department and Office of Strategic Services employee said by the FBI to have "in his possession approximately 1,000 documents, some of which are stamped restricted, confidential and top secret." According to FBI surveillance and background checks, Gertler was a contact of Philip Dunaway, Maurice Halperin, David Wahl, Bowen Smith, and others of their circle. His academic connections included Robert Brady, Franz Neumann, Robert Lynd, and Owen Lattimore.