Difference between revisions of "Great Flood"

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[[Image:Michelangeloflood.jpg|thumb|300px|right|''The Flood'', by Michaelangelo, detail from the [[Sistine Chapel]], 1509.]]
 
[[Image:Michelangeloflood.jpg|thumb|300px|right|''The Flood'', by Michaelangelo, detail from the [[Sistine Chapel]], 1509.]]
Cultures around the world record a world-destroying '''flood''' in their oral or written histories. Dr. [[John Morris]] wrote regarding the existence of a past worldwide flood the following: "One of the strongest evidences for the global flood which annihilated all people on [[Earth]] except for [[Noah]] and his family, has been the ubiquitous presence of flood legends in the folklore of people groups from around the world. And the stories are all so similar."  <ref>http://www.icr.org/article/570/</ref> Today 60% of [[Americans]] accept as true the [[Bible|Biblical]] account of the Great Flood,<ref>http://www.washtimes.com/national/20040216-113955-2061r.htm</ref> and the olive branch returned by a dove to the Ark after the Flood is universally recognized as a symbol of peace.
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{{cquote|'''Genesis 6:13'''<br />...The end of all flesh has come before Me; for the earth is filled with violence because of them; and behold, I am about to destroy them with the earth.}}
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The '''Great Flood''' refers to the most catastrophic [[flood]] that has ever taken place in human history. This flood was the means of [[God]]'s judgment on the evil of the hearts and actions of mankind at the time.
  
==The Flood accounts==
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God warned [[Noah]] that He was going to destroy the world with a flood, because of the wickedness of mankind. Noah was to build an [[Noah's Ark|ark]] and take his family and some animals in it in order to be saved from the flood.
The best known of the flood accounts are, firstly, the one found in the book of [[Genesis]], and secondly, the one found in the [[Gilgamesh Epic]].
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Both are written accounts.
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The Genesis account is the most detailed of any of the accounts, and the one against which others are usually compared.
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It has also been studied the most, with a number of terms used in reference to it, including the '''Flood''', '''Noah's Flood''', the '''Deluge''', the '''Great Flood''', and the '''Noahic flood'''.
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The terms ''pre-diluvian'' and ''post-diluvian'' are used to refer to the times before and after the flood respectively.
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A table comparing specific details in a number of different flood accounts can be found [http://www.creationontheweb.com/content/view/3107 here].
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After Noah and his family and all the creatures were on board, God shut the door of the ark. The flood was brought on by the bursting open of the ''fountains of the great deep'' and the opening of ''the floodgates of the sky''. The rain lasted nearly six weeks (40 days and nights). The flood waters apparently continued to rise for 150 days, but it was just over a year before the waters had receded enough for the occupants of the ark to leave.
  
==The Genesis account==
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The ark came to rest on one of the mountains of [[Ararat]]. God put a [[rainbow]] in the clouds as a sign that he would never again destroy the world in a flood.<ref>Genesis does not say that this was the first ever rainbow.</ref>
The Genesis account is the most detailed account.
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In it, God warned Noah that He was going to destroy the world with a flood, because of the wickedness of mankind. Noah was to build an ark and take on it his family and representatives of all air-breathing, land-dwelling creatures.  The ark was to be 300 cubits long by 50 cubits wide by 30 cubits high<ref>''Genesis'' 6:15</ref> (approximately 450 feet long, by 75 feet wide, by 45 feet high), have three decks, and rooms.
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God brought the animals and birds to Noah, and there were two of the "[[unclean (animals)|unclean]]" animals and seven (or seven pairs) of the "[[clean (animals)|clean]]".
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== Flood accounts ==
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Peoples around the world record a world-destroying '''flood''' in their oral or written histories. Dr. [[John Morris]] wrote regarding the existence of a past worldwide flood the following: "One of the strongest evidences for the global flood which annihilated all people on [[Earth]] except for [[Noah]] and his family, has been the ubiquitous presence of flood legends in the folklore of people groups from around the world. And the stories are all so similar."<ref>http://www.icr.org/article/570/</ref> Today 60% of [[Americans]] accept as true the [[Bible|Biblical]] account of the Great Flood,<ref>http://www.washtimes.com/national/20040216-113955-2061r.htm</ref> and the olive branch returned by a dove to the Ark after the Flood is universally recognized as a symbol of peace.
  
After Noah and his family and all the creatures were on board, God shut the door of the ark.
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The best known of the flood accounts is, firstly, the biblical account in [[Genesis]], and secondly, the one found in the [[Gilgamesh Epic]]. Both are written accounts. The Genesis account is the most detailed of any of the accounts, and the one against which others are usually compared. It has also been studied the most, with a number of terms used in reference to it, including ''the Flood'', ''Noah's Flood'', ''the Deluge'', ''the Great Flood'', and ''the Noahic flood''.
The flood was brought on by the eruption of subterranean water ("''the fountains of the deep were opened''"), and rain.
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The terms ''pre-diluvian'' and ''post-diluvian'' refer to the times prior to and following the flood event, respectively.
The rain lasted nearly six weeks (40 days and nights).
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The flood waters apparently continued to rise for 150 days, but it was just over a year before the waters had receded enough for the occupants of the ark to leave.
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The ark is recorded as having come to rest on the mountains of [[Ararat]], taken by many today to be the existing mountains of that name.
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A table comparing specific details in a number of different flood accounts can be found [http://www.creationontheweb.com/content/view/3107 here].
God put a [[rainbow]] in the clouds, and said that it was to be a reminder that he would never again destroy the world in a flood. (Genesis does not say that this was the first ever rainbow.)
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He also told Noah that it was now okay to eat meat.
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==The Gilgamesh Epic account==
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=== Gilgamesh Epic ===
The council of the gods decided to destroy mankind with a flood, but Utnapishtim was warned by the god who had made man, Ea, to build a boat to take all living beings. The length, width, and height were each 120 cubits (about 180 feet). It had seven stories.
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The council of the gods decided to destroy mankind with a flood, but Utnapishtim was warned by the god who had made man, Ea, to build a boat to take all living beings. The length, width, and height were each 120 cubits (about 180 feet). It had seven stories.
  
 
The gods got frightened by the flood and retreated to heaven where they cowered and wept.
 
The gods got frightened by the flood and retreated to heaven where they cowered and wept.
 
The flood lasted six days and seven nights, and was accompanied by wind and storm.
 
The flood lasted six days and seven nights, and was accompanied by wind and storm.
Utnapishtim send out a dove followed by a swallow, but both returned, unable to find land. He then sent a raven, which didn't return.
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Utnapishtim send out a dove followed by a swallow, but both returned, unable to find land. He then sent a raven, which didn't return.
  
 
Dr. Jonathan Sarfati comments on the Gilgamesh Epic:
 
Dr. Jonathan Sarfati comments on the Gilgamesh Epic:
 
:It is common to make legends out of historical events, but not history from legends. ... For instance, in Genesis, God’s judgment is just, he is patient with mankind for 120 years (Genesis 6:3), shows mercy to Noah, and is sovereign. Conversely, the gods in the Gilgamesh Epic are capricious and squabbling, cower at the Flood and are famished without humans to feed them sacrifices. That is, the human writers of the Gilgamesh Epic rewrote the true account, and made their gods in their own image.<ref Name="JS_GE" />
 
:It is common to make legends out of historical events, but not history from legends. ... For instance, in Genesis, God’s judgment is just, he is patient with mankind for 120 years (Genesis 6:3), shows mercy to Noah, and is sovereign. Conversely, the gods in the Gilgamesh Epic are capricious and squabbling, cower at the Flood and are famished without humans to feed them sacrifices. That is, the human writers of the Gilgamesh Epic rewrote the true account, and made their gods in their own image.<ref Name="JS_GE" />
  
==Other ancient references==
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=== Common Themes in Flood Accounts ===
The [[Assyrian]] King [[Ashurbanipal]], who lived in the seventh century B.C., recorded, "I have read intricate tablets inscribed with obscure [[Sumerian]] or [[Akkadian]]...inscriptions on stone from before the Flood."<ref>[http://everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=1032092 Ashurbanipal]<!-- this may not be the best reference for this.--></ref>
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There are parallel themes going through most of the accounts of the Great Flood. Here are some of them.
  
==Common Themes for Flood Accounts==
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==== Cause ====
===Cause===
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Many of the accounts say that the flood was caused by God or some equivalent being.
 
Many of the accounts say that the flood was caused by God or some equivalent being.
 
In Genesis, it was Yahweh<ref>Genesis 6:3</ref>.
 
In Genesis, it was Yahweh<ref>Genesis 6:3</ref>.
In the Gilgamesh Epic, it was the council of the gods <ref Name="JS_GE">[http://www.creationontheweb.com/content/view/3107 Noah’s Flood and the Gilgamesh Epic] by Jonathan Sarfati, ''Creation'', vol. 28 No. 4 pp.12-17</ref>.
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In the Gilgamesh Epic, it was the council of the gods<ref Name="JS_GE">[http://www.creationontheweb.com/content/view/3107 Noah’s Flood and the Gilgamesh Epic] by Jonathan Sarfati, ''Creation'', vol. 28 No. 4 pp.12-17</ref>.
In the Bundaba (Australian aboriginal) flood story, it was Ngowungu, the Great Father. <ref>[http://www.creationontheweb.com/content/view/1468 Australian Aboriginal Flood Stories], ''Creation'' Vol. 5 No. 1, pp. 6-9.</ref>
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In the Bundaba (Australian aboriginal) flood story, it was Ngowungu, the Great Father.<ref>[http://www.creationontheweb.com/content/view/1468 Australian Aboriginal Flood Stories], ''Creation'' Vol. 5 No. 1, pp. 6-9.</ref>
 
The Greeks recorded it as being [[Zeus]].<ref name="Greek">[http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/flood-myths.html#Greek Greek], in ''Flood Stories from Around the World'' by Mark Isaak.</ref>
 
The Greeks recorded it as being [[Zeus]].<ref name="Greek">[http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/flood-myths.html#Greek Greek], in ''Flood Stories from Around the World'' by Mark Isaak.</ref>
  
===Purpose===
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==== Purpose ====
 
When the cause of the flood is attributed to a god, the reason is frequently said to be for [[mankind]]'s wickedness.
 
When the cause of the flood is attributed to a god, the reason is frequently said to be for [[mankind]]'s wickedness.
 
Genesis adds that "every inclination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil all the time".<ref>Genesis 6:5 (NIV)</ref>
 
Genesis adds that "every inclination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil all the time".<ref>Genesis 6:5 (NIV)</ref>
 
The Miao account from China says, in verse, "These did not God's will nor returned His affection. / But fought with each other defying the Godhead. / Their leaders shook fists in the face of the Mighty."<ref>[http://www.icr.org/index.php?module=articles&action=view&ID=341 Genesis According to the Miao People], by Edgar A. Truax, ''Impact'', April 1991</ref>
 
The Miao account from China says, in verse, "These did not God's will nor returned His affection. / But fought with each other defying the Godhead. / Their leaders shook fists in the face of the Mighty."<ref>[http://www.icr.org/index.php?module=articles&action=view&ID=341 Genesis According to the Miao People], by Edgar A. Truax, ''Impact'', April 1991</ref>
A Navajo account says that it was because of "their sins of adultery and constant quarreling". <ref>[http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/flood-myths.html#Navajo Navajo (Four Corners area)], in ''Flood Stories from Around the World'' by Mark Isaak</ref>
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A Navajo account says that it was because of "their sins of adultery and constant quarreling".<ref>[http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/flood-myths.html#Navajo Navajo (Four Corners area)], in ''Flood Stories from Around the World'' by Mark Isaak</ref>
  
===What saved the people===
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==== What saved the people ====
People were generally saved either by floating out the flood, or fleeing to the top of a mountain. In the former case, the vessel took a variety of forms.
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People were generally saved either by floating out the flood, or fleeing to the top of a mountain. In the former case, the vessel took a variety of forms.
 
A Hopi Indian story has them surviving in the hollow stems of giant reeds<ref name="Hopi">[http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/flood-myths.html#Hopi Hopi], in ''Flood Stories from Around the World'' by Mark Isaak.</ref>
 
A Hopi Indian story has them surviving in the hollow stems of giant reeds<ref name="Hopi">[http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/flood-myths.html#Hopi Hopi], in ''Flood Stories from Around the World'' by Mark Isaak.</ref>
The Greek story has them surviving in a chest. <Ref name="Greek" />
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The Greek story has them surviving in a chest.<Ref name="Greek" />
 
In Genesis, Noah was instructed by God to build an ark to dimensions and other specifications included in the account.
 
In Genesis, Noah was instructed by God to build an ark to dimensions and other specifications included in the account.
  
===Who was saved?===
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==== Who was saved? ====
 
The survivors were often a single family.
 
The survivors were often a single family.
 
An Australian aboriginal account has Ngadgja, the Supreme One, telling Gajara to take his wife, his sons, and his sons' wives.<ref name="Wunambal">[http://www.creationontheweb.com/content/view/1467 Aboriginal Flood Legend], by Howard Coates, ''Creation'' Vol. 4 No.3, pp.9-12</ref>
 
An Australian aboriginal account has Ngadgja, the Supreme One, telling Gajara to take his wife, his sons, and his sons' wives.<ref name="Wunambal">[http://www.creationontheweb.com/content/view/1467 Aboriginal Flood Legend], by Howard Coates, ''Creation'' Vol. 4 No.3, pp.9-12</ref>
 
The Masai account from East Africa has Tumbainot taking his two wives, his six sons, and their wives.<ref name="Masai">[http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/flood-myths.html#Masai Masai (East Africa)], in ''Flood Stories from Around the World'' by Mark Isaak.</ref>
 
The Masai account from East Africa has Tumbainot taking his two wives, his six sons, and their wives.<ref name="Masai">[http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/flood-myths.html#Masai Masai (East Africa)], in ''Flood Stories from Around the World'' by Mark Isaak.</ref>
A Hawaiian story has Nuu taking his wife and three sons. <ref name="Hawaii">[http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/flood-myths.html#Hawaii Hawaii], in ''Flood Stories from Around the World'' by Mark Isaak.</ref>
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A Hawaiian story has Nuu taking his wife and three sons.<ref name="Hawaii">[http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/flood-myths.html#Hawaii Hawaii], in ''Flood Stories from Around the World'' by Mark Isaak.</ref>
 
Noah took his wife, his three sons, and their wives.<ref>Genesis 7:13</ref>
 
Noah took his wife, his three sons, and their wives.<ref>Genesis 7:13</ref>
  
===Birds sent out===
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==== Birds sent out ====
 
Genesis describes Noah sending out birds to see if there was yet dry land.<ref>Genesis 8:6-12</ref>
 
Genesis describes Noah sending out birds to see if there was yet dry land.<ref>Genesis 8:6-12</ref>
Initially this was unsuccessful, but a subsequent attempt was successful when a dove didn't return. In the Hopi account also, they unsuccessfully sent out birds to find land.<ref name="Hopi" />
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Initially this was unsuccessful, but a subsequent attempt was successful when a dove didn't return. In the Hopi account also, they unsuccessfully sent out birds to find land.<ref name="Hopi" />
 
An Australian aboriginal account has a cuckoo not returning because it found land.<ref name="Wunambal" />
 
An Australian aboriginal account has a cuckoo not returning because it found land.<ref name="Wunambal" />
 
The Masai account has Tumbainot sending out a dove, which returned because it had no place to rest.<ref name="Masai" />
 
The Masai account has Tumbainot sending out a dove, which returned because it had no place to rest.<ref name="Masai" />
  
===A rainbow===
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==== A rainbow ====
 
The Masai account has four rainbows signifying that God's wrath was over.<ref name="Masai" />
 
The Masai account has four rainbows signifying that God's wrath was over.<ref name="Masai" />
 
A Hawaiian account has the god Kane leaving a rainbow as a perpetual sign of his forgiveness.<ref name="Hawaii" />
 
A Hawaiian account has the god Kane leaving a rainbow as a perpetual sign of his forgiveness.<ref name="Hawaii" />
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Genesis says that the rainbow would be a reminder that God would never again destroy the world with a flood.<ref>Genesis 9:12-17</ref>  
 
Genesis says that the rainbow would be a reminder that God would never again destroy the world with a flood.<ref>Genesis 9:12-17</ref>  
  
===Criticisms===
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==== Criticisms ====
''See also criticism in [[Noah's Ark#Controversy|Noah's Ark]] and [[Flood Geology#Controversy|Flood Geology]].
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:''See more criticisms in the article on [[Noah's Ark#Criticisms|Noah's Ark]] and [[Flood Geology#Controversy|Flood Geology]].''
 
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Critics of the global flood suggest that the flood accounts are unrelated accounts of local floods, or stories influenced by the arrival of missionaries.
 
Critics of the global flood suggest that the flood accounts are unrelated accounts of local floods, or stories influenced by the arrival of missionaries.
  
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And Murray Adamthwaite responds regarding the missionary influence, "''...that explanation fails since in many cases secular anthropologists gathered the stories before missionaries reached these tribes with the Gospel. In other cases missionaries have related how they indeed told the story of Noah, only to find that the tribal folk already had a similar tale in their own legends.''"<ref>[http://www.creationontheweb.com/content/view/2538 Animals, a Deluge and Noah’s Ark]</ref>
 
And Murray Adamthwaite responds regarding the missionary influence, "''...that explanation fails since in many cases secular anthropologists gathered the stories before missionaries reached these tribes with the Gospel. In other cases missionaries have related how they indeed told the story of Noah, only to find that the tribal folk already had a similar tale in their own legends.''"<ref>[http://www.creationontheweb.com/content/view/2538 Animals, a Deluge and Noah’s Ark]</ref>
  
==Modern explanations==
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== Other ancient references ==
===Black Sea theory===
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The [[Assyrian]] King [[Ashurbanipal]], who lived in the seventh century B.C., recorded, "I have read intricate tablets inscribed with obscure [[Sumerian]] or [[Akkadian]]...inscriptions on stone from before the Flood."<ref>[http://everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=1032092 Ashurbanipal]<!-- this may not be the best reference for this.--></ref>
In 2000, explorers discovered evidence that humans lived where the [[Black Sea]] now is and speculated the sea was created during a great flood <ref>http://archives.cnn.com/2000/NATURE/09/13/great.flood.finds.ap/</ref>.  Dr. Robert Ballard expanded on this theory, postulating that the Black Sea was much lower during the [[Ice Age]] (including the finding of a beach thousands of feet underwater), and when the walls holding back the [[Mediterranean Sea]] at the Bosporus broke, the sea rushed in and drowned the inhabitants; those who survived told the tale orally, and according to Ballard this became the basis for the flood accounts of Genesis and Gilgamesh <ref>http://www.nationalgeographic.com/blacksea/ax/frame.html</ref>.  This theory is for a local flood, and not the world-wide flood as recorded in Genesis and many other cultural traditions.  It also doesn't fit with many other details of the Genesis account.<ref>[http://www.creationontheweb.com/content/view/3392 Proof of Noah's Flood at the Black Sea?] by Creation Ministries International.</ref>
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===Crustal Displacement Theory===
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== Modern explanations ==
In ''When the sky fell: In search of Atlantis'' (1996), Rand Flem Ath <ref>http://www.flem-ath.com</ref> expanded on Professor [[Charles Hapgood]]'s theory of crustal displacement whereby the entire earth's crust moved with respect to the core. The suggested date for this was about 10,000 years BC. If a displacement had occurred then it would have caused enormous disruption to the the earth's oceans with massive tsunamis and heavy rain. Although the book was nominally about the disappearance of [[Atlantis]], the theory of crustal displacement not only explains the discrepancies in ice thickness in [[Greenland]] and [[Antarctica]] but also the sudden demise of the [[mammoth]]s. This theory could also potentially explain the widespread existence of flood accounts throughout different cultures.
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=== Black Sea theory ===
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In 2000, explorers discovered evidence that humans lived where the [[Black Sea]] now is and speculated the sea was created during a great flood<ref>http://archives.cnn.com/2000/NATURE/09/13/great.flood.finds.ap/</ref>. Dr. Robert Ballard expanded on this theory, postulating that the Black Sea was much lower during the [[Ice Age]] (including the finding of a beach thousands of feet underwater), and when the walls holding back the [[Mediterranean Sea]] at the Bosporus broke, the sea rushed in and drowned the inhabitants; those who survived told the tale orally, and according to Ballard this became the basis for the flood accounts of Genesis and Gilgamesh<ref>http://www.nationalgeographic.com/blacksea/ax/frame.html</ref>. This theory is for a local flood, and not the world-wide flood as recorded in Genesis and many other cultural traditions. It also doesn't fit with many other details of the Genesis account.<ref>[http://www.creationontheweb.com/content/view/3392 Proof of Noah's Flood at the Black Sea?] by Creation Ministries International.</ref>
  
==Flood geology==
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=== Crustal Displacement Theory ===
''See main article: [[Flood Geology]]''
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In ''When the sky fell: In search of Atlantis'' (1996), Rand Flem Ath<ref>http://www.flem-ath.com</ref> expanded on Professor [[Charles Hapgood]]'s theory of crustal displacement whereby the entire earth's crust moved with respect to the core. The suggested date for this was about 10,000 years BC. If a displacement had occurred then it would have caused enormous disruption to the the earth's oceans with massive tsunamis and heavy rain. Although the book was nominally about the disappearance of [[Atlantis]], the theory of crustal displacement not only explains the discrepancies in ice thickness in [[Greenland]] and [[Antarctica]] but also the sudden demise of the [[mammoth]]s. This theory could also potentially explain the widespread existence of flood accounts throughout different cultures.
  
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==Flood geology==
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:''Main article: [[Flood Geology]]''
 
Flood geology is the study of the Earth's geology from the point of view that the Genesis account is true and accurate, and that evidence of the Flood can be found in the [[geology]] of the Earth.
 
Flood geology is the study of the Earth's geology from the point of view that the Genesis account is true and accurate, and that evidence of the Flood can be found in the [[geology]] of the Earth.
  
Until the rise of [[uniformitarian]] geology in the early 19th century, most geologists accepted the Noahic deluge as part of geology.
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Until the rise of [[uniformitarian]] geology in the early 19th century, most geologists accepted the Noahic deluge as part of geology. But [[James Hutton]] proposed in 1795 that geology ought to be based on the processes that we see happening now, thereby automatically ruling the Flood out of consideration. During the 19th century a number of "[[scriptural geologists]]" held out against the rising acceptance of Hutton's principles,<ref>The Great Turning Point, by Terry Mortenson. See also a series of articles in the ''Journal of Creation'', commencing with "British scriptural geologists in the first half of the nineteenth century: part 1" by Terry Mortenson, ''Journal of Creation'' Vol. 11 No. 2 pp. 221-252.</ref> but they fought a losing battle and interest in flood geology virtually died out by the end of the 19th century.
But [[James Hutton]] proposed in 1795 that geology ought to be based on the processes that we see happening now, thereby automatically ruling the Flood out of consideration.
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During the 19th century a number of "[[scriptural geologists]]" held out against the rising acceptance of Hutton's principles,<ref>The Great Turning Point, by Terry Mortenson. See also a series of articles in the ''Journal of Creation'', commencing with "British scriptural geologists in the first half of the nineteenth century: part 1" by Terry Mortenson, ''Journal of Creation'' Vol. 11 No. 2 pp. 221-252.</ref> but they fought a losing battle and interest in flood geology virtually died out by the end of the 19th century.
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However, in the second half of the 20th century, interest was revived amongst people keen to show that the biblical account was correct, and a small but growing number of geologists are now studying this field again, although the vast majority of geologists still reject the idea of a global flood on Earth.
 
However, in the second half of the 20th century, interest was revived amongst people keen to show that the biblical account was correct, and a small but growing number of geologists are now studying this field again, although the vast majority of geologists still reject the idea of a global flood on Earth.
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===Creationist Scientists Defense of Flood Geology ===
 
===Creationist Scientists Defense of Flood Geology ===
Creationist scientists assert that there are multiple lines of evidence from the field of geology showing that flood geology is correct. <ref>http://www.answersingenesis.org/home/area/faq/geology.asp</ref> <ref>http://www.creationism.org/topbar/geology.htm</ref> <ref>http://www.grisda.org/georpts/gr11.htm</ref> <ref>http://www.nwcreation.net/geologylinks.html</ref> <ref>http://globalflood.org/</ref> Creationist scientists also state that there was enough water to cause a worldwide flood and various other objections to a worldwide flood are invalid. <ref>http://www.answersingenesis.org/Home/Area/AnswersBook/flood12.asp</ref> <ref>http://www.answersingenesis.org/home/area/faq/flood.asp</ref>
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Creationist scientists assert that there are multiple lines of evidence from the field of geology showing that flood geology is correct.<ref>http://www.answersingenesis.org/home/area/faq/geology.asp</ref><ref>http://www.creationism.org/topbar/geology.htm</ref><ref>http://www.grisda.org/georpts/gr11.htm</ref><ref>http://www.nwcreation.net/geologylinks.html</ref><ref>http://globalflood.org/</ref> Creationist scientists also state that there was enough water to cause a worldwide flood and various other objections to a worldwide flood are invalid.<ref>http://www.answersingenesis.org/Home/Area/AnswersBook/flood12.asp</ref><ref>http://www.answersingenesis.org/home/area/faq/flood.asp</ref>
  
 
==External Links==
 
==External Links==
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==References==
 
==References==
<references />
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{{reflist|2}}
  
[[category:geology]]
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[[Category:Geology]]
[[category:religion]]
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[[Category:Natural Disasters]]
[[category:history]]
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[[Category:History]]
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[[Category:Ancient History]]
 
[[Category:Book of Genesis]]
 
[[Category:Book of Genesis]]

Revision as of 04:58, 23 June 2008

The Flood, by Michaelangelo, detail from the Sistine Chapel, 1509.
Genesis 6:13
...The end of all flesh has come before Me; for the earth is filled with violence because of them; and behold, I am about to destroy them with the earth.

The Great Flood refers to the most catastrophic flood that has ever taken place in human history. This flood was the means of God's judgment on the evil of the hearts and actions of mankind at the time.

God warned Noah that He was going to destroy the world with a flood, because of the wickedness of mankind. Noah was to build an ark and take his family and some animals in it in order to be saved from the flood.

After Noah and his family and all the creatures were on board, God shut the door of the ark. The flood was brought on by the bursting open of the fountains of the great deep and the opening of the floodgates of the sky. The rain lasted nearly six weeks (40 days and nights). The flood waters apparently continued to rise for 150 days, but it was just over a year before the waters had receded enough for the occupants of the ark to leave.

The ark came to rest on one of the mountains of Ararat. God put a rainbow in the clouds as a sign that he would never again destroy the world in a flood.[1]

Flood accounts

Peoples around the world record a world-destroying flood in their oral or written histories. Dr. John Morris wrote regarding the existence of a past worldwide flood the following: "One of the strongest evidences for the global flood which annihilated all people on Earth except for Noah and his family, has been the ubiquitous presence of flood legends in the folklore of people groups from around the world. And the stories are all so similar."[2] Today 60% of Americans accept as true the Biblical account of the Great Flood,[3] and the olive branch returned by a dove to the Ark after the Flood is universally recognized as a symbol of peace.

The best known of the flood accounts is, firstly, the biblical account in Genesis, and secondly, the one found in the Gilgamesh Epic. Both are written accounts. The Genesis account is the most detailed of any of the accounts, and the one against which others are usually compared. It has also been studied the most, with a number of terms used in reference to it, including the Flood, Noah's Flood, the Deluge, the Great Flood, and the Noahic flood. The terms pre-diluvian and post-diluvian refer to the times prior to and following the flood event, respectively.

A table comparing specific details in a number of different flood accounts can be found here.

Gilgamesh Epic

The council of the gods decided to destroy mankind with a flood, but Utnapishtim was warned by the god who had made man, Ea, to build a boat to take all living beings. The length, width, and height were each 120 cubits (about 180 feet). It had seven stories.

The gods got frightened by the flood and retreated to heaven where they cowered and wept. The flood lasted six days and seven nights, and was accompanied by wind and storm. Utnapishtim send out a dove followed by a swallow, but both returned, unable to find land. He then sent a raven, which didn't return.

Dr. Jonathan Sarfati comments on the Gilgamesh Epic:

It is common to make legends out of historical events, but not history from legends. ... For instance, in Genesis, God’s judgment is just, he is patient with mankind for 120 years (Genesis 6:3), shows mercy to Noah, and is sovereign. Conversely, the gods in the Gilgamesh Epic are capricious and squabbling, cower at the Flood and are famished without humans to feed them sacrifices. That is, the human writers of the Gilgamesh Epic rewrote the true account, and made their gods in their own image.[4]

Common Themes in Flood Accounts

There are parallel themes going through most of the accounts of the Great Flood. Here are some of them.

Cause

Many of the accounts say that the flood was caused by God or some equivalent being. In Genesis, it was Yahweh[5]. In the Gilgamesh Epic, it was the council of the gods[4]. In the Bundaba (Australian aboriginal) flood story, it was Ngowungu, the Great Father.[6] The Greeks recorded it as being Zeus.[7]

Purpose

When the cause of the flood is attributed to a god, the reason is frequently said to be for mankind's wickedness. Genesis adds that "every inclination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil all the time".[8] The Miao account from China says, in verse, "These did not God's will nor returned His affection. / But fought with each other defying the Godhead. / Their leaders shook fists in the face of the Mighty."[9] A Navajo account says that it was because of "their sins of adultery and constant quarreling".[10]

What saved the people

People were generally saved either by floating out the flood, or fleeing to the top of a mountain. In the former case, the vessel took a variety of forms. A Hopi Indian story has them surviving in the hollow stems of giant reeds[11] The Greek story has them surviving in a chest.[7] In Genesis, Noah was instructed by God to build an ark to dimensions and other specifications included in the account.

Who was saved?

The survivors were often a single family. An Australian aboriginal account has Ngadgja, the Supreme One, telling Gajara to take his wife, his sons, and his sons' wives.[12] The Masai account from East Africa has Tumbainot taking his two wives, his six sons, and their wives.[13] A Hawaiian story has Nuu taking his wife and three sons.[14] Noah took his wife, his three sons, and their wives.[15]

Birds sent out

Genesis describes Noah sending out birds to see if there was yet dry land.[16] Initially this was unsuccessful, but a subsequent attempt was successful when a dove didn't return. In the Hopi account also, they unsuccessfully sent out birds to find land.[11] An Australian aboriginal account has a cuckoo not returning because it found land.[12] The Masai account has Tumbainot sending out a dove, which returned because it had no place to rest.[13]

A rainbow

The Masai account has four rainbows signifying that God's wrath was over.[13] A Hawaiian account has the god Kane leaving a rainbow as a perpetual sign of his forgiveness.[14] From an Australian aboriginal story comes this account:

Ngadja, the Supreme Being, put the rainbow in the sky to keep the rain-clouds back. The rainbow lies bent across the sky; he ties up the clouds behind it and the rain does not come. The rainbow keeps the clouds back and protects us so that the rainfall does not rise too high. Our people understand the significance of it. When we see the rainbow we say, ‘There will not be any abnormally heavy rain.’[12]

Genesis says that the rainbow would be a reminder that God would never again destroy the world with a flood.[17]

Criticisms

See more criticisms in the article on Noah's Ark and Flood Geology.

Critics of the global flood suggest that the flood accounts are unrelated accounts of local floods, or stories influenced by the arrival of missionaries.

However, Nozomi Osanai responds that "...the detailed nature of the widely spread statements has common elements to the Bible. In fact, even people who live far from the sea or in mountainous areas have flood traditions which are similar to the Genesis account."[18]

And Murray Adamthwaite responds regarding the missionary influence, "...that explanation fails since in many cases secular anthropologists gathered the stories before missionaries reached these tribes with the Gospel. In other cases missionaries have related how they indeed told the story of Noah, only to find that the tribal folk already had a similar tale in their own legends."[19]

Other ancient references

The Assyrian King Ashurbanipal, who lived in the seventh century B.C., recorded, "I have read intricate tablets inscribed with obscure Sumerian or Akkadian...inscriptions on stone from before the Flood."[20]

Modern explanations

Black Sea theory

In 2000, explorers discovered evidence that humans lived where the Black Sea now is and speculated the sea was created during a great flood[21]. Dr. Robert Ballard expanded on this theory, postulating that the Black Sea was much lower during the Ice Age (including the finding of a beach thousands of feet underwater), and when the walls holding back the Mediterranean Sea at the Bosporus broke, the sea rushed in and drowned the inhabitants; those who survived told the tale orally, and according to Ballard this became the basis for the flood accounts of Genesis and Gilgamesh[22]. This theory is for a local flood, and not the world-wide flood as recorded in Genesis and many other cultural traditions. It also doesn't fit with many other details of the Genesis account.[23]

Crustal Displacement Theory

In When the sky fell: In search of Atlantis (1996), Rand Flem Ath[24] expanded on Professor Charles Hapgood's theory of crustal displacement whereby the entire earth's crust moved with respect to the core. The suggested date for this was about 10,000 years BC. If a displacement had occurred then it would have caused enormous disruption to the the earth's oceans with massive tsunamis and heavy rain. Although the book was nominally about the disappearance of Atlantis, the theory of crustal displacement not only explains the discrepancies in ice thickness in Greenland and Antarctica but also the sudden demise of the mammoths. This theory could also potentially explain the widespread existence of flood accounts throughout different cultures.

Flood geology

Main article: Flood Geology

Flood geology is the study of the Earth's geology from the point of view that the Genesis account is true and accurate, and that evidence of the Flood can be found in the geology of the Earth.

Until the rise of uniformitarian geology in the early 19th century, most geologists accepted the Noahic deluge as part of geology. But James Hutton proposed in 1795 that geology ought to be based on the processes that we see happening now, thereby automatically ruling the Flood out of consideration. During the 19th century a number of "scriptural geologists" held out against the rising acceptance of Hutton's principles,[25] but they fought a losing battle and interest in flood geology virtually died out by the end of the 19th century.

However, in the second half of the 20th century, interest was revived amongst people keen to show that the biblical account was correct, and a small but growing number of geologists are now studying this field again, although the vast majority of geologists still reject the idea of a global flood on Earth.

Flood geologists propose that such a world-wide, year-long flood would have caused massive erosion, sedimentation, and geological movements, and leaving extensive evidence in the geological record. Many propose that there was a single continent before the flood that broke up during the flood. The idea of tectonic plate movement was proposed by creationary scientist Antonio Snider in 1859,[26] although it was not until several other scientists had proposed similar ideas that the idea was adopted by mainstream scientists in the last few decades of the 20th century.

According to flood geologists, the flood resulted from subterranean water erupting to the surface ("the springs of the great deep burst forth"—Genesis 7:11, NIV), combined with 40 days and nights of rain. Although the rain stopped after 40 days, the flood waters continued to rise for 150 days, and lasted just over a year before Noah and the others on the boat were able to leave.[27] During the flood, there was massive tectonic activity, including some land rising up and other land dropping, such that the waters ended up in newly-deepened oceans. All the animals and birds (except those on the ark), and large numbers of sea creatures perished, and many of them were buried so quickly that they became fossils, accounting for the vast majority of fossils existing today.

Flood geology also proposes that the flood waters swept together and buried large mats of vegetation ripped from the surface of the Earth, forming the coal beds that are mined today.

Creationist Scientists Defense of Flood Geology

Creationist scientists assert that there are multiple lines of evidence from the field of geology showing that flood geology is correct.[28][29][30][31][32] Creationist scientists also state that there was enough water to cause a worldwide flood and various other objections to a worldwide flood are invalid.[33][34]

External Links

References

  1. Genesis does not say that this was the first ever rainbow.
  2. http://www.icr.org/article/570/
  3. http://www.washtimes.com/national/20040216-113955-2061r.htm
  4. 4.0 4.1 Noah’s Flood and the Gilgamesh Epic by Jonathan Sarfati, Creation, vol. 28 No. 4 pp.12-17
  5. Genesis 6:3
  6. Australian Aboriginal Flood Stories, Creation Vol. 5 No. 1, pp. 6-9.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Greek, in Flood Stories from Around the World by Mark Isaak.
  8. Genesis 6:5 (NIV)
  9. Genesis According to the Miao People, by Edgar A. Truax, Impact, April 1991
  10. Navajo (Four Corners area), in Flood Stories from Around the World by Mark Isaak
  11. 11.0 11.1 Hopi, in Flood Stories from Around the World by Mark Isaak.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Aboriginal Flood Legend, by Howard Coates, Creation Vol. 4 No.3, pp.9-12
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Masai (East Africa), in Flood Stories from Around the World by Mark Isaak.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Hawaii, in Flood Stories from Around the World by Mark Isaak.
  15. Genesis 7:13
  16. Genesis 8:6-12
  17. Genesis 9:12-17
  18. A comparative study of the flood accounts in the Gilgamesh Epic and Genesis, chapter 7, by Nozomi Osanai.
  19. Animals, a Deluge and Noah’s Ark
  20. Ashurbanipal
  21. http://archives.cnn.com/2000/NATURE/09/13/great.flood.finds.ap/
  22. http://www.nationalgeographic.com/blacksea/ax/frame.html
  23. Proof of Noah's Flood at the Black Sea? by Creation Ministries International.
  24. http://www.flem-ath.com
  25. The Great Turning Point, by Terry Mortenson. See also a series of articles in the Journal of Creation, commencing with "British scriptural geologists in the first half of the nineteenth century: part 1" by Terry Mortenson, Journal of Creation Vol. 11 No. 2 pp. 221-252.
  26. What About Continental Drift, Chapter 11 of The Answers Book Updated & Expanded, Don Batten (Ed.)
  27. The flood began on the 17th day of the second month of the 600th year of Noah's life (Genesis 7:11) and the ark's passengers alighted on the 27th day of the second month of the 601st year of Noah's life (Genesis 8:13-15)
  28. http://www.answersingenesis.org/home/area/faq/geology.asp
  29. http://www.creationism.org/topbar/geology.htm
  30. http://www.grisda.org/georpts/gr11.htm
  31. http://www.nwcreation.net/geologylinks.html
  32. http://globalflood.org/
  33. http://www.answersingenesis.org/Home/Area/AnswersBook/flood12.asp
  34. http://www.answersingenesis.org/home/area/faq/flood.asp