Federalist No. 54, authored by James Madison under the pen name Publius, is the fifty fourth of 85 essays. Titled "The Apportionment of Members Among the States", Madison discusses the way which members of congress will have their seats apportioned, and puts a great deal of emphasis on the Three-Fifths Compromise. He discusses the rationale, why the Southern States should not get full representation for their "barbarous policy" of looking at their human brethren as property, and the mixed nature of a slave as property and man.
It was published on February 12, 1788.