Difference between revisions of "Alger Hiss"

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Secretary of State James Byrnes told the FBI he would have fired Hiss, but for the mandatory Civil Service Commission hearing, which would have revealed confidential sources on the case.<ref>Allen Weinstein, ''Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case'' (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 43</ref> In November 1946, the Bureau disseminated to the State Department, Attorney General and Truman White House a second secret report, this time reporting Bentley's allegations regarding "Eugene Hiss," suggesting that this might actually be a reference to Alger Hiss.<ref>FBI Report: [http://ultra-secret.info/PDFs/splitfiles/splitprocessed/Silvermaster082_Folder/Silvermaster082_page120.pdf Underground Soviet Espionage Organization (NKVD) in Agencies of the United States Government], November 21, 1946, p. 109 (PDF p. 120)</ref> FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover asked President Harry S. Truman for permission to take action against Hiss, but Truman (according to a former chief of [[CIA]] [[Soviet]] bloc counterintelligence)<ref>[http://yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/book.asp?isbn=9780300121988 Spy Wars: Moles, Mysteries, and Deadly Games], Yale University Press</ref> remained "stubbornly antagonistic" to the allegations.<ref>Tennent H. Bagley, ''Spy Wars: Moles, Mysteries, and Deadly Games'' (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2007) ISBN 0300121989, p. 273</ref>
 
Secretary of State James Byrnes told the FBI he would have fired Hiss, but for the mandatory Civil Service Commission hearing, which would have revealed confidential sources on the case.<ref>Allen Weinstein, ''Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case'' (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 43</ref> In November 1946, the Bureau disseminated to the State Department, Attorney General and Truman White House a second secret report, this time reporting Bentley's allegations regarding "Eugene Hiss," suggesting that this might actually be a reference to Alger Hiss.<ref>FBI Report: [http://ultra-secret.info/PDFs/splitfiles/splitprocessed/Silvermaster082_Folder/Silvermaster082_page120.pdf Underground Soviet Espionage Organization (NKVD) in Agencies of the United States Government], November 21, 1946, p. 109 (PDF p. 120)</ref> FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover asked President Harry S. Truman for permission to take action against Hiss, but Truman (according to a former chief of [[CIA]] [[Soviet]] bloc counterintelligence)<ref>[http://yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/book.asp?isbn=9780300121988 Spy Wars: Moles, Mysteries, and Deadly Games], Yale University Press</ref> remained "stubbornly antagonistic" to the allegations.<ref>Tennent H. Bagley, ''Spy Wars: Moles, Mysteries, and Deadly Games'' (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2007) ISBN 0300121989, p. 273</ref>
  
After a 1946 grand jury began looking into Soviet espionage, Congress took an interest in Hiss, finally forcing the State Department to remove him from access to secrets.<ref>Tennent H. Bagley, ''Spy Wars: Moles, Mysteries, and Deadly Games'' (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2007) ISBN 0300121989, p. 273</ref> In January, 1947, Byrnes quietly eased Hiss out of the State Department.<ref>Ron Capshaw, "[http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/Read.aspx?GUID=E9146EC9-A031-4F77-9691-F4C7F1ACA9F4 Alger Hiss: The Left's Religious Icon]," FrontPageMagazine.com, May 4, 2007</ref> Hiss became president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, serving also as a trustee on the [[Institute of Pacific Relations]].<ref>Interlocking Subversion in Government Departments, [[SISS]] report (July 30, 1953), pp. 8-10.</ref>
+
That November, the [[Republican Party]] won control of both houses of Congress for the first time since the elections of 1928.<ref>Andrew E. Busch, "[http://www.ashbrook.org/publicat/oped/busch/06/1946.html 1946 Midterm Gives GOP First Majority Since 1928 Elections, Helps Ensure Truman’s Reelection]," John M. Ashbrook Center for Public Affairs (Ashland University), June 2006</ref> With a grand jury looking into Soviet espionage, Congress took a sudden interest in Hiss, finally forcing the State Department to remove him from access to secrets.<ref>Tennent H. Bagley, ''Spy Wars: Moles, Mysteries, and Deadly Games'' (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2007) ISBN 0300121989, p. 273</ref> In January, 1947, Byrnes quietly eased Hiss out of the State Department.<ref>Ron Capshaw, "[http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/Read.aspx?GUID=E9146EC9-A031-4F77-9691-F4C7F1ACA9F4 Alger Hiss: The Left's Religious Icon]," FrontPageMagazine.com, May 4, 2007</ref> Hiss became president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, serving also as a trustee on the [[Institute of Pacific Relations]].<ref>Interlocking Subversion in Government Departments, [[SISS]] report (July 30, 1953), pp. 8-10.</ref>
  
 
== House Committee on Un-American Activities ==
 
== House Committee on Un-American Activities ==

Revision as of 17:34, 29 May 2009

Alger Hiss.
Photo courtesy U.S. Bureau of Prisons

Alger Hiss (November 11, 1904 – November 15, 1996) was a high-ranking U.S. State Department official[1] and Secretary General of the founding conference of the United Nations.[2] He was convicted of perjury in 1950, after denying that he had been a Soviet agent.

"Belief in the guilt or innocence of Alger Hiss became a defining issue in American intellectual life," wrote Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan (D.-N.Y.), who was instrumental in securing the release of FBI and Venona project files on the case, which had been classified for half a century. Concluded the liberal Democrat[3] in 1998: "Parts of the American government had conclusive evidence of his guilt, but they never told."[4]

Early life

Alger Hiss was born November 11, 1904, in Baltimore, Maryland,[5] to a financially comfortable upper-middle-class[6] WASP family.[7] Alger's father, who was an executive with a wholesale dry goods firm,[8] committed suicide by slashing his throat with a razor when the boy was just two years old.[9] When Hiss was 25, his sister Mary Ann also committed suicide, by drinking a bottle of Lysol.[10] Alger's older brother Bosley had died two and a half years before from Bright’s disease, a kidney disorder aggravated by his excessive alcohol consumption.[11]

Johns Hopkins University

As a result of his father's death, Alger inherited $10,000,[12] the equivalent of more than $200,000 today.[13] After graduation from Baltimore City College and a year at Powder Point Academy (a private prep school in Duxbury, Massachusetts)[14] and the Maryland Institute of Art,[15] Hiss attended Baltimore's Johns Hopkins University, where he was voted "best hand-shaker" in his class.[16] As an undergraduate, Hiss was drawn to the work of (among others) the Fabian[17] George Bernard Shaw, the Socialist[18] Maxwell Anderson, the "card-carrying socialist"[19] Sinclair Lewis, and the Communist[20] Theodore Dreiser.[21] His favorite instructors included Broadus Mitchell,[22] whom Hiss would later describe as a "gifted" economics professor with "mildly socialistic" views.[23] But Mitchell, according to the personal site of Hiss' son, Tony,[24] was a well-known Socialist.[25] He served as candidate for Governor of Maryland for the Socialist Party[26] (U.S. supporter of the Comintern),[27] and distinguished socialism from communism as differing only in "strategy and procedure," not "essential theory."[28] Another favorite was José Robles,[29] a committed Stalinist[30] who would go on to serve in the Spanish Civil War as a Colonel in the Red Army and interpreter for General Jānis Bērziņš,[31] head of Soviet military intelligence.[32] Robles was never seen again[33] after Bērziņš was recalled to Moscow[34] and shot in Stalin's Great Terror[35] in 1938.[36] Robles had apparently been executed by a Communist "special section,"[37] according to former fellow traveler[38] John Dos Passos,[39] because he "knew too much about the relations between the Spanish war ministry and the Kremlin."[40] Hiss, who apparently knew Robles well enough to spend time at his home,[41] would later say he too considered going to Spain to fight for the Soviet-backed "Loyalist" cause.[42]

Harvard Law School

After graduating in 1926, Hiss went on to Harvard Law School, where he resumed his friendship with boyhood friend Henry Collins,[43] who was attending Harvard Business School. Collins would later be identified as a Soviet agent by chief of Soviet intelligence in the U.S. Anatoly Gorsky[44] and by another friend at Harvard, State Department official Laurence Duggan[45] (himself identified by Comintern courier Whittaker Chambers,[46] OGPU recruiter Hede Massing,[47] and Venona decrypts).[48] Hiss served on the Harvard Law Review under editor Lee Pressman,[49] who would eventually testify that he had been a member of an underground group of Communists in the Federal government.[50] Hiss became the protégé of one instructor, future Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter—who, said former U.S. President William Howard Taft, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, "seems to be closely in touch with every Bolshevist, Communist movement in this country."[51] Frankfurter was at the time the leading champion of the convicted murderers Sacco and Vanzetti,[52] revolutionary terrorists who became a Communist[53] cause célèbre,[54] and whom Alger Hiss would later emulate.[55]

Early Career

Sacco and Vanzetti had been members of a terrorist[56] group known as the Galleanists,[57] which was responsible for the May Day 1919 attempted bombing of a number of public figures,[58] including Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes.[59] Ironically, when Hiss graduated from law school in 1929, Frankfurter got him the coveted[60] job of law clerk to Holmes.[61] Influential as Frankfurter was, Hiss said he was probably even more influenced by Holmes,[62] whom Hiss admired as "a skeptic of the first order" who "denied the existence of God."[63] The same year, Hiss married the former Mrs. Priscilla Fansler Hobson, a supporter of perennial Socialist Party presidential nominee Norman Thomas.[64] Hiss had had met her on a transatlantic cruise when he was nineteen,[65] but since then she'd had a marriage, a Mexican divorce,[66] a pregnancy by a married man and an abortion.[67]

I.W.W. Little Red Songbook. Image courtesy Hunter Gray [Hunter Bear)
Hiss went on to prestigious[68] law firms in Boston and New York where, by 1932, his wife Priscilla had registered as a member of the Socialist Party.[69] By then, Priscilla Hiss was an active member of American Labor Associates, and Hiss was becoming "radicalized,"[70] joining (together with Pressman)[71] the International Juridical Association (IJA), which "consistently followed the Communist Party line."[72]

During this period, Hiss' letters to his wife reflected his increasing radicalism. In 1930, he made a coy reference to the terrorist[73] Industrial Workers of the World (whose leader, "Big Bill" Haywood, had fled the U.S. for Moscow where he became a trusted advisor to the Bolshevik government),[74] writing to Priscilla, "[D]id thee call thyself a Wobbly with an I.W.W. tongue in thy socialistic (I couldn't bring myself to write 'Communistic') cheek." Suggesting that an article questioning the legitimacy of the existing “capitalist order”[75] did not go far enough, Hiss wrote to Priscilla in 1932, “Has thee seen Archibald MacLeish's[76] article on capitalism in last week's Saturday Review? Felix says it is soft thinking after Wilson.”[77]

New Deal

Agricultural Adjustment Administration

Mother of seven children without food, California, ca. February 1936. Image courtesy Library of Congress
In 1933, Frankfurter sent Hiss a telegram[78] urging him to join President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal as assistant general counsel to the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA).[79] At the peak of Stalin's Terror Famine[80] (during which the Soviets killed some 14 million people through collectivization of agriculture),[81] the AAA restricted U.S. farm production[82] in order to drive up food prices[83] in the depths of the Great Depression.[84] The agency was the brainchild of FDR's Secretary of Agriculture (and future Vice President),[85] so-called "farm dictator"[86] Henry Wallace—who would run for President on the Communist-inspired[87] Progressive Party ticket in 1948, finally recanting his support for the Soviet Union[88] in 1952.[89]

In response to a query about candidates for employment at AAA, Pressman, already at the agency, wrote, "I have talked to Alger Hiss and Nat Witt who are considering" taking posts at AAA (Hiss would later deny under oath that he had discussed the position with Pressman).[90] At AAA, Hiss reunited with IJA colleagues Pressman and Witt as well as Collins, and became acquainted with the Communist[91] Harold Ware.[92] Even before the Federal Bureau of Investigation would learn of Whittaker Chambers' charges, one of Hiss' colleagues at the AAA would tip off FBI investigators that Hiss and his circle were fellow travelers, if not Communists.[93] Hiss' superior at AAA, New Dealer Jerome Frank,[94] believing Hiss to be closely linked to a coterie of Communist lawyers at the agency, would later refuse to appear as a character witness for him.[95] Collins would refuse to testify on grounds of potential self-incrimination,[96] but another AAA official, Nathaniel Weyl, would later testify that he attended Communist cell meetings with Hiss[97] and saw him pay his party dues,[98] testimony he would reaffirm in his 2004 autobiography.[99]

Ex-Communists Ralph de Sola and George Hewitt would both also testify to having seen Hiss at Communist Party meetings,[100] and a former GRU station chief in London and New York reported that during the early and middle 1930s Hiss was a source of agent information for a Soviet spy ring in Washington, the Silvermaster group, according to Pavel Sudoplatov,[101] former deputy director of Foreign Intelligence for the USSR.[102]

Nye Committee

In 1934, again with an assist from Pressman (according to New Dealer[103] Gardner Jackson),[104] Hiss became General Counsel for the U.S. Senate's Nye committee,[105] which investigated people Chairman Gerald P. Nye (R.-N.D.)[106] called Wall Street's "merchants of death,"[107] whom he accused of conspiracy to lead the U.S. into war with Germany. One scholar has dubbed this a "witch-hunt" for "subversive capitalists," in which Hiss was to Nye what Roy Cohn would later be to Senator Joe McCarthy (R.-Wisc.)[108] On the theory that "capitalism was a cause of aggression,"[109] Hiss employed what would later come to be known as "McCarthyite" methods, badgering witnesses such as Bernard Baruch,[110] reportedly the first man to openly assert that Hiss was a communist.[111]

The Soviets took great interest in the work of the committee for its propaganda value[112] as well as its access to classified documents on U.S. armaments and foreign policy.[113] Moscow had at least one source on the staff of the committee, who provided valuable documents to the Kremlin in 1935,[114] the same year an agent later code-named "Ales" (pronounced "Alles") began working for Soviet military intelligence.[115] Nye would tell FBI investigators that he believed Hiss was a Communist at the time,[116] and would later say he believed Hiss used his position on the committee for espionage.[117]

Barely a month after joining the committee staff,[118] Hiss met Whittaker Chambers.[119] According to Chambers, they were introduced by Communist underground boss[120] J. Peters;[121] Hiss would claim that Chambers had wandered into his office without introduction, as a free-lance writer looking for a story.[122]

Chambers' version would be corroborated by the radical[123] novelist Josephine Herbst, whose then-husband, John Herrmann, was an AAA official, a member of the Ware group and a courier for the Communist underground subordinate to Chambers.[124] Hiss would later claim that he did not even know Herrmann—a "lie," according to Herbst's biographer.[125]

Justice Department

In 1935, Hiss transferred into the Justice Department as special assistant to the Solictor General,[126] where he unsuccessfully defended the Agricultural Adjustment Act before the United States Supreme Court[127] (which ruled the AAA unconstitutional in 1936).[128]

Hiss' 1929 Ford

In the summer of 1936, J. Peters arranged a dummy transaction, according to Chambers, in which Hiss donated his 1929 Ford to the Communist Party.[129] Hiss would deny this, testifying instead that he had sold or loaned or given[130] the car to Chambers[131] in June 1935, after buying a new car. But Hiss did not buy a new car until some three months after this, and he continued to pay insurance on the Ford for a year after he claimed to have gotten rid of it.[132]

Chambers' version would be corroborated by the car's certificate of title, which showed that Hiss actually transferred the car on July 23, 1936, to the Cherner Motor Company, which sold it the same day to the Communist[133] William Rosen for $25.[134] The company made no record of the transaction.[135] Rosen would refuse to answer questions about his role in the transfer or the Communist Party on grounds of potential self-incrimination.[136] Hiss' attorney, Edward McLean, wrote that Rosen's lawyer, Emmanuel Bloch, told him:

…that Rosen did lend himself to a dummy transaction concerning the Ford car.... [A]t some later date, a man came to see Rosen and told him that the title certificate to the Ford was in Rosen's name and asked Rosen to sign an assignment of it to some other person. Rosen did this. The man who came to see Rosen was a very high Communist. His name would be a sensation in this case. The man who ultimately got the car is also a Communist. Bloch implied that Rosen was a Communist too but did not say so expressly.[137]

The title transfer bore a signature Hiss acknowledged to be his own, notarized by Hiss' Justice Department colleague W. Marvin Smith. In 1948 Smith would tell HUAC that he had notarized Hiss' signature on the transfer, but before he could so testify in the Hiss trial, Smith would plunge down a five-story Justice Department stairwell to his death; there would be no witnesses.[138]

Hede Massing and Noel Field

The name “Alger Hiss” in Cyrillic (Алджер Хисс) from Alexander Vassiliev's notes on an April 1936 report from Hede Massing to Moscow Center. Image source: Cold War International History Project, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
At a 1935 dinner at the home of State Department official (and Soviet intelligence source)[139] Noel Field, Hiss argued with OGPU recruiter Hede Massing that Field should work with Hiss' GRU group, rather than Massing's OGPU group, according to Massing.[140]

Field would defect in 1948 to Communist Czechoslovakia, where he would tell the secret police that he was fleeing to avoid testifying in the trial of Alger Hiss, whom he identified as a fellow Communist underground agent in the State Department during the mid-thirties, according to official records published in 1990 by Karel Kaplan, former archivist of the Central Committee of the Czech Communist Party.[141] A 1955 Czechoslovak secret police reinvestigation (obtained in 2000 by Czech human rights activist Karel Skrabek) states, "Noel Field said that … Hiss worked for the USSR as a spy."[142] Field would end up in Communist Hungary, where in 1954 he would tell Hungarian secret police that he and Hiss "mutually realized we were Communists. Around the summer of 1935 Alger Hiss tried to induce me to do service for the Soviets."[143]

The transcripts also record Field saying that he turned over State Department documents to Hede Massing in the 1930s. In other statements Field twice said that although Hiss knew that Field “was a Communist,” he strongly supported Field at the State Department and even tried to help him obtain a job as a State Department adviser in the Philippines in 1940.[144] The dossier likewise records a statement by Field that he briefly visited Hiss in 1939 in America, where they agreed that if either's cover was ever blown, he would communicate to the other indirectly.[145]

The name “A. Hiss” and code name "Yurist" (Jurist) in Cyrillic (А. Хисс—"Юрист") from Vassiliev's notes on a Moscow Center annotation. Image source: Cold War International History Project, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
In a 1936 memorandum, found in the NKVD archives by former KGB agent Alexander Vassiliev,[146] Massing complains to Moscow that Field (whom she refers to by his code name "Ernst")[147] "was approached by Alger Hiss" (Massing uses his real name), who "informed him that he is a Communist" with "ties to an organization working for the Sov. Union" —a serious breach of discipline. A Moscow Center annotation identifies "A. Hiss" as the GRU agent designated by the code name "Jurist."[148] As a result, noted Boris Bazarov, OGPU "illegal" station chief for the United States, Field "and Hiss [Bazarov also used Hiss's real name] have been openly identified" as Soviet agents.[149]

According to Massing, Hiss also asked Field to use his connections to help Hiss get into the State Department.[150]

State Department

Hiss took a pay cut[151] to transfer into the State Department in September 1936, the same month a GRU agent designated by the code name "Jurist" began working there.[152] Hiss was now special assistant to Assistant Secretary of State for Trade Agreements Francis B. Sayre, son-in-law of Woodrow Wilson.[153] Two years later, Alger's younger brother Donald, who had followed him to Johns Hopkins, Harvard Law, and a clerkship for Justice Holmes, would join him at State, rising to the position of assistant to future Secretary of State Dean Acheson.[154]

In a cable of the era found in the NKVD archives by Vassiliev, NKVD illegal Iskhak Abdulovich Akhmerov reports to Moscow that J. Peters (code-named "Storm")[155] told him that "Hiss [Akhmerov used his real name] used to be a member of bratskiy organization [the CPUSA underground][156] who had been implanted into 'Surrogate' [cover name for the State Department][157] and sent to the Neighbors [the GRU][158]...."[159]

The year before, at the funeral of Marshal Józef Piłsudski[160] in Warsaw, U.S. Ambassador to Moscow William C. Bullitt[161] had confidentially assured the Polish government that the United States would stand by Poland in the event of a Nazi invasion. But after Bullitt reported back to Washington that he had done so, someone at the State Department passed this information to the Kremlin, which in turn transmitted it to German intelligence (with which Soviet intelligence had maintained liaison since the time of Lenin).[162] Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels exploited this information to portray the United States as a warmonger. According to reporter Ralph de Toledano, who covered the Hiss trial for Newsweek, the State Department source who passed this information to the Soviets was Alger Hiss.[163]

At some point in 1935-37, Chambers gave Hiss a rug from Bokhara, in Soviet Uzbekistan.[164] Just before Christmas 1936, Soviet Colonel Boris Bykov, head of Soviet military intelligence in the U.S., had given Chambers $800 to buy four Bokhara rugs for Hiss, Harry Dexter White, George Silverman, and Julian Wadleigh, according to Chambers; Hiss would later claim that Chambers had given him his rug in 1935 in partial payment for rent. Chambers' version was corroborated by Marxist[165] Columbia University art historian Meyer Schapiro,[166] who confirmed that he arranged the purchase (and produced the canceled check dated December 23, 1936); by the Massachusetts Importing Company of Manhattan, which confirmed selling him the rugs (and produced the Bill of Sale); by White's widow and Silverman (who confirmed that they had received their rugs sometime between late 1936 and the fall of 1938); and by Wadleigh, who confessed to having been a member of Chambers' apparatus and delivering documents to him,[167] confirmed that he had received his rug for New Year's 1937,[168] and conceded that he understood the rug to be a gift from the Soviets.[169]

By 1937, the peak of Stalin's Great Terror[170] (whose victims would number over ten million),[171] Hiss was delivering packets of documents to Whittaker Chambers at intervals of a week or ten days, according to Oleg Gordievsky,[172] the KGB London station chief who defected in 1985.[173]

That year, Akhmerov cabled Moscow that Michael Straight (code-named "Nigel"), an American member of the NKVD's Cambridge spy ring[174] (and future FDR speech writer[175] and publisher of The New Republic),[176] then working at the State Department, mentioned Hiss (using his real name) as someone with "progressive" views "who occupied a responsible position."[177] Akhmerov worried that Straight "might guess that Hiss [Akhmerov again used Hiss' real name] belongs to our family" or "find out Hiss's nature" as a GRU agent.[178]

On November 23, 1937, Whittaker Chambers bought a car, using $400 he said Alger Hiss loaned him.[179] Hiss would deny making the loan,[180] but records showed that the Hisses withdrew $400 in cash from their savings four days before Chambers bought the car.[181] At first the Hisses claimed that they had used the money to buy furniture for a new house,[182] but they had not signed a lease at the time,[183] and could not produce receipts for any purchases, nor explain why they had used cash from savings rather than the checking and charge accounts they otherwise used for such purchases.[184]

In 1938, Whittaker Chambers made his final break with the Communists.[185] Wary after the murder of Ignace Poretsky[186] and disappearance of Juliet Poyntz,[187] Chambers asked his wife's nephew[188] to hide what he called his "life preserver"—a packet of copies of documents, hand-written memos and microfilm of documents.[189] On the advice of Herbert Solow,[190] former press agent for the Communist League of America,[191] Chambers made it known to the Soviet underground, via Schapiro and the ex-Communist[192] Ludwig Lore,[193] that he had "photographic copies of handwritten matters the appearance of which would seriously embarrass them,"[194] which would be made public in the event anything were to happen to him.[195]

In 1939, Sayre became United States High Commissioner to the Philippines, and Hiss transferred to become personal aide to Stanley Hornbeck, political advisor to the State Department's Far Eastern Division. As his replacement, Hiss urged Sayre to hire Soviet Intelligence source[196] Noel Field, despite his lack of experience.[197] Due to the fact that Field had been identified to the State Department as a member of various Red front groups starting in 1926, and as a Communist Party member the previous year,[198] he did not get the appointment. After his defection behind the Iron Curtain, Field would confirm to East bloc authorities that Hiss knew he was a Communist when he recommended Field as his replacement.[199]

Nazi-Soviet Pact

Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov signs the Nazi-Soviet Pact; Nazi Foreign Minister von Ribbentrop and Soviet dictator Josef Stalin stand behind him, Moscow, August 23, 1939. Image courtesy National Archives and Records Administration
When in the wake of the Hitler-Stalin pact the Communist Party organ The Daily Worker came under suspicion for reversing its anti-Nazi posturing, Politburo member Roy Hudson[200] discussed what to do about it with Soviet agent[201] Robert Minor, according to Daily Worker editor Louis Budenz. Someone mentioned that Nathan Witt and Lee Pressman could not be of much help as they, too, were under suspicion at the time. According to Budenz, Alger Hiss was then mentioned as a good Comrade who would be helpful.[202]

That year, French Premier Édouard Daladier[203] informed Bullitt (now Ambassador to France) that two brothers named Hiss, both in the U.S. government, were Soviet agents.[204] Bullitt “laughed it off as a tall tale, never having heard their names.”[205]

The year before, in Paris, defecting former GRU chief in Europe Walter Krivitsky[206] had identified Hiss as an agent of Soviet military intelligence, according to Alexander Barmine,[207] former Charge d'Affairs at the Soviet Embassy in Athens, who had defected in 1937.[208] When news of the Hitler-Stalin Pact (which Krivitsky had predicted)[209] broke on August 23, 1939, Krivitsky warned his Saturday Evening Post ghostwriter, Russian emigré Isaac Don Levine,[210] "Everything that went on in the embassy, especially the major communications between Washington and Bullitt, were quickly relayed to the Soviet secret police."[211] (Krivitsky would be found shot dead in his Washington hotel room in 1941.[212] Although he had warned his friends that if he were to be found dead, then he had been murdered,[213] his death was ruled a suicide.[214] Krivitsky had been liquidated by one of the NKVD's Mobile Groups for Special Tasks, according to former Soviet espionage official Alexander Orlov.[215] Orlov's account is corroborated by the Nicolaevsky and Honeyman collections in the archives of the Hoover Institution.)[216]

Chambers' meeting with Berle

In 1938, Whittaker Chambers confessed to Levine that he had been a courier for the Communist underground. As the joint Nazi-Soviet invasion of Poland[217] was gearing up, Levine sought to get Chambers an appointment with President Roosevelt, but was diverted by the White House to Assistant Secretary of State for Security Adolf Berle.[218] On September 2, 1939, Chambers told Berle of an underground apparatus of the Communist Party for employees of the Federal government in Washington, D.C. Its organizer, said Chambers, was Harold Ware, its treasurer Henry Collins;[219] among its members he identified Lee Pressman, Nathan Witt, and the brothers Alger and Donald Hiss.[220]

While Chambers talked, Berle took notes. Under the heading “Underground Espionage Agent,” he listed several names, including “Alger Hiss,” with the notation, “Ass’t. to Sayre—CP—1937,” and “Member of the Underground Com.—Active.”[221] In Berle's diary, the first entry after his meeting with Levine and Chambers reads:

Saturday night ... Isaac Don Levine ... brought a Mr. X around to my house ... Through a long evening, I slowly manipulated Mr. X to a point where he had told some of the ramifications hereabout; and it becomes necessary to take a few simple measures. I expect more of this kind of thing, later. A good deal of the Russian espionage was carried on by Jews; we know now that they are exchanging information with Berlin; and the Jewish units are furious to find out they are, in substance, working for the Gestapo...[222]

After Berle relayed this information to President Roosevelt, Levine asked Berle how FDR responded. In his 1973 memoir, Levine wrote, “To the best of my recollection, the President dismissed the matter rather brusquely with an expletive remark on this order: ‘Oh, forget it, Adolf.’”[223]

In 1940, after Levine informed Bullitt of what Chambers had told him about Hiss, Bullitt relayed to Hornbeck what Daladier had told him the year before. Bullitt advised Alice Roosevelt Longworth[224] and de Toledano that he also took this information directly to FDR.[225]

Levine also told David Dubinsky,[226] president of the International Ladies Garment Workers Union,[227] about Chambers' revelations. Dubinsky, wrote Levine, "took up the Chambers matter with the President at the first opportunity and was brushed off with an amiable slap on the back." Levine wrote that he also told fellow journalist Walter Winchell[228] of "a ring of six Soviet agents operating within the State Department alone. In his broadcast of December 12, Winchell announced that he had carried my information to President Roosevelt. Still there was no action."[229] Winchell's posthumously published memoir confirms Levine's story.[230]

By 1944, Hiss would be deputy director of the State Department's Office of Special Political Affairs, a policy-making office for postwar planning and international organization.[231] In August, he organized the Dumbarton Oaks Conference,[232] where he served as executive secretary,[233] presiding over the drafting of the proposed United Nations Charter.[234]

By 1948 Berle, ousted from the State Department, would be serving as chairman of New York's Liberal Party. That year, the New York bureau of the Christian Science Monitor would send a teletype to the home office in Boston, relating a background interview with the party's publicity director, Arnold Beichman:

From a thoroughly reliable contact: According to this informant Berle has said privately that classified material which Hiss was handling was reaching the Russians. It was coded stuff. Berle took the handling out of Hiss' hands and the leaks stopped.[235]

But in the wake of Dumbarton Oaks, Berle was ousted as Assistant Secretary of State in charge of security, defeated by the State Department's pro-Soviet faction, Hiss prominent among them. As Berle put it:

[I]n the fall of 1944 there was a difference of opinion in the State Department. I felt that the Russians were not going to be sympathetic and cooperative.... I was pressing for a pretty clean-cut showdown then when our position was strongest. The opposite group in the State Department was largely ... Mr. Acheson's group ... with Mr. Hiss as his principal assistant in the matter.... [A]t that time Mr. Hiss did take what we would call today the pro-Russian point of view....[236] I got trimmed in that fight, and, as a result, went to Brazil, and that ended my diplomatic career.[237]

Hatch Act Investigation

In September 1940, the Nazi and Soviet armies staged a joint victory parade through the streets of occupied Brest-Litovsk, Poland.[238] Hiss was at this time among a handful of the Soviets' most important agents, who were run individually and not through spy networks, according to Oleg Gordievsky. Hiss' wartime controller, wrote Gordievsky, was Akhmerov, the leading NKVD illegal in the United States,[239] who, in a lecture before a KGB audience, identified Hiss as a Soviet agent during World War II.[240]

FBI chart illustrating the dissemination to the White House, State Department and Attorney General of dozens of secret memos and reports on Alger Hiss in 1942-47. Image source: J. Edgar Hoover Official & Confidential File #34, FOIA Reading Room, Federal Bureau of Investigation
In 1941, during the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, the Dies committee obtained the membership list of the Washington Committee for Democratic Action, which would be confirmed as a Communist front the following year by Roosevelt's Attorney General Francis Biddle.[241] Included on the roster was the name of Priscilla Hiss,[242] with the notation appended, "Husband with State Department."[243] As mandated by the Hatch Act, the FBI subsequently conducted an investigation of Hiss, in the course of which one of Hiss' former colleagues at the AAA told investigators that Hiss and his circle were fellow travelers, if not Communists.[244] Hiss denied everything, although he said he thought his wife might have been a member of the League of Women Shoppers,[245] a Popular Front group[246] identified as a Communist front by the committee in 1939.[247] In 1942, the FBI sent a report of this investigation to the Secretary of State,[248] the first of what would become a veritable avalanche of FBI memos and reports on Hiss disseminated to the State Department, Attorney General and White House over the ensuing five years.

After Ludwig Lore identified Chambers as a former GRU man, the Bureau interviewed Chambers for the first time in 1942.[249] Chambers repeated his identification of Hiss, among others, as a Communist. In 1943, the FBI obtained the notes Berle had taken during his meeting four years earlier with Chambers and Levine.[250] That year, an encrypted cable (decrypted in the Venona project and released in 1995) from Pavel B. Mikhailov (code-named "Mol'er"), who (under cover as Soviet Vice Consul in New York) was controller of military intelligence for the NKVD,[251] to NKVD chief of foreign intelligence Pavel Fitin (code-named "Viktor")[252] in Moscow, identifying the real names and code names of several agents in the U.S., said the GRU (code-named "Neighbors") reported someone "from the State Department by the name of Hiss."[253]

In March 1943, Maj. George R. Jordan, American liaison officer to the Soviet Purchasing Commission at Gore Field (Great Falls, Montana),[254] opened several diplomatic cases bound for the Soviet Union as part of the Lend-Lease program.[255] He found "hundreds of maps, patent documents, blueprints of industrial plants, railroad tables, and top-secret U.S. government documents,"[256] including "five or six State Department folders, bound with stout rubber bands. Clipped to each was a tab." From one tab, said Jordan, he copied the legend: “From Hiss.” According to Jordan, "I had never heard of Alger Hiss, and made the entry because the folder bearing his name happened to be second in the pile. It contained hundreds of Photostats of what seemed to be military reports."[257]

In April 1944, Victor Kravchenko, chief of the metals section of the Soviet Purchasing Commission in Washington, defected. He released a statement warning:

I cannot keep silent any longer.... I can no longer support double-faced political maneuvers... toward collaboration with the United States and Britain while pursuing aims incompatible with such collaboration.

The Soviet Government has dissolved the Communist International but only in form.... The new democratic terminology is only a maneuver... to promote the inclusion of Communists, obedient to the Kremlin, in the future Governments... of Italy, Austria and other countries.[258]

Yalta

A State Department internal security probe of Hiss (made public in 1993)[259] ordered by Secretary of State James F. Byrnes[260] revealed that in February 1945, Hiss requested top-secret files from the Office of Strategic Services (precursor of the CIA) on British, Soviet, French and Chinese internal security policies, as well as Far East policy;[261] FBI surveillance at this time found that Hiss also developed "a keen interest in atomic energy," and other matters relating to military intelligence,[262]—all of which was well outside the purview of his office.[263] Loy Henderson, director of the State Department Office of Near East Affairs (NEA), quietly ordered members of NEA to keep confidential materials and information from Hiss.[264]

On February 4, 1945,[265] Hiss accompanied FDR to his meeting with Stalin and Churchill at Yalta, as aide to Secretary of State Edward R. Stettinius, Jr.,[266] over whom Hiss exercised "Svengali-like influence," according to J. Anthony Panuch, Assistant Secretary of State for Security.[267] Stettinius gave Hiss remarkable control over FDR's access to information, directing that "all memoranda for the President on topics to be discussed at the Meeting of the Big Three should be in the hands of Mr. Alger Hiss not later than Monday, January 15."[268] Nor did Hiss' influence stop there: When Roosevelt asked the Secretary of State "to get a lawyer to consult with him over the wording of the Polish boundary statement," wrote Stettinius, "I called Alger Hiss."[269] Asked if he had "drafted or participated in the drafting" of parts of the Yalta agreement, Hiss would later testify, "I think it is accurate and not an immodest statement to say that I did to some extent, yes."[270]

According to Sudoplatov, "One of the officials [at Yalta] we had established confidential relations with was Alger Hiss," who was "highly sympathetic to the interests of the Soviet Union."[271] According to confidential GRU sources, during the conference, Hiss gave daily briefings to General Mikhail Abramovich Milshtein, a military adviser to Stalin and the deputy director of the GRU, revealing not only the American negotiating strategy but insights into the attitudes of the American negotiators.[272] Sudoplatov added:

In conversation, Hiss disclosed to Oumansky,[273] and then Litvinov,[274] official U.S. attitudes and plans; he was also very close to our sources who were cooperating with Soviet intelligence and to our active intelligence operators in the United States. Within this framework of exchange of confidential information were references to Hiss as the source who told us the Americans were prepared to make a deal in Europe.[275]

At the conference, the U.S. ceded eastern Poland to the Soviet Union[276] (essentially ratifying the deal Stalin had made with Hitler in the "secret protocols" of the Nazi-Soviet pact),[277] gave the Soviet Union three votes in the UN to one for the U.S.,[278] and agreed to forced "repatriation" of refugees for slave labor[279] or death in the Soviet Gulag.[280] In addition, Roosevelt made a secret agreement with Stalin (Churchill was not informed), giving the Soviets Japanese territory, as well as economic rights in Manchuria.[281] The complete text of all the agreements was not disclosed until 1947.[282] U.S. Ambassador to Poland Arthur Bliss Lane resigned in protest, writing, "As I glanced over the document, I could not believe my eyes: To me, almost every line spoke of a surrender to Stalin."[283]

Vishinskii (2nd from left), Molotov (5th from left), Stettinius (7th from left), Alger Hiss (right), ca. January 1945. Image courtesy Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, National Archives and Records Administration
The conference ended February 11; the next day, Roosevelt was dead.[284] Hiss went on to Moscow,[285] where he was reportedly decorated with the Order of the Red Star[286] and honored by Foreign Minister V.M. Molotov.[287] On April 25, 1945, Pavel Fitin, head of NKVD foreign intelligence, reported to NKVD Chief Vsevolod Merkulov[288] that Harold Glasser, a Soviet agent in the U.S. Treasury code-named "Ruble," learned of the award from his friend, "Ales," a Soviet military intelligence agent:
According to data from Vadim the group of agents of the "military" neighbors whose part Ruble was earlier, recently was decorated with orders of the USSR. Ruble learned about this fact from his friend Ales, who is the head of the mentioned group.[289]

This memo apparently refers to Venona decrypt 1822, dated March 30, 1945, in which "Vadim" (Anatoly Gorsky, chief of Soviet intelligence in the U.S.)[290] reports,[291] following up on a conversation with "Ales," that "Ales has been continuously working with the neighbors since 1935"; that for "a few years now he has been the director of a small group of probationers [agents][292] of the neighbors [GRU],[293] for the most part drawn from his relatives"; that they were "working on obtaining only military information," since Soviet military intelligence "allegedly are not very interested" in "materials about the Bank [United States Department of State]";[294] that recently, "Ales and his whole group were awarded Soviet medals"; and that after "the Yalta conference, back in Moscow, one very high-ranking Soviet worker allegedly had contact with Ales (Ales implied that it was Comrade Vyshinskii) and at the request of the military neighbors he conveyed to him their thanks, etc."[295] Regarding "Ales," one FBI memo reports:

It would appear likely that this individual is Alger Hiss in view of the fact that he was in the State Department and the information from Chambers indicated that his wife, Priscilla, was active in Soviet espionage and he also had a brother, Donald, in the State Department. It also is to be noted that Hiss did attend the Yalta conference as a special adviser to President Roosevelt, and he would, of course, have conferred with high officials of other nations attending the conference.[296]

In its unanimous final report in 1997, the bipartisan Moynihan Commission on Government Secrecy agreed regarding Ales, "This could only be Alger Hiss."[297] Analysts at the National Security Agency have also gone on record that Ales could only have been Alger Hiss.[298] U.S. Air Force historian Eduard Mark calls the FBI and NSA's conclusions "eminently reasonable," agreeing that the evidence showed that "ALES was very probably Hiss."[299] John R. Schindler, professor of strategy at the Naval War College and himself a former NSA analyst, concurs, calling this identification "exceptionally solid" and the evidence "compelling."[300] John Ehrman of the CIA's Directorate of Intelligence[301] concludes, "it is clear that Hiss alone remains the best candidate to be ALES."[302]

On March 15, Victor Perlo (code-named "Raid")[303] gave Moscow (in English) a list of people not in his Perlo Group whom he knew worked with Soviet intelligence. Included on that list was the name "Alger Hiss."[304] Five days later, State Department security officer Raymond Murphy interviewed Chambers. Murphy's notes record that Chambers reiterated his identification of Hiss as a member of the Communist Party underground apparatus, but added that he was also the leader of a cell and not merely a Communist but, said Chambers, an espionage agent who disclosed "much confidential material," as well as an agent of influence who sought to shape U.S. policy "in keeping with the desires of the Communist Party."[305]

On March 24, FBI agent E.A. Tamm, assistant to FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, alerted Robert Lynch, Special Assistant to the Secretary of State, to Chambers' allegations that Hiss had been a member of the underground organization of the Communist Party, and to Hiss' links to Nathan Witt and Lee Pressman. After interviewing Hiss the next day,[306] FBI official D.M. Ladd furnished Frederick B. Lyon, Chief of the Division of Foreign Activity Correlation of the Department of State, a summary memorandum outlining this information.[307] On March 26, State Department security officer Robert Bannerman sent Donald Russell, Assistant Secretary of State for Administration, a comprehensive secret report on Chambers' allegations regarding Hiss, recommending "that immediate action be taken to terminate Mr. Hiss's services with the Department."[308]

United Nations

"Secretary General Alger Hiss counts votes of the UN Charter. June 25, 1945." Source: The United Nations' 60th Anniversary Celebration, June 25, 2005, University Club, San Francisco
That month, Hiss was promoted to become Director of the State Department Office of Special Political Affairs. Shortly thereafter, he was named Secretary-General of the upcoming United Nations Charter Conference in San Francisco. "As Secretary-General, managing the agenda," reported Time, Hiss "will have a lot to say behind the scenes about who gets the breaks."[309]

At the conference, "Vadim" (Anatoly Gorsky,[310] then chief of Soviet intelligence in the U.S.) wanted to meet with "Ales," according to a cable[311] Vassiliev discovered in the Soviet archives. His notes indicate that "Ales" had worked with "Ruble" (Harold Glasser)[312] as a member of a group run by "Karl" (Whittaker Chambers).[313] The cable adds that "'Ruble' gives 'Ales' an exceptionally good political reference as a member of the Comparty.... completely aware that he is Communist in an illegal position, with all the ensuing consequences," and recommends (according to the notes) that he be approached at the UN conference by "Sergei" (NKVD agent Vladimir Pravdin,[314] then under cover as head of the Soviet TASS news agency)[315] or Gorsky, "alluding either to the password, or to 'Ruble', or simply to 'Ales's' progressive attitudes."[316]

James F. Byrnes,[317] who became Secretary of State during the conference, said that despite his categorical instructions not to recommend any U.S. citizen for posts in the UN secretariat, Hiss recommended several dozen federal employees—members of Communist cells in the government, whose jobs were at risk under a tightened security program.[318] Meanwhile, Stettinius' ghost-writer at the conference was Dalton Trumbo, the Communist[319] screen writer, who would become infamous two years later as one of the "Hollywood Ten."[320] Press accounts attributed Trumbo's hiring to Hiss.[321]

Hiss arrives in Washington from San Francisco with UN Charter in water-tight box with parachute. Image courtesy United States Air Force
In April 1945, Glasser slipped a warning to Anatoly Gorsky, chief of Soviet intelligence in the U.S., that the FBI had notified Stettinius that Bureau surveillance had followed a bundle of State Department documents from Washington to New York, where they were photographed, then returned within 24 hours to Washington. Only three people had access to these documents, one of whom was "Ales." Stettinius told "Ales": "I hope it is not you."[322]

That same month, at the San Francisco conference, Soviet UN Ambassador Andrei Gromyko[323] nominated Hiss temporary secretary general (and thus a candidate for the first permanent Secretary General)[324] of the United Nations.[325] As one scholar notes, "It was astonishing for a Soviet diplomat to propose an American for what was then the UN's highest and most sensitive diplomatic post."[326] In London that September, Gromyko repeated to Stettinius, now the new U.S. Ambassador to the UN, that he "would be very happy to see Alger Hiss appointed temporary secretary general."[327] As Weinstein notes, "The endorsement of a leading American official by the Russians remains practically unique in the annals of Soviet-American diplomacy at this time."[328]

The same day Gromyko reiterated his endorsement of Hiss to Stettinius in London, Hiss made an extraordinary proposal that the State Department create a new post, that of "special assistant for military affairs," linked to his Office of Special Political Affairs,[329] thus giving Hiss access to information regarding atomic energy, arms procurement and military intelligence.[330] Hiss also proposed a State Department reorganization scheme, under which, warned Panuch, Hiss would acquire "working control" over the flow of papers within the department. "If this ambitious project should be approved," wrote Panuch, "the Hiss group will have achieved infiltration in, or control of" what he identified as "critically strategic points" within State.[331]

On June 4, 1945, six weeks after becoming President, Harry Truman was briefed about Venona, according to former National Security Agency officer Oliver Kirby, deputy director of the Russian code-breaking project.[332] Based on notes Kirby made at the time, Jerrold Schecter, former National Security Council spokesman for the Carter administration, reported that Brig. Gen. Carter Clarke, chief of the Army Security Agency (precursor of the NSA), advised President Truman that the code-breakers were decrypting messages that revealed massive Soviet intelligence operations in the United States, though it was too early to identify operatives or operations.[333] According to Kirby, Clarke described this meeting as "NDG" (no damn good),[334] the president telling the general that his account of code-breaking sounded "like a fairy story."[335] On June 26, The UN Charter was signed in San Francisco.[336]

Two days later, State Department liaison Lt. Andrew Roth of the Office of Naval Intelligence was arrested in the Amerasia spy case. Communist Party General Secretary Eugene Dennis told Communist Party National Committee member Jack Stachel[337] that Roth suggested that Alger Hiss might be used to quash the case, according to former CPUSA Politburo member Louis Budenz.[338]

Defections and Investigations

Igor Gouzenko

Stettinius (foreground left) with Alger Hiss (center), ca. January 1945. Courtesy Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, National Archives and Records Administration
Two days before Hiss proposed the creation of a "special assistant for military affairs," GRU code clerk Igor Gouzenko had defected from the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa, telling the FBI that one Lt. Kulakov in the office of the Soviet military attaché told him that he had learned in Moscow prior to his departure in May 1945 that an assistant to then U.S. Secretary of State Edward R. Stettinius was a Soviet spy.[339] Stettinius' aide at the time was Alger Hiss.[340] Following up on Gouzenko's revelations, Raymond Murphy of the State Department again interviewed Chambers, who repeated that Hiss' assignment was "to mess up policy."[341]

Canadian Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King wrote that acting under-secretary of state for external affairs Robertson told him that Gouzenko’s documents disclosed that “everything was much worse than we would have believed…. Stettinius [had] been surrounded by spies, etc….”[342]

On September 25, Walter Winchell again broached the subject on his broadcast, reporting, "It can be categorically stated that the question of the loyalty and integrity of one high American official has been called to the attention of the President." Weinstein calls this "a clear reference to Hiss," adding that Winchell was FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover's "most intimate journalistic confidante."[343]

Elizabeth Bentley

On November 27, the FBI disseminated a secret report to the State Department, the Attorney General, and the Truman White House, reporting Chambers' identification of Hiss as a secret member of the Communist underground apparatus in contact with the Ware group.[344] Three days later, defecting Soviet courier Elizabeth Bentley advised FBI investigators that Victor Perlo told her that Harold Glasser had been taken away from the “Perlo Group” and turned over to a Russian “by some American in some governmental agency in Washington.”

Bentley's unlikely account was corroborated by the previously-cited April 25, 1945 memo from Pavel Fitin, head of NKVD foreign intelligence, to NKVD Chief Vsevolod Merkulov, noting that Glasser had worked for both the NKVD and GRU:

Our agent RUBLE, drawn to work for the Soviet Union in May 1937, passed initially through the military "neighbors" and then through our station (NKVD) valuable information on political and economic issues.[345]

Bentley said that Charles Kramer (who would be identified by both Lee Pressman[346] and Nathaniel Weyl[347] as a member of the Ware group) told her that the person who had done this “was named Hiss and that he was in the U.S. State Department.”[348] She said after "Jack" (Soviet agent Joseph Katz)[349] asked her who Hiss was, she clipped an article in which Hiss was mentioned from the New York daily PM, whose Washington correspondent, I.F. Stone, was (according to Oleg Kalugin, former head of KGB operations in the United States) a fellow traveler[350] who cooperated with Soviet intelligence[351] as an "agent of influence."[352] Bentley said “It is my present recollection that this newspaper article stated Hiss’ full name was Eugene [sic] Hiss and that he was an adviser to Dean Acheson in the State Department.”[353] FBI investigation quickly closed in on Alger Hiss.[354] This was consistent with the above-cited March 5, 1945 cable,[355] in which Gorsky reports: "‘Ales’ and ‘Ruble’ [Harold Glasser][356] used to work in ‘Karl’s’ [Whittaker Chambers][357] informational group, which was affiliated with the neighbors [GRU]."[358] Before the end of 1945, a State Department Security memorandum summarized:

The name “Alger Hiss” in Cyrillic (Алджер Хисс) from Vassiliev's notes on the “Gorsky memo.” Image courtesy John Earl Haynes, Library of Congress
Bentley advised that members of this group had told her that Hiss of the State Department had taken Harold Glasser of the Treasury Department, and 2 or 3 others, and had turned them over to direct control by the Soviet representatives in this country. In this regard, attention is directed to Whittaker Chambers' statement regarding Alger Hiss and to the statement by Gouzenko, regarding an assistant to the Secretary of State who was a Soviet agent.[359]

Three years later, Anatoly Gorsky, chief of Soviet intelligence in the U.S. during World War II, would author an internal Soviet secret police memorandum, in which he would list 43 Soviet sources and intelligence officers likely to have been identified to U.S. authorities by Bentley after her defection. Included on the list was Alger Hiss.[360]

Investigations

On February 9, 1946, Stalin declared that war was inevitable as long as capitalism existed, in a speech regarded by some as the open declaration of Cold War.[361] Two days later, ex-Communist Benjamin Mandel, former manager of the Daily Worker,[362] identified Alger Hiss to the FBI as "a Communist Party member," and one of a "high level group of government employees who would not be found openly connected with the Party or with any Front organizations and who were specifically instructed not to display such connections."[363] The Bureau again interviewed Hiss, who denied ever being a Communist, and denied knowledge of any of his friends being Communists. He did, however, add that he had heard it said that Lee Pressman was either a Party member or followed the Party line.[364]

That year, British intelligence supplied its order of battle against Soviet-led guerrillas in Greece to the Pentagon. Shortly thereafter, this top-secret information appeared in the column of Drew Pearson[365] (whose reporter, David Karr, was a "competent KGB source"),[366] forcing the British army to withdraw, a move that would have delivered Greece to the Kremlin had not the U.S. intervened. According to de Toledano, “Deputy Assistant Secretary of State J. Anthony Panuch, in charge of security, tracked down the source of the leak. He discovered that Hiss had asked the Pentagon for this information, though it had nothing to do with his work as director of the Office of Special Political Affairs.”[367]

State Department security officers discovered that Hiss' desk calendar for September 14, 1946, recorded a meeting Hiss did not schedule through the department (and for which he made no official record) with "McLean [sic], British Emb."[368] Donald Maclean[369] was a diplomat at the British Embassy in Washington who was also a Soviet agent[370] and member of the Cambridge spy ring. He would defect in 1951 to the Soviet Union,[371] where he would be rewarded with the rank of Colonel in the KGB.[372] Another member of that ring, Kim Philby, would likewise defect to Moscow, later writing in his memoir, "it was also the era of Hiss, Coplon,[373] Fuchs,[374] Gold,[375] Greenglass,[376] and the brave Rosenbergs[377]—not to mention others who are still nameless."[378] Such praise from a Soviet master spy is "suggestive," writes Weinstein, that Philby "evidently either knew or believed" that Hiss was a fellow agent.[379]

That year, over strenuous objections on national-security grounds from the State Department's Office of American Republics Affairs (and the government of Panama), Hiss submitted (with the approval of Acting Secretary of State Dean Acheson) to the United Nations the annual report of the Governor of Panama to the War Department, a propaganda coup for the Soviets.[380]

Secretary of State James Byrnes told the FBI he would have fired Hiss, but for the mandatory Civil Service Commission hearing, which would have revealed confidential sources on the case.[381] In November 1946, the Bureau disseminated to the State Department, Attorney General and Truman White House a second secret report, this time reporting Bentley's allegations regarding "Eugene Hiss," suggesting that this might actually be a reference to Alger Hiss.[382] FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover asked President Harry S. Truman for permission to take action against Hiss, but Truman (according to a former chief of CIA Soviet bloc counterintelligence)[383] remained "stubbornly antagonistic" to the allegations.[384]

That November, the Republican Party won control of both houses of Congress for the first time since the elections of 1928.[385] With a grand jury looking into Soviet espionage, Congress took a sudden interest in Hiss, finally forcing the State Department to remove him from access to secrets.[386] In January, 1947, Byrnes quietly eased Hiss out of the State Department.[387] Hiss became president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, serving also as a trustee on the Institute of Pacific Relations.[388]

House Committee on Un-American Activities

Following up on testimony given by Bentley, on August 3, 1948, the House Committee on Un-American Activities called Whittaker Chambers. He repeated under oath what he had been telling State Department security officials and the FBI about the Ware group for a decade.[389] When Chambers testified against Hiss, wrote Sudoplatov, "we considered this to be a setback for GRU intelligence activities in the United States."[390]

Two days later, Hiss testified, denying that he ever even knew Chambers, in a statement Secretary of State Dean Acheson helped write.[391] Hiss "asked the committee to disregard the evidence and follow its emotions:

it is inconceivable that there could have been on my part, during fifteen years or more in public office… any departure from the highest rectitude[392] without its becoming known.[393] It is inconceivable that the men with whom I was intimately associated during those fifteen years should not know my true character better than this accuser. It is inconceivable that… [etc.][394] (emphases in original)

That day, President Truman finally reviewed Hiss’ FBI file. Pronouncing Hiss “guilty as hell,” Truman told White House Special Counsel Samuel Rosenman, “We shouldn't just indict this son of a bitch. We should hang him.”[395] Five minutes later, Truman blustered to a press conference that the Hiss case was just an election-year “red herring”[396] (a characterization he would repeat as late as 1956).[397] When Rosenman later asked why he had lied, Truman explained, “You don't understand. The Republicans aren't after Alger Hiss. They're after me. I had to take the political view.”[398] (That year, referring to Venona,[399] Truman told Secretary of Defense James Forrestal there were "too many unknowns" in the partially decoded Soviet messages,[400] saying, "Even if part of this is true, it would open up the whole red panic again.")[401]

So strong was Hiss' denial that the committee wanted to drop the investigation.[402] But one member, freshman Congressman Richard M. Nixon (R-Calif.) insisted that either Chambers or Hiss was lying about whether they had known one another,[403] and he asked the committee to appoint him to head a subcommittee to find out which one.[404]

On August 16, Chambers offered to take a lie-detector test.[405] Hiss refused (a refusal he kept up for the rest of his life),[406] but he dared[407] Chambers to repeat his charges outside of the immunity afforded in congressional hearings, so Hiss could sue him. In her newspaper column that day, Eleanor Roosevelt set the tone of respectable opinion, writing, "Smearing good people like Lauchlin Currie, Alger Hiss and others is, I think, unforgivable .... Anyone knowing Mr. Currie or Mr. Hiss, who are the two people whom I happen to know fairly well, would not need any denial on their part to know they are not Communists. Their records prove it."[408] (Currie was the NKVD agent[409] in the White House[410] who tipped the Kremlin off in 1944 that the U.S. was on the verge of breaking the Soviet code.)[411]

The next day, Truman aide George Elsie wrote to White House Counsel Clark Clifford, "Justice should make every effort to ascertain if Whittaker Chambers is guilty of perjury." No suggestion was made that Justice make any effort at all to ascertain if Hiss might be guilty of perjury, but a handwritten insertion advised "Investigation of Chambers' confinement in a mental institution."[412] (Again, no suggestion was made that Hiss' mental health history might be subject to investigation.) In falling for the fiction that Chambers had been committed to an insane asylum, the Truman administration was "taken in by disinformation being spread by the American Communist party and Alger Hiss's partisans."[413]

On August 27, on NBC's Meet the Press, Chambers called Hiss' bluff, saying, "Alger Hiss was a Communist and may be now."[414] Embarrassment mounted among Hiss' supporters as a month dragged by and still no suit was filed. Even the Washington Post began to have doubts.[415] Finally, on September 28, Hiss filed his long-threatened slander suit against Chambers.

Hiss' suit against Chambers

The Baltimore Documents

In a pre-trial "discovery" deposition for the suit, Hiss's attorneys told Chambers to produce "any correspondence, either typewritten or in handwriting" from Hiss. Chambers retrieved the packet he had given his wife's nephew in 1938, which had been hidden in a dumbwaiter shaft.[416] Three days later, Chambers turned over to Hiss' attorneys 43 typewritten documents (65 pages) and five handwritten memoranda, some so sensitive that for security reasons they could not safely be made public, though already a decade old.[417] Hiss conceded that the typed pages appeared to be copies of authentic State Department documents, and admitted that four of the handwritten memos appeared to be in his handwriting.[418]

Assistant U.S. Attorney Thomas J. Donegan told the FBI that Assistant Attorney General Alexander M. Campbell, head of the Criminal Division at Truman Justice, “now wants to institute perjury charges against Chambers” for not revealing the documents before this. FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover's handwritten addendum comments, “I wonder why they don't move against Hiss also.”[419] The Truman administration's determination to indict Chambers rather than Hiss was unusual, as two leading scholars of the case note:

Usually … when a witness gives false testimony and then later comes forward and provides a truthful account, no perjury charge is brought. To charge perjury … in such a case would be a disincentive for a witness to provide a subsequent truthful account…. [A] perjury count is rarely brought if a witness corrects false testimony in a timely fashion…. Chambers corrected his false sworn testimony within two months of his grand jury testimony ... and his false testimony had not produced any miscarriage of justice.[420]

The Pumpkin Papers

One of the 'pumpkin papers,' marked 'STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL FOR THE SECRETARY.' Bullitt relates to Hull report of Litvinov's private comments on Soviet intentions regarding war with Japan, 1938. Image courtesy National Archives and Records Administration

On December 2, in response to a subpoena, Chambers led HUAC investigators on his Maryland farm to a pumpkin he had hollowed out the night before and in which he had secreted five rolls (two developed strips and three undeveloped rolls, one of which later proved to have been lightstruck)[421] of 35 milimeter film.[422] The film included fifty-eight frames, mostly photos of State and Navy Department documents, dated January 5 through April 1, 1938 (the so-called "Pumpkin Papers"). The State Department documents dealt with a wide variety of subjects, including U.S. intentions with respect to the Soviet Union, the Spanish Civil War, and Germany's takeover of Austria.[423] Some of the documents on the film were initialed by Hiss and came from his office.[424] Some were of a highly sensitive, classified nature.[425] Some State Department cables bearing Hiss' handwritten initials had direct bearing on matters of major Soviet interest, including Chinese Communist strategy during the war with Japan and Chinese-Soviet relations.[426]

According to Chambers, some of the microfilm was made by a contact he knew only as "Felix," who would photograph documents with a Leica purchased by the Communist underground. For such work, said Chambers, Felix had been trained in Moscow, where he traveled on a forged U.S. passport. In 1949 Chambers would lead FBI investigators to the Baltimore block in which he thought Felix had lived in the 1930s. The Bureau discovered that a Felix Inslerman had lived on the block, later moving to Schenectady, N.Y., where he worked on a secret guided-missile project, in 1946 becoming one of the few civilians to attend the atomic tests at Bikini.

Both before the grand jury and in the second Hiss trial, Inslerman would refuse to answer questions on grounds of potential self-incrimination. But in Inslerman's Schenectady home, the FBI found a Leica whose imperfections matched the scratch marks on Chambers' famed pumpkin film. In 1954, Inslerman would corroborate Chambers' story under oath.[427]

The day Chambers revealed the "pumpkin papers," on an FBI memorandum detailing the perjury investigation of Chambers ordered by Truman Justice, Hoover penned, "I can't understand why such effort is being made to indict Chambers to the exclusion of Hiss."[428] As late as December 6, Truman Justice was still contemplating "bringing an indictment against Chambers for perjury."[429]

On that day, Hiss's attorney Edward McLean gave the defense's documents examiner, J. Howard Haring, a batch of old Hiss family letters that Hiss had given him the previous September, two months before Chambers produced the documents. Immediately identifying the typeface as that of a Woodstock typewriter, Haring reported that one of Mrs. Hiss's 1933 letters "was typed on the same machine as the Chambers documents." McLean informed the Hisses of this finding the same day. The next day, according to another of Hiss' lawyers, John F. Davis: "Alger ... asked [me to] check on an old machine which he remembers he gave to Pat, the son of Claudia Catlett...." Yet Hiss continued to swear under oath that he remembered neither the make nor disposition of the typewriter.[430]

Hiss would later change his story, testifying that he gave the typewriter to the Catletts in 1937, before the date of the documents produced by Chambers. Pat Catlett, however, would tell defense lawyers that Hiss gave the Catletts the typewriter in the spring of 1938, just after the dates of the documents.[431]

On December 13, the FBI independently located specimens of Priscilla Hiss's typing from the 1930s. The FBI laboratory concluded, like Haring, that all the papers in question had been typed on the same typewriter, a Woodstock.[432]

Another defense expert, Harry E. Cassidy, concluded that Priscilla Hiss not only typed the Chambers documents, but wrote all the handwritten corrections on the typed documents. Asked by Hiss's attorneys whether it was more likely that Hiss or Chambers had written these corrections, Haring responded: "I am inclined to the opinion that the AH [Alger Hiss] corrections more closely resemble the QUESTIONED writing, than do the writings of WC [Whittaker Chambers]." A third defense expert, Edwin Fearon, agreed, reporting to the Hiss lawyers: "The corrections appearing in Exhibits 5-47 inclusive (exception—Exhibit 10) bear a closer resemblence [sic] to the handwritten corrections made by AH than to those made by WC." Fearon added that all but one of the documents were "typed on Woodstock typewriter no.N230099"—the Hiss' machine.[433]

On December 15, Alger Hiss proposed to the grand jury a theory that someone (perhaps Chambers)[434] had sneaked into the State Department and stolen the documents from his desk[435] then, having somehow obtained access to Hiss' typewriter,[436] typed some of the documents on it[437] and microfilmed others, and then sneaked back into the State Department and replaced the originals,[438] all in an elaborate plot to frame Hiss[439] a decade later.[440] Even Hiss admitted that his theory was "fantastic,"[441] stating, "Until the day I die, I shall wonder how Whittaker Chambers got into my house to use my typewriter," a statement provoking outright laughter among jurors.[442]

Hiss testified that he never gave any documents to Whittaker Chambers, and that he had no contact with Chambers after January 1, 1937. The grand jury indicted Hiss on two counts of perjury, charging that he lied under oath in both these statements. Because the statute of limitations had expired, the grand jury could not consider espionage charges.

Since Chambers had gained the upper hand by voluntarily waiving immunity from slander, ex-Socialist[443] and Soviet intelligence source[444] Walter Lippman (whose secretary, Mary Price, was a Soviet agent)[445] suggested that Hiss turn the tables by waiving the statute of limitations on espionage. Hiss never took him up on that suggestion.[446]

The Trials

On May 31, 1949, Alger Hiss went on trial for perjury in New York City.[447] At trial, Hiss provided an all-star cast of character witnesses, including such notables as Adlai Stevenson, Justice Felix Frankfurter, and former Democratic presidential candidate John W. Davis.[448] However, both Under Secretary Welles and Sayre testified that delivering the classifed documents to a foreign power would enable them to break America's most secret codes.[449]

At Hiss’ first perjury trial, Hornbeck testified that an unnamed friend had warned him that Hiss was a Communist fellow-traveler, but he disregarded the warning.[450] At the second trial, Hornbeck testified that on at least two occasions he was warned that Hiss was a Communist, and named Bullitt as his source.[451] John Foster Dulles, who had recommended Hiss for the Carnegie Endowment, likewise testified at that trial that various people had warned him that Hiss was a Communist.[452]

The prosecution called Hede Massing, but at the first trial Judge Samuel H. Kaufman ruled that her testimony was irrelevant. At the second trial, Judge Henry W. Goddard allowed her to testify about Hiss' 1935 attempt to get Noel Field to transfer from her OGPU group to Hiss' GRU group.[453] To avoid testifying, Field fled to the East bloc.[454] Writing in Balliol College's Oxonion Review, professed "liberal" Daniel Hemel sums up:

[W]hat is striking about the Hiss trial is not that the prosecution engaged in shameless red-baiting (it did not), but that Hiss’s defense team engaged in shameless gay-baiting. Unable to discredit Chambers based on the facts of the case, Hiss’s lawyers (with the defendant’s encouragement) sought to smear Chambers based on the fact that he was bisexual. Fortunately, the jurors in the Hiss case were not as horrifyingly homophobic as Hiss and his attorneys. In retrospect, if either side of the trial engaged in egregious behaviour, it was the defense—not the prosecution.[455]

Hiss's friend and former colleague, Charles Wyzanski, Senior District Judge of the U.S. District Court in Boston, testified in both trials in defense of Hiss. Wyzanski, who "initially had supposed [Hiss] innocent," later concluded that "Hiss was guilty," as did Hiss' own attorney, William L. Marbury.[456]

Conviction

The first trial ended June 8, 1949 in a hung jury,[457] with eight for conviction and four against. The second trial began on November 17, 1949. In January, 1950, the jury returned a unanimous verdict: Guilty on both counts.[458] In his pre-sentencing statement, Hiss said, "I am confident that in the future the full facts showing how Whittaker Chambers was able to carry out forgery by typewriter will be developed."[459]

Hiss was sentenced to two concurrent five-year terms in federal prison. Secretary of State Dean Acheson provoked outrage by commenting, "Whatever the outcome of any appeal which Mr. Hiss or his lawyer may take, I do not intend to turn my back on Alger Hiss." Eleanor Roosevelt added to the furor with her comment, "It seems rather horrible to condemn someone on the word of someone else who admits to guilt." Time magazine commented that she "obviously had not been paying much attention," being "unaware of, or determined to ignore, the corroborating evidence introduced by the Government."[460]

That year, General of the Army Omar Bradley, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, informed President Truman that Venona had "positively identified" Hiss and Harry Dexter White as Soviet agents.[461] According to Bradley, Truman said, "That G—D— stuff. Every time it bumps into us it gets bigger and bigger. It's likely to take us down."[462]

Hiss appealed, but in December 1950 his conviction was affirmed by the U.S. Court of Appeals[463] and the Supreme Court denied him certiorari, as well as his repeated petitions for a writ of error coram nobis[464] (orchestrated by long-time Communist Party member[465] Victor Rabinowitz).[466] Hiss served 44 months of his five-year sentence in Lewisburg Federal Prison.

In prison, Hiss' best fiends were the Mafia gangsters,[467] whom he later compared to prisoners of war in terms of solidarity, hierarchy and discipline.[468] He called them “the most stable group in any prison”[469] and “the healthiest inmates of the prison” because they “had absolutely no sense of guilt.”[470] Hiss admitted that he, too, never felt guilt about anything he had ever done—as one Hiss biographer comments, “an incredible statement from anyone.”[471]

Later Life

Hiss was released in 1954. Disbarred, he became a salesman. Five years later, Alger and Priscilla Hiss separated.[472] In the late '60s, Hiss met Mrs. Isabel Dowden Johnson, a former editor at The New York Times and ex-wife of the Communist[473] screen writer Lester Cole, a member of the "Hollywood Ten."[474] Priscilla reportedly had a breakdown, in which she said she was “tired of all the lies and cover-ups,”[475] and complained that "Alger was willing to sacrifice us all on the altar of his vindication."[476] Following Priscilla's death in 1984, Alger and Isabel married.[477]

In 1974, the Watergate scandal forced President Nixon to resign, giving "some credence to a wide spectrum of conspiracy theories involving fake typewriters, phony microfilm, and various collusions among the FBI, Nixon, HUAC, the CIA, the radical right, and the KGB."[478] In 1975, the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court granted Hiss' petition for readmittance to the State Bar of Massachusetts, although the court's ruling stated "nothing we have said here should be construed as detracting one iota from the fact that in considering Hiss's petition we consider him to be guilty as charged."[479] In 1981, Bard College established an Alger Hiss Distinguished Professorship[480] in Social Studies, formerly held by socialist[481] Joel Kovel,[482] who declared that America's obsession with anti-Communism during the Cold War led the U.S. to become “the enemy of humanity.”[483] By the time Nixon died in 1994, Foreign Policy magazine could assign the task of reviewing his posthumous book, Beyond Peace, to his embittered foe, George McGovern, who took the opportunity to avenge his humiliating landslide defeat by Nixon, writing without explanation, "The evidence that Hiss was a security risk to the United States simply is not convincing."[484] Despite the mountains of evidence against him that only increased as incriminatory Soviet bloc documents came to light following the collapse of Communism, Hiss continued for the rest of his life to claim innocence.

The Volkogonov affair

After the fall of Soviet Communism in 1991, former President Nixon and the director of his presidential library, John H. Taylor, petitioned the new Russian President Boris Yeltsin to open the Soviet archives relating to the Hiss-Chambers case. Meanwhile Hiss and his lawyer[485] appealed to retired Soviet Army General Dmitri Volkogonov and the Russian Federal Security Service (FSB) for confirmation that Lowenthal's "client, Alger Hiss," had never been "an agent of the NKVD."[486] (This despite the fact that the evidence implicates Hiss as an agent of the GRU, not the NKVD.)[487]

Volkogonov, as apparatchik in charge of Soviet military history under the Communists[488] had written with official blessing[489] a 1988 biography of Stalin in which he defended Stalin's claim that a majority in the Baltics favored incorporation into the Soviet Union in August 1940, described Stalin's invasion of Poland as "largely justified," blamed the West for the Cold War,[490] and accepted the claim that Stalin's purges were provoked by Trotskyist and Nazi agents.[491]

At a 1992 press conference, Lowenthal released to the media a statement from Volkogonov claiming that "Alger Hiss was never an agent of the intelligence services of the Soviet Union." Hiss dubbed this a "final verdict," adding, "I can't imagine a more authoritative source than the files of the old Soviet Union." Lowenthal said Volkogonov was apparently "willing to stake his reputation as a general, historian and politician" on this statement.[492] Lowenthal showed reporters a videotape of an interview he did with Volkogonov, prompting "an extraordinary, emotional reaction from the world's press," according to one account. "Some reporters gulped back tears."[493]

The CBS Morning News reported that Hiss was "apparently exonerated."[494] On NBC's Today, co-host Scott Simon said, "This week's revelations about Alger Hiss may help us remember how vulnerable something as real as a reputation may be... So Mr. Hiss may have lived long enough to feel vindicated, but no one lives so long that they have years to give away to suspicions and mistakes."[495] CNN's Gary Tuchman asked why "Hiss's own government has not exonerated him." The New Yorker ran a seven-page essay by Tony Hiss on "My Father's Honor."[496]

But when questioned Volkogonov admitted that he spent only two days in the Foreign Intelligence Archive,[497] and that he had not actually examined any archives. Instead, according to the former director of the U.S. Information Agency's Office to Counter Soviet Disinformation and Active Measures,[498] he asked Yevgeny Primakov,[499] head of the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service (formerly the KGB), to provide him with the information.[500] Volkogonov said that Primakov said that employees of the foreign intelligence archive said that "A. Hiss was not registered in the documents as a recruited agent."[501]

According to the Director of Cold War Studies at Harvard University, Volkogonov admitted that he had "not seen anything from the GRU archive" and that without going through the files there, there was "no basis for saying anything that would shed greater light on the question of Hiss.”[502] “I looked only through what the KGB had,” said Volkogonov. “The Ministry of Defense also has an intelligence service, which is totally different,” admitted Volkogonov. "There's no guarantee... that it was not in other channels….”[503]

Asked if he had examined the files of the Comintern, Volkogonov admitted, “I have not had the opportunity to see these documents.”[504] In addition, even in the KGB archive, “many documents have been destroyed,” admitted Volkogonov. “There's no guarantee that [Hiss’ file] was not destroyed.”[505]

“What I saw gives no basis to claim a full clarification,” concluded Volkogonov. “[Hiss’] attorney, Lowenthal, pushed me hard to say things of which I was not fully convinced.”[506] Volkogonov added that he felt he had been "deceived" by Lowenthal.[507]

Finally, after almost a month, The New York Times, which had devoted half a page to Volkogonov's alleged "vindication" of Hiss, gave one column to his retraction.[508]

Corroboration from Soviet archives

According to Library of Congress Cold War historian John Earl Haynes,[509] Alger Hiss’s known cryptonyms were "Jurist"[510] or "Lawyer"[511] ("Advocate"[512] or "Advokat")[513] during his time at the United States Department of Justice (1935-36), "Ales"[514] in 1945, and "Leonard" in the "Gorsky memo."[515]

Venona, Hiss' Death and the Battle for History

In October 1996, the CIA and NSA released the Venona decrypts, including the "Ales" transmission of March 30, 1945.[516] The following month, on November 15, 1996, Alger Hiss died. His original Associated Press obituary said that Hiss proclaimed vindication "when a Russian general in charge of Soviet intelligence archives declared that Hiss had never been a spy, but rather a victim of Cold War hysteria and the McCarthy Red-hunting era."[517] That night, NBC's Tom Brokaw said, "Hiss considered vindication a declaration by a Russian General, who controlled the KGB archives, saying that Hiss had never been a spy."[518] ABC's Peter Jennings said Hiss "protested his innocence until the very end and last year we reported that the Russian President Boris Yeltsin said that KGB files had supported Mr. Hiss's claim."[519] MSNBC anchor Brigitte Quinn said, "In 1987 [sic], a Russian general declared that Hiss was never a spy, but a victim of Cold War hysteria." None of these stories mentioned Volkogonov's retraction. Three days passed before Brokaw corrected the record; four days for Jennings (who belatedly admitted that the source was not Yeltsin, but Volkogonov).[520]

Meanwhile, Volkogonov had also died and retired KGB General Julius N. Kobyakov (whom Harvey Klehr and John Earl Haynes write "insists that Hiss was not a spy, while nostalgically applauding the greatness of the KGB and lamenting the fall of the USSR")[521] had claimed that it was not Volkogonov but he who had actually searched the Soviet files.[522]

Like Volkogonov, Kobyakov admitted that he had not even seen the GRU files ("No, I did not examine Soviet military archives"); instead, he took the GRU's word for their contents ("I wrote a letter to the GRU and received the relevant answer"). What was that answer? Kobyakov isn't telling: "That of course was, and, I believe, still is a classified correspondence." Why correspondence about 60- or 70-year-old files of a regime that no longer exists is classified, he did not say—although he did mention that he strongly disapproved of the post-Communist government allowing researchers access to Soviet archives, adding, "fortunately they had no access to the files I worked with."[523]

Kobyakov also said that former KGB General-Lieutenant Vitaly Pavlov,[524] who ran Soviet intelligence work in North America in the late 1930s and early 1940s for the NKVD, claimed that Hiss never worked for the USSR as one of his agents.[525] That is hardly surprising, note scholars, since the evidence implicates Hiss as an agent of the GRU, not the NKVD.[526]

After the Volkogonov fiasco, Russian officials stripped Soviet archives of all files regarding Hiss and Chambers, reported the editor of the New York Times Book Review.[527] In an interview with PBS Nova, aired in 2002, former KGB agent Alexander Vassiliev said, "The Rosenbergs, Theodore Hall and Alger Hiss did spy for the Soviets, and I saw their real names in the documents, their code names, a lot of documents about that. How you judge them is up to you. To me they're heroes."[528]

Legacy

Few serious scholars still regard the matter of Hiss' guilt as unresolved. As the Britannica Online Encyclopedia states, Venona "provided strong evidence of Hiss's guilt."[529] Oxford University Press' U.S. Military Dictionary dubs this evidence "compelling."[530] TruTV's Crime Library concludes, "the bulk of evidence points to Hiss's guilt beyond a reasonable doubt."[531] Writing in American History magazine, James T. Gay of West Georgia College agrees, "the preponderance of evidence does weigh heavily against Hiss."[532] Stephen Koch writes, "I for one have been brought close to certainty, on the basis of archival information, that Chambers was telling the truth."[533]

In American Heritage magazine, Geoffrey C. Ward writes, "I believe the most dispassionate, step-by-step account of [the Hiss case] is still Allen Weinstein’s Perjury."[534] Weinstein, a former Archivist of the United States,[535] had the cooperation of Hiss and access to his attorneys' files in his research.[536] He set out "intending to prove Hiss' innocence. But he was an honest man and the facts he found convinced him (as they do any reader of his book) that Hiss was guilty," writes the former chief of Soviet bloc counterintelligence at the CIA.[537] Weinstein concluded:

"the body of available evidence proves that Hiss perjured himself when describing his secret dealings with Chambers, so that the jury in his second trial made no mistake in finding Alger Hiss guilty as charged."[538]

The bipartisan Moynihan commission went further—not just on perjury, but on espionage—the commission's unanimous Final Report concluding, "The complicity of Alger Hiss of the State Department seems settled."[539]

"Part of Hiss's KGB file has come out that proves the obvious point he was guilty as charged," says Christopher Andrew of Cambridge University.[540] Andrew and former KGB agent Vasili Mitrokhin conclude that "corroborative evidence now available puts that identification beyond reasonable doubt."[541] Hiss' "role as a spy was eventually proven," says American University historian Robert Beisner.[542] Weinstein presented "overwhelming evidence of Hiss's espionage," writes Beisner, who calls Venona the "coup de grâce."[543] University of Virginia Law School Professor G. Edward White, a son-in-law of Hiss' attorney John F. Davis,[544] writes, "recently released evidence in U.S. and Soviet archives, taken together with some previously available testimony of persons connected with Soviet intelligence in the United States in the 1930s and 1940s, supports Chambers's charges against Hiss."[545] "In August 1948, Alger Hiss lied before HUAC," writes Ryan Ervin of Eastern Illinois University. "His testimony before HUAC proves this beyond any doubt. Intercepted Soviet cables during the Cold War, released in 1996, further prove Hiss’s Communist ties."[546] "The broad sweep of Chambers' allegations are now beyond doubt," writes David McKnight of the University of New South Wales.[547] "Alger Hiss and Harry Dexter White are among those whose long-suspected involvement in such [Soviet espionage] seems to be confirmed by the Venona cables," writes Hamilton College history professor Maurice Isserman.[548] Jonathan Brent, editorial director of Yale University Press (and—ironically—holder of the "Alger Hiss" chair at Bard College), says, "We're 99 percent certain that Hiss was a spy."[549] In light of recent scholarship, notes Hayden Peake, curator of CIA’s Historical Intelligence Collection, "it is hard to see how even the most frequently made counterargument—that there was no Communist involvement in espionage—can be sustained…. The same is true when it comes to specific cases, but supporters of Alger Hiss … will no doubt persist."[550]

Even on the left, few authorities disagree. "My own sense of things was that Hiss had been a [Communist] party member in the Thirties and did give Soviet agents documents," wrote the late Harvard professor and Kennedy administration official Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr.,[551] who concluded of Hiss, "I believe him to be guilty."[552] Thomas Reed, Secretary of the Air Force in the Carter administration, writes, "The Venona transcripts, released in 1997 and identifying Hiss via his code name Ales, and the postwar testimony of defecting Soviet code clerk Igor Gouzenko, remove any doubt about Hiss’s guilt."[553] Berkeley professor J. Bradford DeLong, a former Clinton administration official and professed "social democrat"[554] writes, "Was Alger Hiss at some time a spy for the Soviet Union? Probably."[555] Another Clinton official, National Security Advisor Anthony Lake (a member of Barack Obama's "Senior Working Group on National Security"),[556] actually went so far as to retract[557] a statement—made in the wake of Hiss' death—suggesting that the evidence against Hiss was less than conclusive.[558] Professed atheist[559] Obama supporter[560] Susan Jacoby writes, "I believe Hiss was guilty of both perjury and spying."[561] Yeshiva University Professor Ellen Schrecker (who defends American Communist spies as demurring from "traditional forms of patriotism")[562] concedes, "There is now too much evidence from too many different sources for anyone but the most die-hard loyalists to argue convincingly for the innocence of Hiss…."[563]

Even at The Nation, the self-advertised "flagship of the Left,"[564] (tagged by the late Eric Breindel "America's leading forum for Alger Hiss apologia"),[565] the ardor for Hiss seems to be cooling. Kai Bird, a contributing editor at The Nation and his coauthor, Svetlana Chervonnaya of the Russian Academy of Sciences, write—in an article defending Hiss—"We do not propose to address the larger question of whether Hiss was guilty or innocent of espionage."[566] Nation columnist Eric Alterman likewise writes, "I take no position on guilt or innocence."[567] "Militant atheist"[568] Christopher Hitchens, long-time columnist for The Nation,[569] writes of once quipping to the hostess of a dinner party he attended with Alger Hiss, "Why don't we secure the doors and say: 'Look, Alger, it's just us. Come on. You're among friends. Tell us why you really did it.'"[570] Even long-time Nation publisher Victor Navasky, "instead of forcefully arguing that Hiss wasn't guilty as he once did ... now acknowledges that Hiss wasn't telling the truth when he testified that he didn't know Whittaker Chambers."[571] Navasky, now chairman of the Columbia Journalism Review,[572] says that in reference to the activities of people "in US left circles.... many of whom were Marxists, some of whom were Communists, some of whom were critical of US government policy," during this era, the word "espionage" is "out of context." He prefers to call it "exchanges of information" that happened to be in "violation of the law."[573] (As critics have noted, such "exchanges" only went one way.)[574] Regarding Hiss, Isserman, probably the best regarded of the left-wing scholars of Communism, concludes: "Let's face it, the debate just ended."[575]

Scholarly Consensus

Today, reports Oxford University's Oxonian Review, "the Hiss case is one issue upon which consensus transcends ideological divides."[576] "Soviet files made public in 1995 convinced most observers that he had been guilty," says The Columbia Encyclopedia.[577] By 2006, "most historians had come to the conclusion that Hiss was probably guilty," said Richard Aldrich of Britain's Nottingham University.[578] "Those who have studied the Hiss case by and large believe that he was guilty of perjury and quite likely also guilty of espionage, that is, of passing government documents to the Soviets," write Gilbert Geis and Leigh B. Bienen.[579] David Oshinsky says "the vast majority of modern American historians today .... see evidence pointing overwhelmingly to Hiss being guilty as charged.”[580] "'ALES' is assumed by most scholars to be Alger Hiss," observes Douglas O. Linder of the University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law.[581] "For the majority of scholars, the critical ALES transmission puts to rest any doubt about Hiss’s complicity in the Soviet underground," agrees R. Bruce Craig.[582] Columbia University historian David Greenberg refers to "the dwindling band of those who believe in Hiss."[583] Thomas Powers writes that "no serious scholar of the subject any longer dismisses" the "voluminous and explicit claims by Whittaker Chambers and Elizabeth Bentley."[584] Even Obama supporter[585] Charles Fried, a professor at Hiss' alma mater, Harvard Law School (and former Justice of the court that granted Hiss' petition for readmittance to the Massachusetts Bar), writes, "it is now clear to all but the most obdurate that Alger Hiss was a Soviet agent..."[586]

"In the end, the publication of the Venona intercepts... settled the matter—to all but the truest of believers, 'Ales' could only be Alger Hiss," writes Stanley Kutler of the University of Wisconsin Law School.[587] "The basic question—whether Alger Hiss was a spy for the Soviet Union during the 1930s and 1940s—was finally settled during the 1990s.... Today, only a small band of true believers, headed by Hiss’s son, still tries to argue his innocence,"[588] writes John Ehrman. "Hiss’ defenders stubbornly tried to rebut each revelation, but eventually they were overwhelmed," recounts Ehrman, concluding that Navasky is "now virtually alone in his rejection of the case against Hiss."[589] "Outside the ranks of Nation readers and a dwindling coterie of academic leftists, there are few people still willing to claim that Alger Hiss and Harry Dexter White were not Soviet agents," agrees Harvey Klehr, Andrew Mellon professor of politics and history at Emory University.[590] Ronald Radosh, emeritus professor of history at the City College of New York, concurs, "Except for a dwindling group—mostly Nation magazine readers and editors …. the consensus has solidified: Hiss was undoubtedly a Soviet spy."[591] Nation contributor Athan Theoharis concedes that the "conventional assessment" is that Hiss was "an unreconstructed Soviet spy."[592] Even Bird and Chervonnaya admit, "Most historians have conceded the argument to Weinstein."[593] Speaking of the thesis that Hiss was guilty, Navasky himself concedes that “for the last 10 years, that has been the consensus.”[594]

Hiss in the Mass Media

So broad is this academic consensus that it has begun to penetrate even the popular press. By 1991, the New York Times was reporting that "a handful of Hiss supporters continues to doubt his guilt, but for most historians it is all but certain."[595] Two years later, the paper reported "a growing consensus that Hiss, indeed, had most likely been a Soviet agent."[596] In 2004, the Times' former executive editor, Pulitzer-prize winner Max Frankel, wrote that "most historians" now "accept Hiss's guilt."[597] The following year, the paper reported that "no serious cold war historian now questions ... that Hiss lied."[598] That Hiss “brought home stolen State Department documents for handoff to a fellow Communist and spy named Whittaker Chambers” is “the commonly accepted story line,” agrees the Washington Post.[599] Time magazine concurs that Hiss' supporters are "dwindling" as "the weight of historical evidence indicates that Hiss was... a Soviet spy."[600] "For... Alger Hiss," Newsweek reports, "a richly detailed new book, Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America by historians John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr.... provides irrefutable confirmation of guilt."[601] U.S. News and World Report says, "Most scholars considered the case against Hiss firmly established by Allen Weinstein's Perjury, published in 1978."[602] "The sum and substance of this growing body of material is that.... Alger Hiss, a darling of the establishment, was guilty," wrote liberal[603] columnist Nicholas Von Hoffman,[604] who even Navasky admits is "anything but a right-winger."[605] The left-leaning[606] New York Review of Books concludes, "The evidence now... is simply overwhelming.... Hiss was one of a number of... converts to communism hurrying about Washington in the 1930s recruiting others to serve 'real, existing Socialism' in the Soviet Union...."[607] The left-of-center[608] Washington Monthly calls the evidence against Hiss "quite devastating," dubbing the Venona decrypts "damning" and "rock-hard evidence" of Hiss' guilt.[609] The Guardian, Britain's leading left-wing newspaper[610] reports that "the general view" is "that Hiss was guilty."[611] Jacob Heilbrunn (a columnist at the "pugnatiously liberal"[612] Huffington Post), writing at Truthdig.com ("A Progressive Journal of News and Opinion"), admits, "the evidence that Hiss was innocent of serving as a Soviet spy is sparse. It requires contortions to suggest that he was not and to explain away the evidence suggesting that he was."[613] The left-liberal[614] Salon.com says "Hiss' defenders have dwindled to a small handful of true believers."[615] Slate.com (where more than 98 percent of staff and contributors supported Barack Obama)[616] admits that "even many on the left—including younger historians such as Rick Perlstein" have become convinced "that Hiss was guilty, although old-school loyalists like Navasky remained skeptical,"[617] and adds, "Heads up: Alger Hiss was guilty,"[618] concluding, "if we paleo-libs continue in our ancient rancors, we'll start looking like those troglodytes who still plump for Alger Hiss' innocence."[619]

References

  1. "....Alger Hiss, a former high-ranking State Department official...." Press Release: National Archives to Make Available Alger Hiss Grand Jury Materials, United States National Archives and Records Administration, October 11, 1999
  2. "...served as the Secretary-General of the United Nations Conference on International Organization in San Francisco in 1945." Hiss, Alger. Prison Correspondence, 1951-1954: Finding Aid, Harvard Law School Library
  3. "....Daniel Patrick Moynihan, a liberal Democrat...." Louis Uchitelle, "The Rehabilitation of Morning in America," The New York Times, February 23, 1997
  4. Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Secrecy: The American Experience, New Haven: Yale University Press (1998) ISBN 0300077564, p. 146
  5. "I was born in Baltimore. Md., on November 11, 1904." Testimony of Alger Hiss before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (August 5, 1948)
  6. "...an upper-middle-class Presbyterian family. The Hiss family was financially comfortable...." Denise Noe, "The Alger Hiss Case," TruTV Crime Library. The Hisses were "prominent, respected people. They kept their own horse and carriage, and on occasion [Alger's father] would hire a private railroad car for a family outing. They were seen at concerts and art galleries, they cultivated a life of good taste and literary interests, they knew everyone they wanted to know in Baltimore, they belonged to the best clubs, and they were recognized wherever they went." (John Chabot Smith, Alger Hiss, the True Story [Geneva, Ill.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1976] ISBN 0030137764, p. 34)
  7. Aaron Beim and Gary Alan Fine, "The Cultural Frameworks of Prejudice: Reputational Images and the Postwar Disjuncture of Jews and Communism," The Sociological Quarterly, Summer 2007, Volume 48, Issue 3, pp. 373-397. "Alger's mother claimed descent from the Earl of Leicester and, on her mother's side, a leading Baltimore family, the Grundys." (Lance Morrow, The Best Year of Their Lives: Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon in 1948: Learning the Secrets of Power [New York: Basic Books, 2005] ISBN 0465047238, P. 248)
  8. "...an executive in a wholesale dry-goods firm..." Janny Scott, "Alger Hiss, 92, Central Figure in Long-Running Cold War Controversy," The New York Times, November 16, 1996
  9. "Alger Hiss's father committed suicide rather savagely, slashing his throat with his own razor." Lance Morrow, "Fred Astaire Meets the Sad-Sack Dostoevskian Pudge," Time, November 25, 1996
  10. "....Mary Ann... had swallowed a bottle of Lysol, killing herself." G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 5
  11. "Bos.... drank a lot... and contracted Bright's disease, an alcohol-induced kidney ailment...." Tony Hiss, Laughing Last: Alger Hiss by Tony Hiss (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977), ISBN 039524899X, cited in G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 158; "Bosley... died... of Bright's disease, a kidney disorder aggravated by Bosley's overindulgence in alcohol." Denise Noe, "The Alger Hiss Case," TruTV Crime Library
  12. "...provided a $10000 bequest to each of the Hiss children..." G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 9
  13. Inflation Calculator, United States Bureau of Labor Statistics
  14. Tony Hiss, Laughing Last: Alger Hiss by Tony Hiss (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977), p. 32
  15. "1921-1922: Attended Powder Point Academy, Duxbury, Mass., and Maryland Institute of Art." Historical Note: Chronology of Alger Hiss. Zeligs, Meyer Aaron. Papers, 1923-1978: Finding Aid (Harvard Law School Library)
  16. The New Yorker, May 13, 1950; Evan Thomas, "An American Melodrama," Newsweek, November 25, 1996
  17. Archibald Henderson, George Bernard Shaw: His Life and Works (Cincinnati: Stewart & Kidd, 1911) ISBN 1417961775, p. 102. Shaw became a loyal apologist for Stalinism, penning a 1933 Letter to the Editor of the Manchester Guardian, denouncing Malcolm Muggeridge's reporting on Stalin's Terror Famine as a "lie" and a "slander"; the following year he published a 16,000-word apologia for Stalin's mass murders. In 1949, he even wrote a defense of Stalin's pseudo-scientific Lysenkoism.
  18. "To John M. Gillette," September 15, 1912, in Maxwell Anderson (Laurence G. Avery, Ed.), Dramatist in America: Letters of Maxwell Anderson, 1912-1958 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001) ISBN 0807849405, p. 3
  19. Gore Vidal, "The Romance of Sinclair Lewis," The New York Review of Books, Vol. 39, No. 16 (October 8, 1992)
  20. Theodore Dreiser, "Request to Become a Communist," The Daily Worker, July 30, 1945, reprinted in Albert Fried, Communism in America: A History in Documents (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997) ISBN 0231102356, p. 348-350
  21. John Chabot Smith, Alger Hiss: The True Story (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1976) ISBN 0030137764, p. 52
  22. Joan Cook, "Broadus Mitchell, 95, Professor, Historian and Hamilton Authority," The New York Times, April 30, 1988
  23. Alger Hiss, Draft of a Chapter Written By Alger Hiss on the Foundations For His Liberalism (Alger Hiss papers, Small Manuscript Collection, Special Collections, Harvard Law School)
  24. After Hiss' son, a visiting scholar at New York University, originally set up the site on an NYU server, the university requested that he move it elsewhere "to designate it more clearly as a personal site rather than an academic one." Columbia University historian David Greenberg says Hiss' Web site is "the best defense mustered of Hiss by the dwindling band of those who believe in Hiss," but "I don't think anyone is going to treat this site as the repository of truth, except for those who have already made up their minds that Hiss was innocent." James Barron, "Online, the Hiss Defense Doesn't Rest," The New York Times, August 16, 2001
  25. Jeff Kisseloff, "Distorted Reflections," The Alger Hiss Story
  26. "Head on a Platter," Time, May 22, 1939; Broadus Mitchell (1892-1988): Author, Professor, Economist, Hoftra University Special Collections
  27. Document No. 7: "Minority Report Adopted by Overwhelming Party Vote on Referendum on Submission to the Emergency National Convention Held at Chicago, September, 1919," reprinted in Joint Legislative Committee of the State of New York Investigating Seditious Activities, Revolutionary Radicalism: Its History, Purpose and Tactics, Part I, Vol. I (Albany: J.B. Lyon Company, 1920), p. 626
  28. Broadus Mitchell, A Preface to Economics (Henry Holt & Co., 1932-34), pp. 556-557
  29. Matthew Richer, "The Ongoing Campaign of Alger Hiss: The Sins of the Father," Modern Age, Vol. 46, No. 4 (Fall 2004), p. 310 (PDF p. 4)
  30. Jason Powell, "Review: The Breaking Point: Hemingway, Dos Passos, and the Murder of Jose Robles," eHistory (Ohio State University), January 2006
  31. The Head of Intelligence Service: Janis Berzins, Films in Latvia
  32. Hugh Thomas, The Spanish Civil War (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994) ISBN 0671758764, pp. 705-706
  33. George Packer, "The Spanish Prisoner," The New Yorker, October 31, 2005
  34. Roy Aleksandrovich Medvedev, Let History Judge: The Origins and Consequences of Stalinism (tr. George Shriver) (New York: Columbia University Press, 1989) ISBN 0231063504, p. 428
  35. Robert Conquest,The Great Terror: A Reassessment (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991), ISBN 0195071328
  36. David J. Nordlander, "Origins of a Gulag Capital: Magadan and Stalinist Control in the Early 1930s," Slavic Review, Vol. 57, No. 4 (Winter, 1998), pp. 791-812
  37. "The earliest sign of the existence of the special unit seems to be... in Barcelona early in 1937.... On June 16, thanks to Soviet pressure on the Spanish Republican Government, the leaders of the POUM, [Andreu] Nin included, were arrested and charged with high treason. Nin disappeared within days and was never seen again. Even the leaders of the Communist Party in Spain today admit that Nin was murdered on Stalin's orders.... George Orwell, who was in Barcelona soon after the arrests... fled Spain in fear of arrest himself...." Stephen Schwartz, "Intellectuals and Assassins - Annals of Stalin's Killerati," The New York Times, January 24, 1988
  38. Alice Béja,"Radically American: John Dos Passos, Culture and Politics," Reconstruction: Studies in Contemporary Culture Vol. 8, No. 1 (2008)
  39. Paul P. Reuben, Chapter 7: John Dos Passos (1896-1970), PAL: Perspectives in American Literature - A Research and Reference Guide (University of California Stanislaus)
  40. Stephen Koch, The Breaking Point: Hemingway, Dos Passos, and the Murder of Jose Robles (Madrid: Ediciones Palabra, 2006) ISBN 1582432813, p. 272
  41. Tony Hiss, Laughing Last: Alger Hiss by Tony Hiss (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977), ISBN 039524899X, pp. 37-38
  42. John Chabot Smith, Alger Hiss: The True Story (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1976), ISBN 0030137764, p. 104
  43. Testimony of Alger Hiss, Hearings Regarding Communist Espionage in the United States Government, United States House of Representatives, Committee on Un-American Activities, Washington, D. C., Wednesday, August 25, 1948
  44. Gorsky Report: Dec 23, 1949 (KGB file 43173 vol. 2 (v) pp. 46-55, attached to Alexander Vassiliev to Hartwig, 1 Feb 2002, in Alexander Vassiliev and Frank Cass & Co Ltd, High Court of Justice Queen's Bench Division Claim No. HQ1X03222, Amended Particulars of Claim) by David Lowenthal, checked and corrected by Dr. Svetlana A. Chervonnaya, Jury Bundle pages 303, 304 & 305 and Gorski 1, pp. 46-49 1a, pp. 46-49 and 2, p. 60, May 2, 2005
  45. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, p. 202. It was apparently to protect Duggan's identity that Ignace Poretsky (alias Ignace Reiss) was murdered (Stephen Schwartz, "Intellectuals and Assassins - Annals of Stalin's Killerati," The New York Times, January 24, 1988; Stephen Schwartz, "Russian Requiem: The tragic intersection of the lives of Soviet poets," The Weekly Standard, Volume 11, Issue 6 [October 24, 2005]): A Moscow Center report of Poretsky's "liquidation" notes, "For now the danger of 19 [Duggan] (John Earl Haynes, Vassiliev Notebooks Concordance: Cover Names, Real Names, Abbreviations, Acronyms, Organizational Titles, Tradecraft Terminology, 2008, p. 2) being exposed through Raymond's [Poretsky's] (John Earl Haynes, Vassiliev Notebooks Concordance: Cover Names, Real Names, Abbreviations, Acronyms, Organizational Titles, Tradecraft Terminology, 2008, p. 129) line is significantly diminished." (John Earl Haynes, Harvey Klehr and Alexander Vassiliev, (Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America [New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009] ISBN 0300123906, p 232) Poretsky was killed by OGPU agent Roland Abbiat (Walter Krivitsky, In Stalin's Secret Service [New York: Harper & Brothers, 1939], pp. 261-263 [PDF 285-287]; Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB [New York: Basic Books, 2000], ISBN 046500312, pp. 47, 78-79), who would later go under cover as Vladimir Pravdin, head of the Soviet government news agency TASS. (Harvey Klehr, "Devils in America," The New Republic, February 12th, 2004) Five days after Duggan's interview with the FBI (during which he would implicate Collins and Frederick Vanderbilt Field), Hiss would be indicted by a grand jury; five days after that, Duggan would jump or be thrown from his New York office window to his death, ("The Man in the Widow," Time, January 3, 1949) leading his friend (and father's protégé), Edward R. Murrow, to broadcast a scathing denunciation of Red-hunters in the U.S. government for hounding an allegedly innocent man to his grave. (Stephen Hunter, "'Good Night': A Gray Era In Stark Black And White," The Washington Post, October 7, 2005, p. C01)
  46. Adolf Berle’s Notes on his Meeting with Whittaker Chambers
  47. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, pp. 202-203
  48. e.g, MGB 1025, 1035-6 New York to Moscow, June 30, 1943, p. 2
  49. Testimony of Alger Hiss before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (August 5, 1948)
  50. Testimony of Lee Pressman. Hearings Regarding Communism in the United States Government—Part 2. United States House of Representatives, Committee on Un-American Activities, Washington, D.C., August 28, 1950. Reprinted as Exhibit No. 1402, U.S. Congress, Senate, 82nd Cong., Committee on the Judiciary, Hearings to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, Second Session on the Institute of Pacific Relations (Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1952), 5503.
  51. "Felix Frankfurter," Time, September 7, 1962
  52. Felix Frankfurter, "The Case of Sacco and Vanzetti," The Atlantic, March 1927; Felix Frankfurter, The Case of Sacco and Vanzetti: A Critical Analysis for Lawyers and Laymen (Buffalo: Wm. S. Hein & Co., 2003) ISBN 157588805X
  53. Stephen Koch, Double Lives: Stalin, Willi Munzenberg and the Seduction of the Intellectuals (New York: Enigma Books, rev. ed. 2004) ISBN 1929631200, pp. 31-37
  54. John F. Neville, Twentieth-Century Cause Celebre: Sacco, Vanzetti, and the Press, 1920-1927 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004) ISBN 0275977838 p. 101. Hiss' Harvard classmate, fellow State Department official and Soviet intelligence source Noel Field would later write, "The shock of the Sacco-Vanzetti executions drove me leftward."(Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case [New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978], ISBN 0394495462, p. 199)
  55. Ron Capshaw, "Alger Hiss: Recruiting Poster for the Left," FrontPageMagazine.com, February 25, 2004. New evidence suggests that Sacco and Vanzetti were guilty. (Cf. Paul Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America (Oakland, Calif.: AK Press, 2005) ISBN 1904859275, p. 133
  56. According to Charles Poggi, Frank Maffi said the 1920 Wall Street bombing was the work of his uncle, a Galleanist named Mario Buda. (Frank Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America [Oakland, Calif.: AK Press, 2005] ISBN 1904859275, p. 133)
  57. Paul Avrich, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1996) ISBN 0691026041, pp. 59-60; Annie Anderson, "The Lessons of Sacco and Vanzetti," In These Times, March 27, 2007
  58. Paul Avrich, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1996) ISBN 0691026041, p. 146; Paul Berman, "The Refractory Ones: Sacco, Vanzetti, and Timothy McVeigh," Slate.com, August 20, 1997
  59. Paul Avrich, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1996) ISBN 0691026041, p. 143; "36 Were Marked as Victims by Bomb Conspirers," The New York Times, May 1, 1919, p. 1; The Postwar Red Scare, Digital History (University of Houston)
  60. "The Case of Alger Hiss," Time, February 13, 1950
  61. "Your Witness, Mr. Murphy," Time, July 4, 1949.
  62. James Day interview with Alger Hiss for Day at Night (CUNY-TV), 1974
  63. John Chabot Smith, Alger Hiss: The True Story (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1976) ISBN 0030137764, p. 58
  64. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 457
  65. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 11
  66. Meyer Zeligs Papers (October 13, 1963), Harvard Law School Library Special Collections, cited in Ivan Chen, Alger Hiss, 1926-1929, p. 31
  67. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, pp. 158-159
  68. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Early Cold War Spies: The Espionage Trials that Shaped American Politics (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2006) ISBN 0521857384), p. 97
  69. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 27; Douglas Linder, The Trials of Alger Hiss: A Chronology, Famous Trials: The Alger Hiss Trials, 1949-50 (University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law, 2003); Denise Noe, "The Alger Hiss Case," TruTV Crime Library
  70. Douglas Linder, The Trials of Alger Hiss: A Chronology, Famous Trials: The Alger Hiss Trials, 1949-50 (University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law, 2003)
  71. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 27
  72. "Report on the National Lawyers Guild, legal bulwark of the Communist Party," United States Congress. House Committee on Un-American Activities (1950), p. 12
  73. "I.W.W. Bomb Kills Four in Chicago," The New York Times, September 5, 1918. Immediately following the conviction and sentencing of 93 Wobbies (including Haywood) at the Chicago Federal Building in 1918, a bomb ripped through the building. (Charles Howard McCormick, Hopeless Cases: The Hunt for the Red Scare Terrorist Bombers [Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 2005] ISBN 0761831320, pp. 31-31
  74. Douglas Linder, William D. Haywood, Famous Trials (University of Missouri-Kansas City)
  75. Archibald MacLeish, “To the Young Men of Wall Street,” Saturday Review, January 16, 1932
  76. MacLeish was a noted fellow traveler (David Caute, The Fellow-Travellers: Intellectual Friends of Communism [New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988] ISBN 0300041950, p. 185). Following the death of Laurence Duggan—ten days after Duggan implicated Collins and Frederick Vanderbilt Field, and five days after Hiss' indictment by a grand jury—MacLeish, a former Librarian of Congress, would dedicate a poem to the late Soviet agent, denouncing "informers" (apparently Hede Massing and Whittaker Chambers, each of whom had identified Duggan) as liars.
  77. Tony Hiss, The View From Alger's Window (New York: Vintage Books, 2000) ISBN 0375701281, pp. 140-141. The reference is to Edmund Wilson, then an editor at The New Republic who embraced Marxism and welcomed the stock market crash of 1929 as a portent of the death of capitalism. In 1932 he voted for Communist Party presidential candidate William Z. Foster and signed a manifesto calling for "a temporary dictatorship of the class-conscious workers." (Alex Ross, "Ghost Sonata: Edmund Wilson’s adventure with Communism," The New Yorker, March 24, 2003)
  78. Dan Cryer, "We're a long way from the end of this," Salon.com, June 1, 1999
  79. Testimony of Alger Hiss before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (August 5, 1948)
  80. Peter Finn, "Aftermath of a Soviet Famine," The Washington Post, April 27, 2008, p. A14
  81. Robert Conquest, The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror-Famine (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987) ISBN 0195051807) p. 301
  82. "...major New Deal program to restore agricultural prosperity by curtailing farm production..." "Agricultural Adjustment Administration," Encyclopedia Britannica (2008)
  83. James D. Hamilton, "...the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933 ... designed with the specific goal of reducing agricultural production in order to raise agricultural prices..." "The New Deal and the Great Depression," Econbrowser: Analysis of current economic conditions and policy (Blog of James D. Hamilton, Professor of Economics at the University of California, San Diego and Menzie Chinn, Professor of Public Affairs and Economics at the University of Wisconsin, Madison)
  84. “During the Great Depression of the 1930s, agricultural price support programs led to vast amounts of food being deliberately destroyed at a time when malnutrition was a serious problem in the United States and hunger marches were taking place in cities across the country. For example, the federal government bought 6 million hogs in 1933 alone and destroyed them. Huge amounts of farm produce were plowed under, in order to keep it off the market and maintain prices at the officially fixed level, and vast amounts of milk were poured down the sewers for the same reason. Meanwhile, many American children were suffering from diseases caused by malnutrition.” Thomas Sowell, Basic Economics: A Common Sense Guide to the Economy (New York: Basic Books, 2007) 3rd Ed., ISBN 0465002609, p. 56
  85. Henry Agard Wallace, 33rd Vice President (1941-1945), United States Senate, Art & History Home
  86. "Roosevelt Is Urged to Ask Wide Power as 'Farm Dictator,'" The New York Times, March 12, 1933, p. 1
  87. Arthur Schlesinger, A Life in the Twentieth Century: Innocent Beginnings, 1917-1950 (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2000) ISBN 0618219250, pp. 455-456
  88. Linda Rodriguez, "A celebration of almost-great men," CNN, undated
  89. Henry Agard Wallace, “Where I Was Wrong.” This Week, September 2, 1952
  90. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 133
  91. Kai Bird and Svetlana Chervonnaya, "The Mystery of Ales," The American Scholar, Summer, 2007
  92. Testimony of Alger Hiss before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (August 5, 1948)
  93. FBI memorandum: Ladd to Hoover, January 28, 1949, p. 2 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 44)
  94. "....Jerome Frank, the leading liberal judge on the court; Jerome Frank, the intellectual leader of the New Deal and architect of its most progressive legislation; Jerome Frank, the idol of young progressive law students and leader of the liberals when he taught law at Yale, who had led the fight against the conservatism of the old-guard faculty...." Arthur Kinoy, Rights on Trial: The Odyssey of a People's Lawyer (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1983) ISBN 0674770137, p. 97
  95. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 43
  96. Testimony of Alger Hiss, Hearings Regarding Communist Espionage in the United States Government, United States House of Representatives, Committee on Un-American Activities, Washington, D. C., Wednesday, August 25, 1948
  97. Mr. COHN. Did you know Alger Hiss to be a member of the Communist
    party?
    Mr. WEYL. Yes, I did.
    Mr. COHN. Were you in the same Communist cell with Alger Hiss at one time?
    Mr. WEYL. That is correct.
    Mr. WEYL. ...Hiss and I were among the eight or nine people who met with the first meeting of that organization, I presume. So I was in this Communist cell with him for a period of approximately nine months.
    Testimony of Nathaniel Weyl before the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Government Operations, United States Senate, February 23, 1953, pp. 619-620 (PDF pp. 658-659)
  98. Another Witness,” Time, March 3, 1952; Nathaniel Weyl, “I Was in a Communist Unit with Hiss,” U.S. News and World Report, January 9, 1953
  99. Nathaniel Weyl, Encounters With Communism (Philadelphia: Xlibris, 2004), cited in John Earl Haynes, "Ales: Hiss, Foote, Stettinius?" johnearlhaynes.org, June 7, 2007
  100. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 360
  101. David Stout, "Pavel Sudoplatov, 89, Dies; Top Soviet Spy Who Accused Oppenheimer," The New York Times, September 28, 1996
  102. Anatoli Sudoplatov, Pavel Sudoplatov, Leona P. Schecter and Jerrold L. Schecter, Special Tasks (New York: Back Bay Books, 1995) ISBN 0316821152, p. 227-228
  103. Arthur Schlesinger Jr., "The Truest Believer," The New York Times, March 9, 1997
  104. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 143
  105. Biographical Sketch. Alger Hiss Collection, 1934-1979 (Maryland Historical Society)
  106. Nye, Gerald Prentice (1892-1971), Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-Present
  107. 1921-1940: September 4, 1934, "Merchants of Death" (United States Senate: Historical Minutes)
  108. Peter Viereck, Unadjusted Man in the Age of Overadjustment: Where History and Literature Intersect (Edison, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 2004) ISBN 0765808064, pp. 156-157
  109. James Grant, Bernard M. Baruch: The Adventures of a Wall Street Legend (John Wiley and Sons, 1997) ISBN 0471170755, p. 261
  110. Arthur M. Herman, Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1999) ISBN 0684836254, p. 220
  111. Bruce Craig, “Alger Hiss: Recent Explorations in Documenting the Public and Private Man,” p. 5. Alger Hiss and History (Inaugural Conference, Center for the United States and the Cold War, New York University) April 5, 2007
  112. Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258, pp. 115-116
  113. Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, p. 40
  114. Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, pp. 28-29
  115. Venona 1822 Washington to Moscow 30 March 1945
  116. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 43-44
  117. John E. Wiltz, In Search of Peace: The Senate Munitions Inquiry, 1934-1936 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1963) ISBN B000GX1RX0, p. 53
  118. Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, p. 40
  119. William Fitzgibbon, "The Hiss-Chambers Case: A Chronology Since 1934," The New York Times, June 12, 1949
  120. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, In Denial: Historians, Communism & Espionage (San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2003) ISBN 159403088X, pp. 143-146
  121. Whittaker Chambers, Witness (Regnery Publishing, 1952) ISBN 0-89526-789-6, p. 339
  122. "The Confrontation," Time, August 30, 1948
  123. Winifred Farrant Bevilacqua, "An Introduction to Josephine Herbst," Books at Iowa, November 1976
  124. Elinor Langer, "The Secret Drawer," The Nation, May 30, 1994, p. 756
  125. Elinor Langer, "The Great Pumpkin," The Nation, February 17, 1997
  126. Office of the Solicitor General, United States Department of Justice
  127. Testimony of Alger Hiss before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (August 5, 1948)
  128. United States v. Butler, 297 U.S. 1 (1936)
  129. Whittaker Chambers, Witness (Regnery Publishing, 1952) ISBN 0-89526-789-6, p. 378
  130. Testimony of Alger Hiss and Whittaker Chambers before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (August 17, 1948); Testimony of Alger Hiss and Whittaker Chambers before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (August 25, 1948)
  131. "Your Witness, Mr. Murphy," Time, July 4, 1949
  132. Jacob Cohen, "Innocent after all? The Kremlin files and the guilt or innocence of convicted spy Alger Hiss," National Review, January 18, 1993
  133. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 60
  134. Denise Noe, The Shadowy Mr. Crosley, "The Alger Hiss Case," TruTV Crime Library
  135. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Random House, 1997 ed.), p. 47
  136. United States v Alger Hiss, 185 F. 2d 822 (Second Circuit Court of Appeals, December 7, 1950)
  137. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Random House, 1997 ed.), p. 53; "Reply by Allen Weinstein, The Hiss Case: An Exchange," The New York Review of Books, Volume 23, Number 9 (May 27, 1976)
  138. "U.S. Lawyer Who Figured In Hiss Case Killed in Fall," The Washington Post, October 21, 1948, p. 1
  139. "Field worked for the US State Department and the League of Nations in the 1930s acting as a source for Soviet Intelligence." Noel Haviland Field, National Archives, United Kingdom
  140. Hede Massing, This Deception (New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1951), p. 335. Massing's account is corroborated by Czech archives. (Central Intelligence Agency memorandum for Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation: Revelations of Karel Kaplan, June 29, 1977 CIA Freedom of Information Act Electronic Reading Room, p. 16
  141. Karel Kaplan, Report on the Murder of the General Secretary (London: I.B. Taurus & Co. Ltd., 1990), ISBN 1-85043-211-2, pp. 19-25
  142. Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258, p. 133
  143. Transcripts: September 23, 1954; September 29, 1954. Noel Field file, Archives, Czechoslovak Ministry of the Interior, quoted in Mária Schmidt, Behind the Scenes of the Showtrials of Central-Eastern Europe, Budapest 1993 (uncorrected manuscript), cited in Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258, p. 135; Mária Schmidt, “Noel Field -- The American Communist at the Center of Stalin’s East European Purge: From the Hungarian Archives,” American Communist History 3, no. 2 (December 2004); Mária Schmidt, "The Hiss Dossier: A Historian's Report," The New Republic, November 8, 1993, pp. 17-20
  144. Ethan Klingsberg, "Case Closed on Alger Hiss?" The Nation, November 8, 1993
  145. Sam Tanenhaus, “Hiss: Guilty as Charged,” Commentary, April 1993; Sam Tanenhaus, "Hiss Case 'Smoking Gun'?" The New York Times, October 15, 1993; Sam Tanenhaus, "New Reasons to Doubt Hiss," Wall Street Journal, November 18, 1993
  146. Alexander Vassiliev, Authors - Random House, Inc.
  147. R.C.S. Trahair, Encyclopedia of Cold War Espionage, Spies, and Secret Operations (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004) ISBN 0313319553, p. 76
  148. Harvey Klehr, John E. Haynes and Alexander Vassiliev, Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009) ISBN 0300123906, pp. 6-7; Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, p. 6; Cf. Vassiliev's notebooks, Yellow Notebook No. 2, p. 23 (Original, PDF p. 3; Transcribed, PDF p. 4; Translated, PDF p. 4), Cold War International History Project, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
  149. Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, p. 7; Thomas Powers, Intelligence Wars: American Secret History from Hitler to Al-Qaeda (New York: New York Review of Books, 2004) ISBN 1590170989, p. 89; G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 228; Thomas Powers, "The Plot Thickens," The New York Review of Books, May 11, 2000 (Volume 47, Number 8)
  150. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, In Denial: Historians, Communism & Espionage (San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2003) ISBN 159403088X, p. 150; G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 228
  151. Harvey Klehr, John E. Haynes and Alexander Vassiliev, Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009) ISBN 0300123906, p. 5
  152. Harvey Klehr, John E. Haynes and Alexander Vassiliev, Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009) ISBN 0300123906, p. 12
  153. Francis Bowes Sayre (April 30, 1885 -- March 29, 1972), Woodrow Wilson House
  154. Glenn Fowler, "Donald Hiss, 82, Ex-U.S. Official And Lawyer in Washington Firm," The New York Times, May 20, 1989
  155. Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258, p. 163; Kai Bird and Svetlana Chervonnaya, "The Mystery of Ales," The American Scholar, Summer, 2007; Alexander Vassiliev's Notes on Anatoly Gorsky's December 1948 Memo on Compromised American Sources and Networks, Tr. Ronald Bachman and Harold Leich, assisted by John Earl Haynes, H-HOAC (Historians of American Communism) Discussion List, H-Net Discussion Networks (Humanities and Social Sciences Net Online), March 14, 2005; Gorsky Report: Dec 23, 1949 (KGB file 43173 vol. 2 (v) pp. 46-55, attached to Alexander Vassiliev to Hartwig, 1 Feb 2002, in Alexander Vassiliev and Frank Cass & Co Ltd, High Court of Justice Queen's Bench Division Claim No. HQ1X03222, Amended Particulars of Claim) by David Lowenthal, checked and corrected by Dr. Svetlana A. Chervonnaya, Jury Bundle pages 303, 304 & 305 and Gorski 1, pp. 46-49 1a, pp. 46-49 and 2, p. 60, May 2, 2005; John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, "'Ales' is Still Hiss: The Wilder Foote Red Herring," 2007 Symposium on Cryptologic History. The Center for Cryptologic History, October 19, 2007
  156. John Earl Haynes, Cover Name, Cryptonym, CPUSA Party Name, Pseudonym, and Real Name Index: A Research Historian’s Working Reference
  157. Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, p. 5
  158. Robert L. Benson, The Venona Story (Ft. George G. Meade. MD: National Security Agency Center for Cryptologic History), p. 29 (PDF p. 31)
  159. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, In Denial: Historians, Communism & Espionage (San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2003) ISBN 159403088X, p. 150; G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 230
  160. Józef Piłsudski (1867-1935), Polska: History
  161. Francis P. Sempa, "William C. Bullitt: Diplomat and Prophet," American Diplomacy, January 24, 2003
  162. Aleksandr M. Nekrich, Pariahs, Partners, Predators: German-Soviet Relations, 1922-1941 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997) ISBN 0231106769, p. 2. Cf. Michael Pearson, The Sealed Train: Lenin's Eight Month Journey from Exile to Power (New York: Putnam, 1975) ISBN 0399112626
  163. Ralph de Toledano, “Embarrassment aided and abetted the Top Soviet spy - Alger Hiss,” Insight on the News, January 27, 1997
  164. Testimony of Alger Hiss, Special Subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, United States House of Representatives, Executive Session, August 17, 1948
  165. Alan Wallach, "Marxist Art Historian: Meyer Schapiro, 1904-1996," Against the Current 62 (May-June 1996), p. 52
  166. John Russell, "Meyer Schapiro, 91, Is Dead; His Work Wove Art and Life," The New York Times, March 4, 1996
  167. William R. Conklin, "Aided Red Spy Ring, Wadleigh Admits; Tells Hiss Jury He Channeled Up to 500 U.S. Documents to Soviet in 1936-37," The New York Times, December 9, 1949, p. 16
  168. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Early Cold War Spies: The Espionage Trials that Shaped American Politics (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2006) ISBN 0521857384, pp. 117-118
  169. Jacob Cohen, "Innocent after all? The Kremlin files and the guilt or innocence of convicted spy Alger Hiss," National Review, January 18, 1993
  170. Robert Conquest,The Great Terror: A Reassessment (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991), ISBN 0195071328
  171. Norman Davis, "Now It Can Be Told, Even in Russia," The New York Times, May 13, 1990
  172. "Buckingham Honours Oleg Gordievsky," The University of Buckingham: News, February 28, 2005
  173. Peter B. Niblo, Influence: The Soviet Task Leading to Pearl Harbor, the Iron Curtain, and the Cold War (Oakland, Ore.: Elderberry Press, 2002) ISBN 1930859147, p. 65
  174. Richard Norton-Taylor, "Michael Straight: Cambridge spy whose testimony was crucial in exposing Anthony Blunt," The Guardian, January 9, 2004
  175. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, pp. 153
  176. Christopher Lehmann-Haupt, "Michael Straight, Who Wrote of Connection to Spy Ring, Is Dead at 87," The New York Times, January 5, 2004
  177. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Random House, 1997 ed.), pp. 183-184
  178. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, pp. 155-156
  179. Whittaker Chambers, Witness (Regnery Publishing, 1952) ISBN 0-89526-789-6, p. 39; United States v Alger Hiss, 185 F. 2d 822 (Second Circuit Court of Appeals, December 7, 1950)
  180. "Counterattack," Time, January 2, 1950
  181. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 73
  182. Denise Noe, "The Alger Hiss Case," TruTV Crime Library
  183. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Random House, 1997 ed.), pp. 198-202
  184. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 73
  185. Whittaker Chambers, Witness (Regnery Publishing, 1952) ISBN 0-89526-789-6, p. 25
  186. Stephen Schwartz, "Intellectuals and Assassins - Annals of Stalin's Killerati," The New York Times, January 24, 1988; Stephen Schwartz, "Russian Requiem: The tragic intersection of the lives of Soviet poets," The Weekly Standard, Volume 11, Issue 6 (October 24, 2005). Poretsky (alias Ignace Reiss) was apparently murdered to protect the identity of Hiss' Harvard friend and State Department colleague, Soviet agent Laurence Duggan: A Moscow Center report of Poretsky's "liquidation" notes, "For now the danger of 19 [Duggan] (John Earl Haynes, Vassiliev Notebooks Concordance: Cover Names, Real Names, Abbreviations, Acronyms, Organizational Titles, Tradecraft Terminology, 2008, p. 2) being exposed through Raymond's [Poretsky's] (John Earl Haynes, Vassiliev Notebooks Concordance: Cover Names, Real Names, Abbreviations, Acronyms, Organizational Titles, Tradecraft Terminology, 2008, p. 129) line is significantly diminished." John Earl Haynes, Harvey Klehr and Alexander Vassiliev, (Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America [New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009) ISBN 0300123906, p 232) He was killed by OGPU agent Roland Abbiat (Walter Krivitsky, In Stalin's Secret Service [New York: Harper & Brothers, 1939], pp. 261-263 [PDF 285-287]; Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB [New York: Basic Books, 2000], ISBN 046500312, pp. 47, 78-79), who would later go under cover as Vladimir Pravdin, head of the Soviet government news agency TASS. (Harvey Klehr, "Devils in America," The New Republic, February 12th, 2004)
  187. Sam Tanenhaus, Whittaker Chambers: A Biography (New York: Random House, 1997) ISBN 0375751459, pp. 131-133
  188. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 319
  189. "Three Rings," Time, December 20, 1948; Whittaker Chambers, Witness (Regnery Publishing, 1952) ISBN 0-89526-789-6, p. 40-41
  190. "Herbert Solow, Fortune Editor; John Dewey Aide in Trotsky Investigation Dies at 61," The New York Times, November 27, 1964, p. 35
  191. Robert Jackson Alexander, International Trotskyism, 1929-1985: A Documented Analysis of the Movement (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1991), ISBN 0-822-30975-0, p. 775
  192. Theodore Draper, American Communism and Soviet Russia (Edison, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2003), ISBN 0765805316, p. 357
  193. Letter to Eugene V. Debs in New York City from Ludwig Lore in New York City, March 9, 1917. Eugene V. Debs papers, microfilm edition: reel 2, frames 0309A-0309B. Published in J. Robert Constantine (ed.): Letters of Eugene V. Debs, v. 2, pp. 292-293
  194. David Levin, Stephen W. Salant, Athan Theoharis, Reply by Allen Weinstein, "The Hiss Case: An Exchange," The New York Review of Books, Vol. 23, No. 9 (May 27, 1976)
  195. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 318
  196. "Field worked for the US State Department and the League of Nations in the 1930s acting as a source for Soviet Intelligence." Noel Haviland Field, National Archives, United Kingdom
  197. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 349-350
  198. FBI Report: Whittaker Chambers, Internal Security—C, September 5, 1948 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 1)
  199. Ethan Klingsberg, "Case Closed on Alger Hiss?" The Nation, November 8, 1993
  200. Harvey Klehr, John Earl Haynes, and Kirill Mikhaĭlovich Anderson, The Soviet World of American Communism (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1998) ISBN 0300071507, p. 45
  201. Scotland Yard (London) Secret Special Report, No. 4, "The Case of Philip Price and Robert Minor," U.S. State Department Decimal File, 316-23-1184 9, Washington, D.C.
  202. FBI memorandum: Ladd to Hoover, January 28, 1949 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 44), p. 30.
  203. "Édouard Daladier," The Encyclopædia Brittanica
  204. Testimony of Ambassador William Bullitt, April 8, 1952, “Communist influence on U.S. policies in the Far East,” Hearings Before the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and other Internal Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-Second Congress, Second Session. Hearings: March 13, 1951 to June 20, 1952; Report: July 2, 1952; "French in 1939 Called Hiss Red, Bullitt Says," Washington Post, April 9, 1952; Jim Caldwell, “Korea - 50 years ago this week, April 4 - 10, 1952,” Army News Service, April 1, 2002
  205. Ralph De Toledano, “Hiss defenders covering for the `old man',” Insight on the News, December 17, 2001
  206. Roman Brackman, The Secret File of Joseph Stalin: A Hidden Life (Florence, Ky: Routledge, 2001) ISBN 0714650501, p. 299
  207. Esther Iverem, "Alexander G. Barmine, 88, Dies; Early High-Level Soviet Defector," The New York Times, December 28, 1987
  208. FBI Report: Alger Hiss, February 4, 1949
  209. Julien Steinberg, ed., Verdict of Three Decades: From the Literature of Individual Revolt Against Soviet Communism, 1917-1950 (Manchester, NH: Ayer Publishing, 1971) ISBN 0836920775, p. 358
  210. Isaac Don Levine papers, circa 1914-1978, Emory University: Manuscript, Archives & Rare Book Library
  211. Isaac Don Levine, Eyewitness To History: Memoirs and Reflections of a Foreign Correspondent for Half a Century (Stroud, Glos.: Hawthorn Books, 1973) ASIN B000ONBAW0, p. 191. Loy Henderson, then charge d'affaires at the U.S. Embassy in Moscow, would later confirm that at that time "in the [State] Department were a number of persons who did not hesitate to give [Litvinov] copies of my secret memoranda relating to United States-Soviet relations." (Richard D. McKinzie, "Oral History Interview with Loy W. Henderson," p. 22, Harry S. Truman Library)
  212. Roland Perry, Last of the Cold War Spies: The Life of Michael Straight—The Only American in Britain's Cambridge Spy Ring (Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo Press, 2006) ISBN 030681482X, p. 131
  213. Phillip Knightley, "Ignore the conspiracies. Spies never forgive a traitor," The Independent on Sunday, November 26, 2006
  214. Sam Tanenhaus, "Hiss Case 'Smoking Gun'?" The New York Times, October 15, 1993
  215. Alexander Orlov, The Secret History of Stalin’s Crimes (Norwich, Norfolk: Jarrold's, 1954), pp. 232-233; see also Flora Lewis, "Who Killed Krivitsky?" The Washington Post, February 13, 1966, p. E1
  216. Katya Drozdova, "Dark Memories," Hoover Digest, 2007, Number 3
  217. William Fortescue, The Third Republic in France, 1870-1940: Conflicts and Continuities (Oxford: Routledge, 2000) ISBN 0415169445, p. 231
  218. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Early Cold War Spies: The Espionage Trials that Shaped American Politics (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2006) ISBN 0521857384), p. 105
  219. Testimony of Whittaker Chambers before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (August 3, 1948)
  220. "The Case of Alger Hiss," Time, February 13, 1950
  221. Adolf Berle’s Notes on his Meeting with Whittaker Chambers
  222. Isaac Don Levine, Eyewitness To History: Memoirs and Reflections of a Foreign Correspondent for Half a Century (Stroud, Glos.: Hawthorn Books, 1973) ASIN B000ONBAW0, pp. 55-58)
  223. Isaac Don Levine, Eyewitness To History: Memoirs and Reflections of a Foreign Correspondent for Half a Century (Stroud, Glos.: Hawthorn Books, 1973) ASIN B000ONBAW0, pp. 197-8
  224. Lawrence L. Knutson, "Alice Roosevelt Longworth, wild thing," Salon.com, June 7, 1999
  225. Ralph De Toledano, “Hiss defenders covering for the `old man',” Insight on the News, December 17, 2001
  226. 1993 Honoree David Dubinsky, 1892-1982, Labor Hall of Fame Honoree, United Stated Department of Labor
  227. International Ladies Garment Workers Union (1900-1995), Eleanor Roosevelt National Historic Site, National Park Service
  228. Walter Winchell, Radio Hall of Fame
  229. Isaac Don Levine, Eyewitness To History: Memoirs and Reflections of a Foreign Correspondent for Half a Century (Stroud, Glos.: Hawthorn Books, 1973) ASIN B000ONBAW0, pp. 197-9
  230. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 331
  231. Gregor Dallas, 1945: The War that Never Ended (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005) ISBN 0300109806), p. 412
  232. Douglas O. Linder, The Trials of Alger Hiss: A Commentary, Famous Trials: The Alger Hiss Trials, 1949-50 (University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law, 2003). Hiss even suggested the location from which the conference derives its name. (Robert C. Hilderbrand, Dumbarton Oaks: The Origins of the United Nations and the Search for Postwar Security [Chapel Hill: UNC Press, 2001] ISBN 0807849502, p. 67)
  233. Robert G. Whalen, "Hiss and Chambers: Strange Story of Two Men," The New York Times, December 12, 1948; "The Case of Alger Hiss," Time, February 13, 1950
  234. Dumbarton Oaks and Yalta, History of the Charter of the United Nations (UN.org)
  235. Ralph de Toledano, “Embarrassment aided and abetted the Top Soviet spy - Alger Hiss,” Insight on the News, January 27, 1997
  236. Subcommittee on Internal Security, Committee on the Judiciary, U. S. Senate Interlocking Subversion in Government Departments (Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1953), p. 28 (PDF p. 34)
  237. M. Stanton Evans, "McCarthyism: Waging the Cold War in America," Human Events, May 30, 1997
  238. Olaf Groehler, Selbstmorderische Allianz: Deutsch-russische Militarbeziehungen, 1920-1941 (Berlin: Vision Verlag 1993), pp. 21-22, 123-124; Aleksandr M. Nekrich, Pariahs, Partners, Predators: German-Soviet Relations, 1922-1941 (Columbia University Press, 1997), both cited in Benjamin B. Fischer, "The Katyn Controversy: Stalin's Killing Field," Studies in Intelligence, Winter 1999–2000
  239. Douglas O. Linder, The VENONA Files and the Alger Hiss Case," Famous Trials: The Alger Hiss Trials, 1949-50 (University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law)
  240. Christopher Andrew and Oleg Gordievsky, KGB: The Inside Story of Its Foreign Operations from Lenin to Gorbachev (New York: Harpercollins, 1990) ISBN 0060166053, p. 287
  241. M. Stanton Evans, Blacklisted by History: The Untold Story of Senator Joe McCarthy and His Fight Against America's Enemies (New York: Crown Forum, 2007) ISBN 978-1-4000-8105-9, p. 55, n. 6 (p. 610)
  242. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 329; G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 48
  243. FBI Report: Underground Soviet Espionage Organization (NKVD) in Agencies of the United States Government, October 21, 1946, p. 109 (PDF p. 120). FBI file: Silvermaster, Vol 82
  244. FBI memorandum: Ladd to Hoover, January 28, 1949, p. 2 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 44)
  245. League of Women Shoppers Records, 1937 - 2001, Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College
  246. Michael Denning, The Cultural Front: The Laboring of American Culture in the Twentieth Century (New York: Verso, 1998) ISBN 1859841708, p. 410
  247. Meg Jacobs, Pocketbook Politics: Economic Citizenship in Twentieth-century America (Princeton University Press, 2005) ISBN 0691086648, p. 171
  248. FBI memorandum: Ladd to Hoover, January 28, 1949, p. 2 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 44)
  249. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 340; Douglas Linder, The Trials of Alger Hiss: A Chronology, Famous Trials: The Alger Hiss Trials, 1949-50 (University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law, 2003)
  250. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, p. 92
  251. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 224
  252. Venona 195 New York to Moscow 9th February 1944
  253. Venona 1579 New York to Moscow, 28 September 1943
  254. Katherine A. S. Sibley, Red Spies in America (Lawrence, Kan.: University Press of Kansas, 2007) ISBN 0700615555, p. 94
  255. "Dark Doings," Time, December 12, 1949
  256. Gary Glynn, "Espionage on the High Plains," A Salute to the Greatest Generation, Part III, The Missoulian, November 18, 2001
  257. George Racey Jordan with Richard L. Stokes, From Major Jordan's Diaries (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1952), p. 42
  258. "The Kravchenko Case," Time, April 17, 1944. In 1966, Kravchenko would be found shot to death in his Manhattan apartment. Although his death would be ruled a suicide, his son Andrew maintains that he was executed by a SMERSH assassination squad.
  259. Sam Tanenhaus, "New Reasons to Doubt Hiss," Wall Street Journal, November 18, 1993
  260. Ron Capshaw, "Alger Hiss: The Left's Religious Icon," FrontPageMagazine.com, May 4, 2007
  261. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, pp. 361-362
  262. Sam Tanenhaus, Whittaker Chambers: A Biography (New York: Random House, 1997) ISBN 0375751459, pp. 519; John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, p. 172; Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case, New York: Random House, (ed. 1997), pp. 321-322.
  263. John Earl Haynes, "Ales: Hiss, Foote, Stettinius?" johnearlhaynes.org, June 7, 2007; Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 363
  264. H. W. Brands, Inside the Cold War: Loy Henderson and the Rise of the American Empire, 1918-1961 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991) ISBN 0-19-506707-X, pp. 297-298
  265. Ideological Foundations of the Cold War, Harry S. Truman Library, National Archives and Records Administration
  266. John Ehrman, "Alger Hiss’s Looking-Glass Wars: Intelligence in Recent Public Literature," Studies in Intelligence, Volume 48, Number 4
  267. Panuch to Russell, March 7, 1946, Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-Third Congress, First Session, June 25, 1953 Interlocking Subversion in Government Departments, Part 13 (Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1953), p. 853. (Cf. Louis Francis Budenz, The Techniques of Communism (New York: Ayer Publishing, 1977) ISBN 0405099428, p. 287) Dean Acheson subsequently forced Panuch, not Hiss, out of the State Department. (Subcommittee on Internal Security, Committee on the Judiciary, U. S. Senate Interlocking Subversion in Government Departments [Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1953], pp. 9-10)
  268. Rothwell to Rockefeller, January 10, 1945, United States Department of State, Foreign relations of the United States. Conferences at Malta and Yalta, 1945 (Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 1945), p. 42. Cf. p. 441 (PDF p. 445), University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
  269. Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., Roosevelt and the Russians (Whitefish, Mont.: Kettinger Publishing, 2005) ISBN 1419103105, p. 270
  270. Testimony of Alger Hiss before the House Committee on Un-American Activities, August 5, 1948
  271. Anatoli Sudoplatov, Pavel Sudoplatov, Leona P. Schecter and Jerrold L. Schecter, Special Tasks (New York: Back Bay Books, 1995) ISBN 0316821152, p. 227
  272. Jerrold and Leona Schecter, Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History(Washington: Potomac Books Inc., 2002) ISBN 1574883275, p. 130
  273. "Ambassador Extraordinary," Time, November 22, 1943
  274. Hugh D. Phillips, Between the revolution and the West: a political biography of Maxim M. Litvinov (New York: Westview Press, 1992) ISBN 0813310385
  275. Anatoli Sudoplatov, Pavel Sudoplatov, Leona P. Schecter and Jerrold L. Schecter, Special Tasks (New York: Back Bay Books, 1995) ISBN 0316821152, p. 227
  276. Gregor Dallas, 1945: The War That Never Ended (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005) ISBN 0300109806, p. 557
  277. Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact with Secret Protocols, August 23, 1939, World War II Behind Closed Doors: Stalin, the Nazis and the West (PBS)
  278. Ralph de Toledano and Victor Lasky, Seeds of Treason: The True Story of the Hiss-Chambers Tragedy, (NY: Funk and Wagnalls, 1950), ASIN B0007DS43A pp. 107-109 (PDF 115-117)
  279. War Cabinet Minutes, p. 182
  280. Nikolai Tolstoy, The Secret Betrayal (New York: Scribner, 1978) ISBN 0684156350; Julius Epstein, Operation Keelhaul: The Story of Forced Repatriation from 1944 to the Present (Old Greenwich, Conn.: Devin-Adair Co., 1973) ISBN 978-0815964070
  281. Yalta (codename Argonaut, phase 2 Magneto), World War II Behind Closed Doors: Stalin, the Nazis and the West (PBS)
  282. "Yalta Conference," The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2008
  283. Arthur Bliss Lane, I Saw Poland Betrayed: An American Ambassador Reports to the American People (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1948) ASIN B000NWTIF8, p. 56
  284. Ideological Foundations of the Cold War, Harry S. Truman Library, National Archives and Records Administration
  285. John Ehrman, "The Mystery of 'ALES': Once Again, the Alger Hiss Case," Studies in Intelligence, Vol. 51, no. 4 (2007), p. ; John F. Fox, Jr., "In the Enemy’s House: Venona and the Maturation of American Counterintelligence," 2005 Symposium on Cryptologic History, October 27, 2005; Eduard Mark, "Who was 'Venona's' 'Ales'? Cryptanalysis and the Hiss Case," Intelligence and National Security 18 (Autumn 2003), pp. 54-55, 57-88, 62, 64
  286. John Earl Haynes, Harvey Klehr and Alexander Vassiliev, Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009) ISBN 0300123906, p. 278; Robert L. Beisner, Dean Acheson: A Life in the Cold War' (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006) ISBN 0195045785, p. 282; G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 226; Jerrold and Leona Schecter, Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History(Washington: Potomac Books Inc., 2002) ISBN 1574883275, p. 131
  287. Ralph De Toledano, “Hiss defenders covering for the `old man',” Insight on the News, December 17, 2001
  288. "Policeman on Trial," Time, December 28, 1953
  289. Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, pp. 268-269; G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 226
  290. Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB (New York: Basic Books, 2000), ISBN 046500312, p. 90
  291. The translation used here is that of John R. Schindler. Cf. Eric Breindel, "Goodies from the Venona files: Hiss’ Guilt," The New Republic, April 15, 1996, reprinted in The Congressional Record Vol. 142, No. 50 (Thursday, April 18, 1996), pp. H03644-H03645
  292. Robert L. Benson, The Venona Story (Ft. George G. Meade. MD: National Security Agency Center for Cryptologic History), p. 17, 29 (PDF pp. 19, 31)
  293. John Earl Haynes, KGB sources and the Hiss/'Ales' dispute, H-Diplo Discussion Logs, Humanities and Social Sciences Net Online (Michigan State University), January 5, 2005
  294. "A Word About the Covernames," Introductory History of VENONA and Guide to the Translations (National Security Agency)
  295. Venona 1822 Washington to Moscow 30 March 1945
  296. FBI memo: Belmont to Ladd, May 15, 1950 (FBI file: Venona), p. 8 (PDF p. 11); Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258, p. 137
  297. Report of the Commission on Protecting and Reducing Government Secrecy (Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1997), Appendix A, p. A-34 (PDF p. 36)
  298. "Secrets, Lies and Atomic Spies," Nova (PBS), February 5, 2002
  299. Eduard Mark, "Who was 'Venona's' 'Ales'? Cryptanalysis and the Hiss Case," Intelligence and National Security 18 (Autumn 2003), pp. 54–55, 57–88, 62, 64 (italics in original).
  300. John R. Schindler, "Hiss in VENONA: The Continuing Controversy," Center for Cryptologic History Symposium, 27 October 2005
  301. John Ehrman, "Intelligence in Recent Public Literature: The Brother"
  302. John Ehrman, 'The Mystery of ALES': Once Again, the Alger Hiss Case," Studies in Intelligence Vol. 51, No. 4 (December 2007), PDF p. 9
  303. John Earl Haynes, "Russian Archival Identification of Real Names Behind Cover Names in VENONA," Cryptology and the Cold War: Center for Cryptologic History Symposium, October 27, 2005
  304. John Earl Haynes, Harvey Klehr, and Alexander Vassiliev, Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009) ISBN 0300123906, p. 14. Cf. Vassiliev's White Notebook No. 3 (original, p. 40; transcribed, p.78; translated, p. 78), Cold War International History Project, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
  305. Memorandum of Conversation, Tuesday, March 20, 1945, Westminster, Md.
  306. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 359
  307. FBI memorandum: Ladd to Hoover, January 28, 1949 (FBI file: Hiss Chambers, Vol. 44)
  308. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 364
  309. "Chief Clerk," Time, April 16, 1945
  310. Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB (New York: Basic Books, 2000), ISBN 046500312, p. 90
  311. Vadim to Moscow Center, 5 March 1945
  312. Alexander Vassiliev's Notes on Anatoly Gorsky's December 1948 Memo on Compromised American Sources and Networks, Tr. Ronald Bachman and Harold Leich, assisted by John Earl Haynes, H-HOAC (Historians of American Communism) Discussion List, H-Net Discussion Networks (Humanities and Social Sciences Net Online), March 14, 2005; Gorsky Report: Dec 23, 1949 (KGB file 43173 vol. 2 (v) pp. 46-55, attached to Alexander Vassiliev to Hartwig, 1 Feb 2002, in Alexander Vassiliev and Frank Cass & Co Ltd, High Court of Justice Queen's Bench Division Claim No. HQ1X03222, Amended Particulars of Claim) by David Lowenthal, checked and corrected by Dr. Svetlana A. Chervonnaya, Jury Bundle pages 303, 304 & 305 and Gorski 1, pp. 46-49 1a, pp. 46-49 and 2, p. 60, May 2, 2005
  313. Alexander Vassiliev's Notes on Anatoly Gorsky's December 1948 Memo on Compromised American Sources and Networks, Tr. Ronald Bachman and Harold Leich, assisted by John Earl Haynes, H-HOAC (Historians of American Communism) Discussion List, H-Net Discussion Networks (Humanities and Social Sciences Net Online), March 14, 2005
  314. Robert L. Benson, The Venona Story (Ft. George G. Meade. MD: National Security Agency Center for Cryptologic History), p. 31 (PDF p. 34)
  315. Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB (New York: Basic Books, 2000), ISBN 046500312, p. 124; "Pravdin" was actually Rolland Abbiat, murderer of Ignace Reiss. Harvey Klehr, "Devils in America," The New Republic, February 12, 2004
  316. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, "'Ales' is Still Hiss: The Wilder Foote Red Herring," 2007 Symposium on Cryptologic History. The Center for Cryptologic History, October 19, 2007
  317. James Byrnes (1882-1972), Eleanor Roosevelt National Historic Site, National Park Service
  318. Ralph de Toledano, “Embarrassment aided and abetted the Top Soviet spy - Alger Hiss,” Insight on the News, January 27, 1997. Cf. Subcommittee on Internal Security, Committee on the Judiciary, U. S. Senate, Interlocking Subversion in Government Departments, Vol. 16 (Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1953), p. 1072
  319. Victor Navasky, Naming Names (New York: Macmillan, 2003) ISBN 0809001837, p. 367
  320. "To Elsie McKeough," Helen Manfull, Ed., Additional Dialogue: Letters of Dalton Trumbo, 1942-1962 (New York: M. Evans and Company, 1970), p. 37
  321. Ralph de Toledano and Victor Lasky, Seeds of Treason: The True Story of the Hiss-Chambers Tragedy, (NY: Funk and Wagnalls, 1950), ASIN B0007DS43A p. 110; Westbrook Pegler, "New U.N. Building is Monument to Men Who Betrayed U.S.," The Evening Independent, July 3, 1950
  322. Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, pp. 267-268
  323. "Andrei Gromyko," Time, October 1, 1979
  324. Vernon Bogdanor, Harry Truman, President 1945-1953 (From Roosevelt to Bush: The American Presidency, Transformation and Change), Lecture, Gresham College, London, January 29, 2008
  325. Frank J. Rafalko, ed., "Counterintelligence in World War II, 1940-47," A Counterintelligence Reader: An American Revolution Into the New Millennium, Vol. 2, Ch. 1 (Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive), p. 110 (PDF p. 111)
  326. Stephen J. Whitfield, The Culture of the Cold War (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996) ISBN 0801851955, p. 28
  327. Thomas M. Campbell and George C. Herring, eds., The Diaries of Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., 1943-46 (New York: New Viewpoints, 1975) ISBN 0531055701, p. 416
  328. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 361
  329. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, p. 172; Sam Tanenhaus, Whittaker Chambers: A Biography (New York: Random House, 1997) ISBN 0375751459, p. 519; Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Random House, 1997 ed.), pp. 321-322.
  330. Arthur Herman, Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1999) ISBN 0684836254, p. 86 (fn)
  331. Subcommittee on Internal Security, Committee on the Judiciary, U. S. Senate Interlocking Subversion in Government Departments (Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1953), pp. 9-10 (PDF pp. 15-16). De Toledano observes that this plan would have given Hiss "virtual control of the State Department" (cited in Wes Vernon, "Media Won’t Give Up on Red Spy Alger Hiss," AIM Report, July 19, 2007), which would thus, note two commentators, "have taken a long step forward in the direction of becoming an adjunct to the Soviet Foreign Office." (William F. Buckley Jr. and L. Brent Bozell, McCarthy and His Enemies: The Record and Its Meaning [Washington: Regnery, 1954] ISBN 0895264722, p. 10)
  332. Jerrold and Leona Schecter, Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History (Washington, DC: Brassey's Inc., 2002) ISBN 1574885227, p. 147
  333. Jerrold and Leona Schecter, Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History (Washington, DC: Brassey's Inc., 2002) ISBN 1574885227, p. 110
  334. Robert D. Novak, "Did Truman Know About Venona?" The Weekly Standard, June 2003
  335. William Rusher, "A Closer Look Under The Bed," Claremont Review of Books, Fall 2004
  336. Ideological Foundations of the Cold War, Harry S. Truman Library, National Archives and Records Administration
  337. Harvey Klehr, John Earl Haynes, and Kirill Mikhaĭlovich Anderson, The Soviet World of American Communism (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1998) ISBN 0300071507, p. 45
  338. FBI memorandum: Ladd to Hoover, January 28, 1949 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 44), p. 30. See also FBI Report: (REDACTED), Security Matter—C, June 8, 1950, p. 9 (FBI file: Institute of Pacific Relations, Vol 29, PDF p. 16)
  339. Amy W. Knight, How the Cold War Began: The Igor Gouzenko Affair and the Hunt for Soviet Spies (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2006) ISBN 0786718161, p. 33; FBI letter: Hoover to Lyon, September 24, 1945, p. 5 (CIA file: Igor Gouzenko), reprinted in Robert Louis Benson and Michael Warner, eds., Venona: Soviet Espionage and The American Response (Washington: National Security Agency, Central Intelligence Agency, 1996), p. 67
  340. G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-Glass War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) , p. 49
  341. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 366
  342. William Lyon Mackenzie King, diary entry for September 7, 1945. "Mr. Smiley's World of Social Studies and English Page" (Halifax Regional School Board Teacher Webspace)
  343. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 366
  344. FBI Report: Soviet Espionage Activities in the United States Between World War I and World War II, November 27, 1945, p. 13
  345. Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, pp. 268-269; G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 226
  346. "The Road Back," Time, September 4, 1950
  347. "Another Witness," Time, March 3, 1952
  348. Silvermaster file, Vol. 6, p. 105 (PDF p. 106)
  349. Robert J. Lamphere and Tom Shachtman, The FBI-KGB War: A Special Agent's Story (Atlanta: Mercer University Press, 1995) ISBN 0865544778, p. 296
  350. Oleg Kalugin and Fen Montaigne, The First Directorate: My 32 Years in Intelligence & Espionage Against the West (Darby, Penn.: Diane Publishing Company, 1994), ISBN 0788151118, p. 74. As Stone put it, "In a way, I was half a Jeffersonian and half a Marxist. I never saw a contradiction between the two, and I still don't." (The Nation, July 10, 1989, cited in L. Brent Baker and Tim Graham, eds., "Notable Quotables," Media Research Center, July 10, 1989)
  351. Paul Berman, "The Watchdog," The New York Times, October 1, 2006
  352. Myra MacPherson, 'All Governments Lie': The Life and Times of Rebel Journalist I. F. Stone (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2006) ISBN 0684807130, p. 327. MacPherson goes on to quote Kalugin explaining that such agents "could shape public opinion, manipulate public opinion," and that Stone "was willing to perform tasks." Stone was identified in the Venona project with the code name "Blin" (Pancake) (Index of Cover Names, New York-Moscow Communications, p. 10), an identification confirmed by a 13 April 1936 KGB New York station report. The following month, the station reported that "Relations with 'Pancake' have entered 'the channel of normal operational work,'" meaning that Stone had become a "fully active agent." [Harvey Klehr, John E. Haynes and Alexander Vassiliev, "I.F. Stone, Soviet Agent—Case Closed," Commentary; Harvey Klehr, John E. Haynes and Alexander Vassiliev, Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009) ISBN 0300123906, p. 150] Stone also met with "Sergei" (1506 KGB New York to Moscow, 23 October 1944) (NKVD agent Vladimir Pravdin, (Robert L. Benson, The Venona Story [Ft. George G. Meade. MD: National Security Agency Center for Cryptologic History], p. 31 [PDF p. 34]), who, under cover as head of the Soviet government news agency TASS (Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB [New York: Basic Books, 2000], ISBN 046500312, p. 124), was actually Roland Abbiat (Harvey Klehr, "Devils in America," The New Republic, February 12th, 2004), murderer of Ignace Reiss. (Walter Krivitsky, In Stalin's Secret Service [New York: Harper & Brothers, 1939], pp. 261-263 [PDF 285-287])
  353. Silvermaster file, Vol. 6, p. 105 (PDF p. 106)
  354. FBI Report: Underground Soviet Espionage Organization (NKVD) in Agencies of the United States Government, p. 108 (PDF p. 119)
  355. Alexander Vassiliev’s notes on a cipher telegram from Vadim [Anatoly Gorsky], 5 March 1945, cited in John Earl Haynes, "Ales: Hiss, Foote, Stettinius?"
  356. Index of KGB Covernames: Washington-Moscow Communications, p. 3 (National Security Agency)
  357. Alexander Vassiliev's Notes on Anatoly Gorsky's December 1948 Memo on Compromised American Sources and Networks, Tr. Ronald Bachman and Harold Leich, assisted by John Earl Haynes, H-HOAC (Historians of American Communism) Discussion List, H-Net Discussion Networks (Humanities and Social Sciences Net Online), March 14, 2005
  358. Robert L. Benson, The Venona Story (Ft. George G. Meade. MD: National Security Agency Center for Cryptologic History), p. 29 (PDF p. 31)
  359. Subcommittee on Internal Security, Committee on the Judiciary, U. S. Senate, Interlocking Subversion in Government Departments (Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1953), Vol. 16, p. 1072 (PDF p. 12)
  360. Alexander Vassiliev, Black Notebook (tr. Philip Redko), p. 77; cf. Alexander Vassiliev's Notes on Anatoly Gorsky's December 1948 Memo on Compromised American Sources and Networks, Tr. Ronald Bachman and Harold Leich, assisted by John Earl Haynes, H-HOAC (Historians of American Communism) Discussion List, H-Net Discussion Networks (Humanities and Social Sciences Net Online), March 14, 2005
  361. Walter LaFeber, America, Russia, and the Cold War: 1945-1984 (New York: Knopf, 1985) ISBN 0394343913, p. 38
  362. Conrad Black, Richard M. Nixon: A Life in Full (Jackson, Tenn.: PublicAffairs, 2008), ISBN 1586486748, p. 93
  363. FBI memo: Hottel to Hoover, February 11, 1946, pp. 2-3 (FBI file: Silvermaster, Vol. 42, pp. 55-56)
  364. FBI Report: Underground Soviet Espionage Organization (NKVD) in Agencies of the United States Government, p. 110 (PDF p. 121)
  365. Jim Heintze, Biography of Drew Pearson, February 9, 2006 (Drew Pearson Papers, American University Library Collections)
  366. Yevgenia Albats, The State Within a State: The KGB And Its Hold on Russia Past, Present and Future (New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 1994), pp. 250-251; Yevgenia Albats, "Senator Edward Kennedy Requested KGB Assistance With a Profitable Contract for his Businessman-Friend," Izvestia, June 24, 1992, p. 5. Albats adds that Karr "submitted information to the KGB on the technical capabilities of the United States and other capitalist countries." Cf. Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258, p. 139; John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, p. 247. See also Venona decrypt 998 KGB New York to Moscow 15 July 1944. Another Pearson legman, Andrew Older, was identified under oath by FBI undercover operative Mary Markward as a secret member of the Communist Party in Washington, DC. (Security Hearings Pursuant to S. Res. 40, Part 1, Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Committee on Government Operations, United States Senate, 83rd Cong., 1st Sess., August 17-18, 1953 [Washington: Government Printing Office, 1953], p. 16 [PDF p. 20]; cf. Westbrook Pegler, "Close Scansion of Record Discovers Curious Matter," King Features Syndicate and The Deseret News, July 21, 1951, p. 2B)
  367. Ralph de Toledano, “Embarrassment aided and abetted the Top Soviet spy - Alger Hiss,” Insight on the News, January 27, 1997
  368. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, pp. 363-364
  369. Donald Maclean, The Spy Museum
  370. Statement of Vladimir Petrov (defected from Soviet Embassy, Canberra, 1954), Scope of Soviet Activity in the United States," Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, June 6, 1956, p. 1521 (PDF p. 79)
  371. "Donald Maclean," The Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008
  372. "Agent: Maclean, D.," The Spy Museum
  373. Hayden B. Peake, "The Judith Coplon Story," Studies in Intelligence, vol. 47, no. 2, 2003; 27 New York to Moscow 8 January 1945
  374. Fuchs' confession, "Race for the Bomb" The American Experience (PBS); 850 New York to Moscow, 15 June 1944;
  375. Greg Barker, Director, "The Red Files: Secrets of the Russian Archives Revealed," PBS, 1999 ISBN 0-7806-2796-2; 1606(a) New York to Moscow 16 November 1944
  376. Rebecca Leung, "The Traitor: David Greenglass Testified Against His Own Sister, CBS News, July 16, 2003
  377. Ronald Radosh and Joyce Milton, The Rosenberg File (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1997) ISBN 0300072058, pp. 53-58; 1340 New York to Moscow 21 September 1944
  378. Kim Philby, My Silent War (New York: Random House, Inc., 2002) ISBN 0375759832, p. 150
  379. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 360, footnote
  380. Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. Senate, Interlocking subversion in Government Departments (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1953), Part 19-20, 1357-66 (PDF pp. 17-26)
  381. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 43
  382. FBI Report: Underground Soviet Espionage Organization (NKVD) in Agencies of the United States Government, November 21, 1946, p. 109 (PDF p. 120)
  383. Spy Wars: Moles, Mysteries, and Deadly Games, Yale University Press
  384. Tennent H. Bagley, Spy Wars: Moles, Mysteries, and Deadly Games (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2007) ISBN 0300121989, p. 273
  385. Andrew E. Busch, "1946 Midterm Gives GOP First Majority Since 1928 Elections, Helps Ensure Truman’s Reelection," John M. Ashbrook Center for Public Affairs (Ashland University), June 2006
  386. Tennent H. Bagley, Spy Wars: Moles, Mysteries, and Deadly Games (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2007) ISBN 0300121989, p. 273
  387. Ron Capshaw, "Alger Hiss: The Left's Religious Icon," FrontPageMagazine.com, May 4, 2007
  388. Interlocking Subversion in Government Departments, SISS report (July 30, 1953), pp. 8-10.
  389. Testimony of Whittaker Chambers before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (August 3, 1948)
  390. Anatoli Sudoplatov, Pavel Sudoplatov, Leona P. Schecter and Jerrold L. Schecter, Special Tasks (New York: Back Bay Books, 1995) ISBN 0316821152, p. 228
  391. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 17
  392. "Publican & Pharisee," Time, May. 26, 1952
  393. "The Case of Alger Hiss," Time, February 13, 1950
  394. Tennent H. Bagley, Spy Wars: Moles, Mysteries, and Deadly Games (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2007) ISBN 0300121989, p. 274
  395. Ralph de Toledano, “Embarrassment aided and abetted the Top Soviet spy - Alger Hiss,” Insight on the News, January 27, 1997
  396. 170. The President's News Conference, August 5, 1948. Public Papers of the Presidents: Harry S. Truman, 1945-1953 (Harry S. Truman Library & Museum); Alonzo L. Hamby, Man of the People: A Life of Harry S. Truman (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998) ISBN 0195124979, p. 453; "Off the Record," Time, January 18, 1954; See also (Harry S. Truman) to the Attorney General, 16 December 1948, Harry S. Truman Library, Tom Clark Papers, "Attorney General-- White House/President, 1948," box 83, reprinted (as Document 22) in Robert Louis Benson and Michael Warner, eds., Venona: Soviet Espionage and The American Response (Washington: National Security Agency, Central Intelligence Agency, 1996), p. 119
  397. "The Old Familiar Fish," Time, September 17, 1956
  398. Ralph de Toledano, “Embarrassment aided and abetted the Top Soviet spy - Alger Hiss,” Insight on the News, January 27, 1997
  399. Jerrold and Leona Schecter, Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History (Washington, DC: Brassey's Inc., 2002) ISBN 1574885227, p. 148
  400. Robert D. Novak, "Did Truman Know About Venona?" The Weekly Standard, June 2003
  401. William Rusher, "A Closer Look Under The Bed," Claremont Review of Books, Fall 2004. The next year, Forrestal would be found dead from a fall from the tower of Bethesda Naval Hospital. (Admiral M.D. Willcutts, Report on the Death of James V. Forrestal [Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library, Princeton University], PDF p. 22)
  402. American Values through Film (English Language Office, Public Affairs section, U.S. Embassy, Moscow), p. 81 (PDF p. 82)
  403. Douglas O. Linder, "The Alger Hiss Trials: A Commentary," The Alger Hiss Trials, 1949-50. Famous Trials (University of Missouri at Kansas City School of Law)
  404. "House Un-American Activities Committee," Mundt Archives (Dakota State University); Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, pp. 15-16
  405. Robert G. Whalen, "Hiss and Chambers: Strange Story of Two Men," The New York Times, December 12, 1948
  406. "The Confrontation," Time, August 30, 1948
  407. Geoffrey C. Ward, “Unregretfully, Alger Hiss,” American Heritage Magazine, Vol. 39, Issue 7 (November 1988)
  408. Eleanor Roosevelt, Washington Daily News, August 16th, 1948
  409. Robert J. Hanyok, Eavesdropping on Hell: Historical Guide to Western Communications Intelligence and the Holocaust, 1939-1945 (Center for Cryptologic History, National Security Agency, 2005), pp. 118-119 (PDF p. 123-124), n. 185; John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, p. 146
  410. "Cold War Counterintelligence," A Counterintelligence Reader: An American Revolution Into the New Millennium, Vol. 3, Chapter 1 (Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive) pp. 30-31 (PDF pp. 29-30); Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258, p. 167
  411. Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB (New York: Basic Books, 2000), ISBN 046500312, p. 130; Robert Louis Benson and Michael Warner, eds., Venona: Soviet Espionage and The American Response (Washington: National Security Agency, Central Intelligence Agency, 1996), pp. xiv, xxiv; FBI memo: Belmont to Boardman, February 1, 1956, p. 9 (FBI file: Venona, p. 71) Currie admitted to the FBI that he knew Hiss. (FBI report: Institute of Pacific Relations, April 7, 1950. FBI file: Institute of Pacific Relations, Section 6, p. 36 [PDF p. 31])
  412. George M. Elsey, Memorandum for Mr. Clifford, 16 August 1948, Harry S. Truman Library, Clark M. Clifford Papers, "Loyalty Investigations," box 11
  413. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, p. 15
  414. Meet the Press Transcript for April 8, 2007, p. 5
  415. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 162
  416. "Three Rings," Time, December 20, 1948
  417. United States v Alger Hiss, 185 F. 2d 822 (Second Circuit Court of Appeals, December 7, 1950)
  418. FBI "By Special Messenger": SAC, Washington Field to Hoover, December 1, 1948 (FBI file: Hiss Chambers, Vol. 1)
  419. FBI memorandum: Ladd to Hoover, November 23, 1948 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 1)
  420. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Early Cold War Spies: The Espionage Trials that Shaped American Politics (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2006) ISBN 0521857384, p. 108
  421. United States v Alger Hiss, 185 F. 2d 822 (Second Circuit Court of Appeals, December 7, 1950)
  422. The Pumpkin Papers, Time, August 11, 1975
  423. Doulglas O. Linder, “The Pumpkin Papers: Key Evidence in the Alger Hiss Trials,” Famous Trials: The Alger Hiss Trials, 1949-50 (University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law)
  424. "Reply by Allen Weinstein, The Hiss Case: An Exchange," The New York Review of Books, Volume 23, Number 9 (May 27, 1976)
  425. Denise Noe, “The Pumpkin Papers,” The Alger Hiss Case, TruTV Crime Library
  426. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Early Cold War Spies: The Espionage Trials that Shaped American Politics (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2006) ISBN 0521857384), p. 116
  427. "New Witness," Time, March 1, 1954
  428. FBI memorandum: Fletcher to Ladd, December 2, 1948 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 2)
  429. FBI memorandum: Fletcher to Ladd, December 6, 1948 (FBI file: Hiss-Chambers, Vol. 2)
  430. "Reply by Allen Weinstein, The Hiss Case: An Exchange," The New York Review of Books, Volume 23, Number 9 (May 27, 1976)
  431. United States v Alger Hiss, 185 F. 2d 822 (Second Circuit Court of Appeals, December 7, 1950)
  432. "Reply by Allen Weinstein, The Hiss Case: An Exchange," The New York Review of Books, Volume 23, Number 9 (May 27, 1976)
  433. Reply by Allen Weinstein, "The Hiss Case: Another Exchange!" The New York Review of Books, Vol. 23, No. 14 (September 16, 1976)
  434. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 270
  435. Weinstein, Perjury, pp. 178, 253, 257, 299, 397
  436. Weinstein, Perjury, pp. 298, 300
  437. Weinstein, Perjury, pp. 281, 298
  438. Weinstein, Perjury, p. 254
  439. Weinstein, Perjury, p. 299
  440. Weinstein, Perjury, p. 281
  441. Weinstein, Perjury, p. 299
  442. Weinstein, Perjury, p. 300
  443. "Joined the Harvard Socialist Club and later became president... Elected to Executive Committee, Intercollegiate Socialist Society... Joined the Socialist Party, New York County, and the Socialist Press Club of New York City." Walter Lippmann Papers. Part 4: Early Papers, 1904-1920 (Reels 164-170): Chronology. Manuscript and Archives Division, Sterling Memorial Library, Yale University; Neil Smith American Empire: Roosevelt's Geographer and the Prelude to Globalization (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2004) ISBN 0520243382, p. 120; cf. The Intercollegiate Socialist (Cambridge, Mass.: Intercollegiate Socialist Society, 1918), p. 36. Even after ending his formal membership, Lippmann remained a loyal fellow-traveler: In the midst of the Nazi-Soviet Pact, "WJL" (Walter J. Lippmann) wrote to "ECC" (Edward C. Carter, head of the American Russian Institute and Institute of Pacific Relations), urging "cooperation with the European revolutionaries and the Soviet Union in their attempt to build a socialist Europe as a nucleus for a world socialist order, with the obvious corollary of the establishment of socialism in this country." Walter Lippmann to Edward C. Carter, June 10, 1940, p. 5 (PDF p. 100), FBI file: Institute of Pacific Relations, Section 54, Part 11, pp. 96-101.
  444. 1289 New York to Moscow, September 9, 1944. According to Eric Alterman, a columnist and blogger for The Nation, Lippmann "offered much more useful information to the Soviets than [I.F.] Stone ever did." (Eric Alterman, "Stone Cold Untruths," The American Prospect, October 3, 2006)
  445. 868 KGB New York to Moscow, 8 June 1943. Cf. 588 New York to Moscow, 29 April 1944. See also Institute of Pacific Relations Hearings, Part 2, Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, 82nd Cong., 1st Sess., August 9, 14, 16, 20, 22, and 23, 1951 (Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1951), p. 406; Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258, p. 439 and John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0300077718, p. 99
  446. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 384
  447. The Truman Administration During 1949: A Chronology, Harry S. Truman Library, National Archives and Records Admnistration
  448. Davis, John W. (1873-1955), Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-Present
  449. Ralph de Toledano and Victor Lasky, Seeds of Treason: The True Story of the Hiss-Chambers Tragedy, (NY: Funk and Wagnalls, 1950), ASIN B0007DS43A pp. 221-223.
  450. Ralph de Toledano and Victor Lasky, Seeds of Treason: The True Story of the Hiss-Chambers Tragedy, (NY: Funk and Wagnalls, 1950), ASIN B0007DS43A, p. 235
  451. Ralph de Toledano and Victor Lasky, Seeds of Treason: The True Story of the Hiss-Chambers Tragedy, (NY: Funk and Wagnalls, 1950), ASIN B0007DS43A, pp. 258-259
  452. "The Alger Hiss Issue," Time, November 3, 1952
  453. "Woman with a Past," Time, December 19, 1949
  454. Sam Tanenhaus, "Hiss Case 'Smoking Gun'?" The New York Times, October 15, 1993
  455. Daniel Hemel, “Who Killed Alger Hiss? The Oxionian Review (Balliol College, Oxford), Issue 9.4 (May 18, 2009)
  456. Charles E. Wyzanski, Jr., to Francis Russell, March 31, 1986. Francis Russell Papers, Boston Athenaeum. Cited in Richard Newby, Letters to the Editor, Journal of American History, Vol. 87, No. 1 (June 2000)
  457. The Truman Administration During 1949: A Chronology, Harry S. Truman Library, National Archives and Records Admnistration
  458. United States v. Hiss, 88 F. Supp. 559 (S.D.N.Y. 1950); The Truman Administration During 1949: A Chronology, Harry S. Truman Library, National Archives and Records Admnistration
  459. "Trial by Typewriter," Time, February 4, 1952
  460. "'I Do Not Intend to Turn My Back'," Time, February 6, 1950
  461. Jerrold and Leona Schecter, Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History (Washington, DC: Brassey's Inc., 2002) ISBN 1574885227, p. 149
  462. William Rusher, "A Closer Look Under The Bed," Claremont Review of Books, Fall 2004
  463. Alger Hiss Collection, 1934-1979, Library of Maryland History, Maryland Historical Society; United States v Alger Hiss, 185 F. 2d 822 (Second Circuit Court of Appeals, December 7, 1950)
  464. The Supreme Court refused to hear Hiss' appeal three times, the last time in 1983. (Sam Tanenhaus, "Hiss: Guilty as Charged," Commentary, April 1993)
  465. Rabinowitz claimed to have joined the Party in 1942, adding "There was no formal act marking the end of the relationship.... though I continued to meet with party members to discuss both political and legal matters for many years thereafter." (Victor Rabinowitz, Unrepentant Leftist: A Lawyer's Memoir [Champaign, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1996] ISBN 025202253X, pp. 73, 87). Rabinowitz' law partner (representing Cuba's Communist Castro regime) was Leonard Boudin, father of convicted Weather Underground terrorist Kathy Boudin (Michael Law, Leftist Lawyer Victor Rabinowitz Passes Away at 96, Law Vibe: International Law News, November 21, 2007), whose son was adopted and raised by William Ayers (Jodi Wilgoren, "From a Radical Background, A Rhodes Scholar Emerges," The New York Times, December 9, 2002), political booster of Barack Obama (Scott Shane, "Obama and ’60s Bomber: A Look Into Crossed Paths," The New York Times, October 3, 2008).
  466. Eric Breindel, "The faithful traitor: Alger Hiss's refusal to recant helped create the myth of his innocence," National Review, February 10, 1997
  467. Geoffrey C. Ward, “Unregretfully, Alger Hiss,” American Heritage Magazine, Vol. 39, Issue 7 (November 1988)
  468. Alger Hiss, Recollections of a Life (Arcade, 1989) ISBN 1559700246, p. 168
  469. Brock Brower, “The Problems of Alger Hiss,” Esquire, December 1960
  470. Hiss to C. Vann Woodward, May 2, 1959, quoted in Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Random House, 1997 ed.), p. 581; G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-Glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2005) ISBN 0195182553, pp. 87-88. Cf. Arianna Huffington, “Alger Hiss and O.J. Simpson,” Arianna Online, November 21, 1996
  471. Ron Capshaw, “Alger Hiss: The Left's Religious Icon,” FrontPageMagazine.com, May 4, 2007
  472. Matthew Richer, "The Ongoing Campaign of Alger Hiss: The Sins of the Father," Modern Age, Vol. 46, No. 4 (Fall 2004), p. 309 (PDF p. 3)
  473. Cole, who titled his 1981 memoir Hollywood Red, "remained a hardcore Communist" until his death in 1985. Ronald Radosh and Allis Radosh, Red Star Over Hollywood (San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2005) ISBN 1893554961, p. 29; Cf. Kenneth Lloyd Billingsley, Hollywood Party: How Communism Seduced the American Film Industry in the 1930s and 1940s (Rocklin, Calif: Prima Publishing, 1998) ISBN 0761513760, pp. 266-267; Biography for Lester Cole, IMDb: The Internet Movie Database
  474. Hiss, Isabel (Dowden) Johnson, 1908-2000. Papers, 1907-2000: A Finding Aid. Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University
  475. Ron Capshaw, "Framing Alger: A Communist Plot," FrontPageMagazine.com, June 12, 2007
  476. Ron Capshaw, "Portrait of an American Traitor," FrontPageMagazine.com, September 24, 2007
  477. "Isabel J. Hiss, 91, Widow of Alger Hiss," The New York Times, May 7, 2000
  478. "The Alger Hiss Spy Case," HistoryNet.com
  479. In the Matter of Alger Hiss, 368 Mass. 447, 1975; 333 N.E.2d 429; 1975 Mass. LEXIS 1014
  480. Guide to the Agnese Nelms Haury Papers, Tamiment Library/Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives, Elmer Holmes Bobst Library, New York University
  481. Kovel advocates what he calls "ecosocialism," which he defines as Marxian communism—the "realization" of what he calls "'first-epoch' socialism" (that is, "neither more nor less than the original announcement of the Communist Manifesto")—not in pursuit of "unfettered productivity' a la Marx, but to further fetter productivity in the interest of environmentalism. Joel Kovel, "A Socialism for the Next Epoch," On Ecology and Socialism. Congres Marx International Paris, September 29, 2001
  482. About Joel Kovel
  483. Steven G. Marks, "In Denial by John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr," Commentary, October 2003
  484. George McGovern, "Nixon: The Last Word," Foreign Policy, Fall 1994
  485. Dmitri Volkogonov, Letter to Nezavisimaya Gazeta, November 1992, quoted in John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, In Denial: Historians, Communism & Espionage (San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2003) ISBN 159403088X, p. 167
  486. Julius Kobyakov, Lowenthal and Alger Hiss, Diplomatic History (H-DIPLO) Discussion List, Humanities and Social Sciences Net Online (H-Net), October 10, 2003
  487. Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, p. 44; Robert L. Beisner, Dean Acheson: A Life in the Cold War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006) ISBN 0195045785, p. 711, note 1; John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, "Hiss Was Guilty," History News Network (George Mason University), April 16, 2007; Jeffrey T. Richelson, A Century of Spies: Intelligence in the Twentieth Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press US, 1997) ISBN 019511390XG, p. 95; Tennent H. Bagley, Spy Wars: Moles, Mysteries, and Deadly Games (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2007) ISBN 0300121989, p. 272; John R. Schindler, "Hiss in VENONA: The Continuing Controversy," Center for Cryptologic History Symposium, 27 October 2005; Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258, p. 140; John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, In Denial: Historians, Communism & Espionage (San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2003) ISBN 159403088X, p. 150; G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 167; Tom Post, "'He Was Never A Soviet Spy'," Newsweek, November 9, 1992
  488. Amos Perlmutter, "Western journalists slow to report General Dmitri Volkogonov's explanation of his exoneration of convicted spy Alger Hiss," National Review, January 18, 1993
  489. David Remnick, "The Stalin Tragedy Comes Home; With Official Blessings, a Soviet Historian Works on a Biography," The Washington Post, June 30, 1988, p. B1
  490. Steven M. Miner, "The Incubus of Despotism," The Washington Post, September 15, 1991
  491. Walter Laqueur, The Long Road to Freedom: Russia and Glasnost (New York: C. Scribner's, 1989) ISBN 0684190303, p. 68
  492. David Margolick, "After 40 Years, a Postscript on Hiss: Russian Official Calls Him Innocent," The New York Times, October 29, 1992
  493. Alex Kershaw, "Framed: The Rehabilitation of Alger Hiss," The Guardian, January 9, 1993, pp.6-10
  494. George F. Will, "'Exoneration' Of Alger Hiss," Newsweek, February 26, 2008
  495. "Sticking Up for Hiss," MediaWatch (Media Research Center), December 1992
  496. George F. Will, "'Exoneration' Of Alger Hiss," Newsweek, February 26, 2008
  497. Serge Schmemann, “Russian General Retreats on Hiss,” The New York Times, December 17, 1992
  498. J. Michael Waller, Fighting the War of Ideas Like a Real War: Messages to Defeat the Terrorists (Morrisville, N.C.: Lulu.com, 2007) ISBN 0615144632, p. 45, n. 36
  499. Ion Mihai Pacepa, "A Terrorist State in the G8?," Human Events, December 3, 2007
  500. Herbert Romerstein, Human Events, November 28, 1992
  501. Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258, p. 140
  502. Mark Kramer, "The Hiss Case and General Volkogonov: A Comment on Victor Navasky's Article," The Nation, April 17, 2007
  503. Serge Schmemann, “Russian General Retreats on Hiss,” The New York Times, December 17, 1992
  504. Reed Irvine, Ed., “Media Bites on Hiss Hoax,” AIM Report, November B 1992
  505. Serge Schmemann, “Russian General Retreats on Hiss,” The New York Times, December 17, 1992
  506. Serge Schmemann, “Russian General Retreats on Hiss,” The New York Times, December 17, 1992
  507. Mark Kramer, “The Hiss Case and General Volkogonov: A Comment on Victor Navasky's Article,” Web Letters, The Nation, April 17, 2007
  508. Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258, p. 141
  509. John Earl Haynes, Cover Name, Cryptonym, CPUSA Party Name, Pseudonym, and Real Name Index: A Research Historian’s Working Reference
  510. Harvey Klehr, John E. Haynes and Alexander Vassiliev, Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009) ISBN 0300123906, pp. 6-7; Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, p. 6
  511. Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era, (New York: Random House, 1999), ISBN 0375755365, p. 43
  512. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Random House, 1997)
  513. Whittaker Chambers, Witness (Washington: Regnery Publishing, 1952)
  514. Venona decrypts (e.g., Venona 1822 Washington to Moscow 30 March 1945); Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era (New York: Random House, 1999); Eduard Mark, "Who Was ‘Venona’s’ ‘Ales’? Cryptanalysis and the Hiss Case," Intelligence and National Security 18, no. 3 (Autumn 2003)
  515. KGB file 43173 vol. 2 (v) pp. 49-55
  516. John Ehrman, "A Half-Century of Controversy: The Alger Hiss Case," Studies in Intelligence (Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency), Winter-Spring 2001, No. 10, pp. 9-10
  517. L. Brent Bozell III, "Hiss Obituaries Prove Network Laziness," Creators Syndicate, November 21, 1996
  518. Wes Vernon, "Media Won’t Give Up on Red Spy Alger Hiss," AIM Report, July B (July 19, 2007)
  519. Brent Baker, CyberAlert (Media Research Center), Vol. One, No. 115 (November 18, 1996)
  520. Brent Baker, CyberAlert (Media Research Center), Vol. One, No. 116 (November 22, 1996)
  521. Harvey Klehr and John Earl Haynes, "Professors of Denial: Ignoring the truth about American Communists," The Weekly Standard, Volume 010, Issue 25, March 21, 2005
  522. Julius Kobyakov, Lowenthal and Alger Hiss, Diplomatic History (H-DIPLO) Discussion List, Humanities and Social Sciences Net Online (H-Net), October 10, 2003
  523. Julius N. Kobyakov, "Alger Hiss," H-DIPLO (Humanities and Social Sciences Net Online), October 16, 2003
  524. "Artist in Brooklyn," Time, August 19, 1957
  525. Julius N. Kobyakov, "Alger Hiss," Humanities and Social Sciences Net, October 16, 2003. According to the personal Web site of Hiss' son Tony, Pavlov denounced Soviet defectors Guzenko, Golitsyn, Levchenko and Gordievsky as "traitors," and their revelations as "fabrications."
  526. Robert L. Beisner, Dean Acheson: A Life in the Cold War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006) ISBN 0195045785, p. 711, note 1; John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, "Hiss Was Guilty," History News Network (George Mason University), April 16, 2007; John R. Schindler, "Hiss in VENONA: The Continuing Controversy," Center for Cryptologic History Symposium, 27 October 2005; John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, In Denial: Historians, Communism & Espionage (San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2003) ISBN 159403088X, p. 150; Jeffrey T. Richelson, A Century of Spies: Intelligence in the Twentieth Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press US, 1997) ISBN 019511390XG, p. 95; Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-glass Wars: The Covert Life of a Soviet Spy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) ISBN 0195182553, p. 167; Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors (Washington: Regnery Publishing, 2001) ISBN 0895262258, p. 140; Tom Post, "'He Was Never A Soviet Spy'," Newsweek, November 9, 1992
  527. Sam Tanenhaus, Whittaker Chambers: A Biography (New York: Random House, 1997) ISBN 0375751459, p. 600
  528. "Secrets, Lies and Atomic Spies," Nova (PBS), February 5, 2002
  529. "Alger Hiss," Britannica Online Encyclopedia (2006)
  530. US Military Dictionary: The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002)
  531. Denise Noe, “The Hiss-Nixon Seesaw,” The Alger Hiss Case, TruTV Crime Library
  532. James T. Gay, "The Alger Hiss Spy Case," American History, June 1998
  533. Stephen Koch, Double Lives: Stalin, Willi Munzenberg and the Seduction of the Intellectuals (New York: Free Press, 1994) ISBN 0-02-918730-3, p. 326
  534. Geoffrey C. Ward, “Unregretfully, Alger Hiss,” American Heritage Magazine, Vol. 39, Issue 7 (November 1988)
  535. Biography of Dr. Allen Weinstein, Ninth Archivist of the United States, The National Archives
  536. "A Verdict: 'Hiss Has Been Lying'," Time, March 29, 1976
  537. Tennent H. Bagley, Spy Wars: Moles, Mysteries, and Deadly Games (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2007) ISBN 0300121989, p. 273
  538. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1997), ISBN 0394495462, p. 513
  539. "Report of the Commission on Protecting and Reducing Government Secrecy, Appendix A (Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1997), p. A-37 (PDF p. 39)
  540. David Smith, "Top Cold War spy 'innocent'," The Guardian, April 8, 2007
  541. Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Mitrokhin Archive: The KGB in Europe and the West (London: Gardners Books, 2000) ISBN 0-14-028487-7, p. 792, note 81
  542. Sally Acharya, "Historian’s book draws national attention," American Weekly, October 24, 2006
  543. Robert L. Beisner, Dean Acheson: A Life in the Cold War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006) ISBN 0195045785, p. 282
  544. John Ehrman, "Alger Hiss’s Looking-Glass Wars: Intelligence in Recent Public Literature," Studies in Intelligence, Volume 48, Number 4
  545. White, G. Edward, "Hiss and Holmes," Ohio Northern University Law Review, May 2002
  546. Ryan Ervin, "The Hiss-Chambers Case: Three Acts of Espionage Theater," Historia (History Department, Eastern Illinois University and Epsilon Mu Chapter, Phi Alpha Theta), Vol. 14 (2005), p. 14 (PDF p. 7)
  547. David McKnight and Richard J. Aldrich, Espionage and the Roots of the Cold War: The Conspiratorial Heritage (Oxford: Routledge, 2002) ISBN 071465163X, p. 128
  548. Maurice Isserman, "They Led Two Lives, The New York Times, May 9, 1999
  549. John J. Miller, "The Annals of Jonathan Brent: One Man and a Great Publishing Project, National Review, May 22, 2006
  550. Hayden B. Peake, "The VENONA Progeny," Naval War College Review, Summer 2000
  551. Schlesinger was an "unabashedly liberal partisan" (Douglas Martin, "Arthur Schlesinger, Historian of Power, Dies at 89," The New York Times, March 1, 2007) who, it was said, "equates capitalism with sexism and racism." (Lance Morrow, "A Rich Circularity," Time, November 5, 2000)
  552. Arthur Schlesinger, A Life in the Twentieth Century: Innocent Beginnings, 1917-1950 (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2000) ISBN 0618219250, pp. 497-498
  553. Thomas Reed, At the Abyss: An Insider's History of the Cold War (New York: Random House, Inc., 2005) ISBN 0891418377, pp. 9-10
  554. Brad DeLong, Alger Hiss, Diplomatic History Discussion Logs (Humanities and Social Sciences Net Online), July 28, 2003
  555. J. Bradford DeLong, "Kai Bird Thinks That Alger Hiss Wasn't the 'Ales' Mentioned in VENONA," Grasping Reality with Both Hands: Economist Brad DeLong's Fair, Balanced, and Reality-Based Semi-Daily Journal, April 9, 2007. DeLong elaborates: "I think that Hiss was guilty.... I think Hiss is more likely than not to be guilty of espionage. I even think that there is clear and convincing evidence that Hiss was guilty..." (Brad DeLong, "Marking My Beliefs to Market: Soviet Espionage in America: Alger Hiss," Semi-Daily Journal, The Semi-Daily Journal of Economist Brad DeLong: Fair and Balanced Almost Every Day, July 23, 2003)
  556. Caren Bohan, "Obama names foreign policy panel," Reuters, June 18, 2008
  557. "Nomination on Hold," PBS NewsHour, February 27, 1997
  558. "The Dossier on Anthony Lake," The New York Times, January 17, 1997
  559. Susan Jacoby, No Atheists (Still) Need Apply, On Faith (newsweek.washingtonpost.com)
  560. Susan Jacoby, Hope Is Not A "Cult of Personality", On Faith (newsweek.washingtonpost.com)
  561. Susan Jacoby, Alger Hiss and the Battle for History (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2009) ISBN 0300121334, pp. 20-21. Jacoby continues that she is "only 98 or 99 percent convinced of Hiss's guilt." Her residual one to two percent doubt, suggests Whittaker Chambers' grandson, may be due to her refusal to read the new book, Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America. "According to Spies co-author Harvey Klehr," writes Chambers, "Yale's editor Jonathan Brent offered her access to the book's new findings. Apparently, Ms. Jacoby took a pass." (David Chambers, "Equally erring about Hiss," The Washington Times, May 22, 2009) As Jacoby admits, "It has always been difficult for liberals to look objectively at evidence pointing to Hiss' guilt..." (Susan Jacoby, "Alger Hiss -- a case for our time," The Los Angeles Times, March 22, 2009)
  562. Ellen Schrecker, Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America (Boston: Little, Brown, 1998), p. 181; Jacob Weisberg, "Cold War Without End," The New York Times, November 28, 1999; John Earl Haynes, Response by John Earl Haynes, "The Cold War Debate Continues: A Traditionalist View of Historical Writing on Domestic Communism and Anti-Communism," Journal of Cold War Studies, Volume 2, Number 1 (Winter 2000)
  563. Article Commentary: Schrecker on Haynes John Earl Haynes, “The Cold War Debate Continues: A Traditionalist View of Historical Writing on Domestic Communism and Anti-Communism,” Journal of Cold War Studies, Volume 2, Issue 1 (Winter 2000), pp. 76-115
  564. The Nation: Product Description
  565. Eric Breindel, "Goodies from the Venona files: Hiss’ Guilt," The New Republic, April 15, 1996, reprinted in The Congressional Record Vol. 142, No. 50 (April 18, 1996), p. H3645
  566. Kai Bird and Svetlana Chervonnaya, "The Mystery of Ales," The American Scholar, Summer, 2007. Bird and Chervonnaya argue that "Ales" was not Hiss, but his colleague Wilder Foote—despite the fact that Foote spent the 1930s toiling in obscurity as a newspaper editor in the wilds of Vermont, when "Ales" was working with Harold Glasser in Whittaker Chambers' GRU group. (Alexander Vassiliev’s notes on a cipher telegram from Vadim [Anatoly Gorsky], 5 March 1945, cited in John Earl Haynes, "Ales: Hiss, Foote, Stettinius?"; Eduard Mark, “Who was ‘Venona’s’ ‘Ales’? Cryptanalysis and the Hiss Case,” Intelligence and National Security, 18 [Autumn 2003], pp. 54–55, 57–88, 62, 64; John Ehrman, "Once Again, the Alger Hiss Case," Studies in Intelligence, Vol. 51, No. 4, December 2007; John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, "Hiss Was Guilty," History News Network (George Mason University), April 16, 2007
  567. Eric Alterman, "I Spy With One Little Eye," The Nation, April 29, 1996
  568. Paul Vitello, "A ‘Marine’ for Catholics Sees a Time of Battle," The New York Times, May 14, 2009
  569. Christopher Hitchens, Columnist, Author Bios, The Nation
  570. Christopher Hitchens, Unacknowledged Legislation: Writers in the Public Sphere (London: Verso, 2000) ISBN 1859847862, pp. 105-106. Hitchens (who says he is considering writing a book called Guilty as Hell: A Short History of the American Left) suggests that the answer is, "because he thought he was onto a winner." (Peter Robinson with Anne Applebaum and Christopher Hitchens, "Is the New Left History? The Past, Present, and Future of the Left," Hoover Institution [Stanford University], July 15, 2004)
  571. Jacob Weisberg, "Cold War Without End," The New York Times, November 28, 1999
  572. Columbia Journalism Review: About Us: Masthead
  573. Victor Navasky, "Cold War Ghosts," The Nation, July 16, 2001
  574. Glenn Garvin, "Fools for Communism: Still apologists after all these years," Reason, April 2004
  575. Jacob Weisberg, "Cold War Without End," The New York Times, November 28, 1999
  576. Daniel Hemel, "Who Killed Alger Hiss?" The Oxonian Review (Balliol College, Oxford), Issue 9.4 (May 18, 2009)
  577. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2001-07.
  578. David Smith, "Top Cold War spy 'innocent'," The Guardian, April 8, 2007
  579. Gilbert Geis and Leigh B. Bienen, Crimes of the Century: From Leopold and Loeb to O.J. Simpson (Lebanon, N.H.: UPNE, 1998), ISBN 1555533604, pp. 130-131
  580. David Oshinsky, Inaugural Conference, Center for the United States and the Cold War Alger Hiss and History (New York University), April 5, 2007
  581. Douglas O. Linder, "The VENONA Files and the Alger Hiss Case," Famous Trials: The Trials of Alger Hiss (University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law)
  582. R. Bruce Craig, "Introduction to the Collection," Alger Hiss Papers from the Tamiment Library Collections (Woodbridge, Conn.: Thomson Gale, 2006) ISBN 1-57803-346-2, p. xx
  583. James Barron, "Online, the Hiss Defense Doesn't Rest," The New York Times, August 16, 2001
  584. Thomas Powers, "The Plot Thickens," The New York Review of Books, Vol. 47, No. 8 (May 11, 2000)
  585. Cass R. Sunstein, "Reagan Appointee and (Recent) McCain Adviser Charles Fried Supports Obama," The New Republic October 24, 2008
  586. Geoffrey Stone, Patricia M. Wald, Charles Fried, and Kim Lane Scheppele, "Constitutions Under Stress: International and Historical Perspectives," Bulletin (American Academy of Arts and Sciences), Vol. LIX, No. 2 (Winter 2006), p. 39
  587. Stanley I. Kutler, "Rethinking the Story of Alger Hiss," FindLaw, August 6, 2004
  588. John Ehrman, "Alger Hiss’s Looking-Glass Wars: Intelligence in Recent Public Literature," Studies in Intelligence, Volume 48, Number 4
  589. John Ehrman, "A Half-Century of Controversy: The Alger Hiss Case," Studies in Intelligence, Winter-Spring 2001
  590. Harvey Klehr, "Books: Jerrold and Leona Schecter's Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History," The Weekly Standard, July 1, 2002
  591. Ronald Radosh, "To the Bitter End," National Review, March 22, 2004
  592. Athan Theoharis, "The View from Alger's Window," The Journal of American History, Vol. 87, No. 1 (June 2000), pp. 292-293
  593. Kai Bird and Svetlana Chervonnaya, "The Mystery of Ales," The American Scholar, Summer, 2007. Chervonnaya has since suggested that this consensus amounts to an orthodoxy, writing of her "hope of dethroning the autocracy of cold war historical scholarship on the matter of Alger Hiss," describing her motive as "to overthrow the regime." (Svetlana Chervonnaya, "Correspondence: Boo, Hiss," TNR Online, July 26, 2007)
  594. Victor Navasky, Alger Hiss and History, Inaugural Conference, Center for the United States and the Cold War (New York University), April 5, 2007
  595. Ann Douglas, "Family Ties," The New York Times, June 27, 1999
  596. James Barron, "Online, the Hiss Defense Doesn't Rest," The New York Times, August 16, 2001
  597. Max Frankel, "Reading Alger Hiss's Mind," The New York Times, February 29, 2004
  598. Thomas Powers, "'A Matter of Opinion': The Fate of The Nation," The New York Times, May 29, 2005
  599. Lynne Duke, "Stepping Out Of the Shadows," The Washington Post, April 5, 2007
  600. John Elson, "Gentleman and a Spy?" Time, November 25, 1996. Elsewhere, Time reports, "Added to the earlier accumulation of evidence, the Venona message [1822] seems to remove reasonable doubt about Alger Hiss's guilt." Lance Morrow, "Alger, 'Ales' And Joe," Time, June 6, 1999
  601. David J. Garrow, "From Russia, With Love," Newsweek, May 25, 2009
  602. Michael Barone, "Hiss and History," U.S. News and World Report, November 25, 1996
  603. Nicholas von Hoffman, The Internet Movie Database
  604. Nicholas Von Hoffman, "Was McCarthy right about the left?" The Washington Post, April 14, 1996, p. C1
  605. Victor Navasky, "Cold War Ghosts," The Nation, July 16, 2001
  606. "...The New York Review of Books, the left-leaning publication that is to gravitas what the Beagle was to Darwin..." Nicholas Dawidoff, "The Civil Heretic," The New York Times Magazine, March 29, 2009
  607. Thomas Powers, "The Plot Thickens," The New York Review of Books, May 11, 2000 (Volume 47, Number 8)
  608. "The Washington Monthly is a moderately left-of-center, independent magazine...." Browse Washington Monthly by Date, The Free Library
  609. David Ignatius, "A Father and a Spy: A son's memoir and Soviet cable decrypts provide different perspectives on Alger Hiss," The Washington Monthly, Vol. 31 Issue 7, July/August 1999
  610. "The Guardian, Britain's leading left-wing newspaper, has—naturally!—a policy of 'diversity' in hiring newsroom staff," National Review, August 8, 2005. Guardian readers are often stereotyped as politically correct charactures.
  611. Michael Ellison, "US judge prises lid off secret spy case papers," The Guardian, May 15, 1999
  612. Howard Kurtz, "A Blog That Made It Big: The Huffington Post, Trending Up and Left," The Washington Post, July 9, 2007, p. C01
  613. Jacob Heilbrunn, "Jacob Heilbrunn on Alger Hiss," Truthdig.com, March 20, 2009
  614. "Salon professed to represent a combination of left-liberal politics and iconoclastic cultural attitudes, characteristic of the middle-class radical milieu that developed in the 1960s, most strongly centered in the San Francisco Bay Area." (Patrick Martin, Salon and the decay of American liberal journalism, World Socialist Web Site [International Committee of the Fourth International], June 29, 2001)
  615. Dan Kennedy, "What if they gave a funeral for a cold-war icon — and no one came?" Salon.com, November 19, 1996
  616. David Plotz, "Obama Carries the Great State of Slate," Slate.com, October 28, 2008
  617. Ron Rosenbaum, "Alger Hiss Rides Again," Slate.com, July 16, 2007
  618. Timothy Noah, "The Uncabinet," Slate.com, November 5, 2008
  619. Louis Bayard, "Why Ronald Reagan didn't completely suck," Slate.com, May 13, 2008

Further reading

External links