Programming Language''' is a small set of words and syntactic rules that allow people to write computer programs. When the [[ computer program]] is executed by a [[computer]] , it will follow the instructions and perform the requested work.
Many different programming languages have been defined. Some are general-purpose and some are specific to a particular problem domain. However, programming languages evolve over time and usually become more general-purpose. For instance, the [[ BASIC programming language]] and the [[ Pascal programming language]] were originally intended as teaching languages, for students of programming. But both are now popular as general-purpose languages. The features of most modern programming languages are similar, but the words and syntax differ. For instance, the PRINT statement is used to output data in BASIC, whereas WRITELN is used for the same purpose in Pascal. Even when the words and syntax are similar between two languages , often the meaning (semantics) is different.
Unlike human languages, computer languages are much smaller ( having grammars of around two dozen words) and define meanings more precisely.
The first programming language was A- 0, developed in 1951.
* Based on history we can see how all successful languages had very powerful sponsors. C/C++/Java/C# are all creations of big companies like AT&T, Sun, Microsoft. All these new languages are born in universities and research institutes or are coming from very specific niche domains. [http://littletutorials.com/2008/05/28/13-reasons-java-die-old-age/] ==Implementation of Programming Languages== A set of instructions written in a programming language is called '''source code''', or simply '''code'''. In order for a computer to execute a program, another program must be used to prepare the source for execution. '''Interpreters''' translate the source code into '''machine code''' as the program executes. '''Compilers''' and '''Assemblers''' convert the source code into machine code once, and the computer can run the machine code any number of times. This makes compiled code run faster than interpreted code, usually by a factor of about 10. ==Distinguishing Features==
Programming languages can be divided into '''declarative''' and '''procedural''' languages. Declarative languages define information such as relationships and attributes. Prolog is an example of a declarative language. Procedural languages define processes (algorithms) for the computer to follow. C is an example of a procedural language.
'''Objects''' are a means of encapsulating data and algorithms that operate on that data, with polymorphism. Originally specified in Simula, objects became popular with the advent of C++. Many languages which originally did not support objects have since acquired them. For instance [[Visual BASIC]] is a version of BASIC supporting objects. Likewise, [[Borland Delphi]] is a version of Pascal supporting objects.
[http://www.princeton.edu/~ferguson/adw/programming_languages.shtml The History of Computer Programming Languages]
[http://people.ku.edu/~nkinners/LangList/Extras/langlist.htm The Language List]