Changes

Jump to: navigation, search

Programming language

486 bytes added, 16:13, 28 February 2012
rephrase introduction.
A '''Programming Languageprogramming language''' is a small set of words and syntactic rules that allow people an artificial [[language]] used mainly for giving instructions to write computer programs. When computers; a secondary use is for the precise specification of [[computer programalgorithm]] s. A group of instructions for a particular purpose is executed by known as a [[computerprogram]], it will follow the instructions and perform the requested work.
Many different programming Compared with human languages have been defined(e. Some are general-purpose and some are specific to a particular problem domaing. HoweverEnglish, French, Spanish, etc.), programming languages evolve over time are very much smaller, simpler, and usually become more general-purposeprecise. For instanceMost programming languages are a mixture of English words and mathematical notation; very few programming languages have a base vocabulary exceeding 60 words, the although they may also have utility libraries with hundreds of entries which provide optional extra functionality. The [[BASIC programming languageContext-Free Grammar|context-free grammars]] and commonly used to precisely define the [[Pascal programming languagesyntax]] were originally intended as teaching languages, for students of programming. But both are now popular as general-purpose languages. The features of most modern programming languages are similar, but the words and syntax differ. For instance, the PRINT statement is used not powerful enough to output data in BASIC, whereas WRITELN is used for the same purpose in Pascal. Even when the words and syntax are similar between two define human languages, often the meaning (semantics) is differentsuch as English.
Unlike human Many thousands of different programming languageshave been defined, computer languages though only a few dozen are much smaller in widespread use. The first publicly available programming language was A-0, developed in 1951 by Grace Hopper. In 1948 Zuse published a paper about an early programming language Plankalk├╝l, though this was not actually implemented until 1998 (having grammars of around two dozen wordspublication was in "Archiv der Mathematik") and define meanings more precisely.
The first ==About programming languages==Some programming languages are general-purpose and some are specific to a particular problem domain. However, programming languages evolve over time and usually become more general-purpose. For instance, the [[BASIC programming language was A]] and the [[Pascal programming language]] were originally intended as teaching languages, for students of programming. But both are now popular as general-0purpose languages. The features of most modern programming languages are similar, developed but the words and syntax differ. For instance, the PRINT statement is used to output data in 1951BASIC, whereas WRITELN is used for the same purpose in Pascal. Even when the words and syntax are similar between two languages, often the meaning (semantics) is different.
* Based on history we can see how all successful languages had very powerful sponsors. C/C++/Java/C# are all creations of big companies like AT&T, Sun, Microsoft. All these new languages are born in universities and research institutes or are coming from very specific niche domains. [http://littletutorials.com/2008/05/28/13-reasons-java-die-old-age/] ==Implementation of Programming Languages==A set of instructions written in a programming language is called '''source code''', or simply '''code'''. In order for a computer to execute a program, another program must be used to prepare the source for execution. '''Interpreters''' translate the source code into '''machine code''' as the program executes. '''Compilers''' and '''Assemblers''' convert the source code into machine code once, and the computer can run the machine code any number of times. This makes compiled code run faster than interpreted code, usually by a factor of about 10.  ==Distinguishing Featuresfeatures==
Programming languages can be divided into '''declarative''' and '''procedural''' languages. Declarative languages define information such as relationships and attributes. Prolog is an example of a declarative language. Procedural languages define processes (algorithms) for the computer to follow. C is an example of a procedural language.
'''Objects''' are a means of encapsulating data and algorithms that operate on that data, with polymorphism. Originally specified in Simula, objects became popular with the advent of C++. Many languages which originally did not support objects have since acquired them. For instance [[Visual BASIC]] is a version of BASIC supporting objects. Likewise, [[Borland Delphi]] is a version of Pascal supporting objects.
 
==Implementation of programming lLanguages==
A set of instructions written in a programming language is called '''source code''', or simply '''code'''. In order for a computer to execute a program, another program must be used to prepare the source for execution. '''Interpreters''' translate the source code into '''machine code''' as the program executes. '''Compilers''' and '''Assemblers''' convert the source code into machine code once, and the computer can run the machine code any number of times. This makes compiled code run faster than interpreted code, usually by a factor of about 10.
==Language List==
==References==
{{reflist}}
 
==See also==
[http://www.princeton.edu/~ferguson/adw/programming_languages.shtml The History of Computer Programming Languages]
 
[http://people.ku.edu/~nkinners/LangList/Extras/langlist.htm The Language List]
[[Category:Information technology]]
[[Category:Computer Science]]
SkipCaptcha
265
edits