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Clement Attlee

478 bytes added, 12:37, 31 May 2009
The Right Honorable '''Clement Richard Attlee''', 1st Earl Attlee (3 January 1883 - 8 October 1967) was the Prime Minister of the [[United Kingdom]] from 1945 to 1951. He was a member of the [[Labour Party]], and is remembered as the leader of the strongly socialist government that was elected in the aftermath of [[World War II]]. During the war, he served as [[Winston Churchill]]'s Deputy Prime Minister.
Attlee, the son of a prosperous lawyer, was born in Putney, a middle-class London suburb, in 1883. Educated at University College, Oxford, he was admitted to the bar in 1905 and practised law in London. An intellectual, he was converted to socialism by reading the works of [[John Ruskin]] and [[William Morris]]. In 1913-1923 he taught social science at the [[London School of Economics]]. He served in the First World War as a major in the Tank Corps; he was badly wounded and recovered. His political career began in 1919 with election as mayor of Stepney.
Attless was a born parliamentarian, paying close attention to rules and procedures. He held a large number of secondary and major posts before becoming Prime Minister in 1951.
Attlee He was born elected to Parliament in Putney, a middle-class 1922 as [[LondonLabour Party]] suburb, member for Stepney and in 1883. Educated at Haileybury and University College, [[Oxford]] 1924 he became a barrister in 1906was made Undersecretary of State for War. In 1927 Attlee developed an interest in social problems while doing voluntary work at was a boy's club in Stepney. Converted to socialism by reading member of the Indian Statutory Commission under the works chairmanship of [[Sir John Ruskin]] Simon, and [[William Morris]], in 1913 Attlee became a tutor at since he supported self-government for India he dissented from the [[London School report of Economicsthe Joint Select Committee in 1933.]]
In 1914 Attlee He joined the [[British ArmyRamsay MacDonald]] and served in Gallipoli and Mesopotamia's Labour cabinet as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, 1929-1931 (that is, where he was badly wounded at El Hannaminister without portfolio and did not run a department). After recovering back He became Postmaster General in England1931. Along with most Labour MP's, Attlee was sent to [[France]] in 1918 and served on he broke with Ramsay MacDonald when the Western Front for the last few months of the war. By the end of Macdonald joined with the [[First World WarConservative Party|Conservatives]] Attlee reached to form the rank of majorNational Coalition government in 1931.
After the war Attlee returned was one of the few Labour MPs to teaching at save his seat in the [[London School of Economics]]. Attlee, a member 1931 Conservative landslide; he became deputy leader of the [[Labour Party]], became involved in local politics party under George Lansbury. In 1935 Lansbury retired and in 1919 was elected Mayor Attlee became leader of Stepneythe opposition.
In Attlee opposed the 1922 General Election he was elected Labour MP for Limehouse policy of neutrality in London. the [[Ramsay MacDonaldSpanish Civil War]], because he wanted Britain to help the leader of left-wing side and defeat [[Franco]]. He visited the party Communist-controlled [[International Brigades]] in the House of Commons, recruited Attlee as Spain in 1937 to show his parliamentary secretary (1922-24)solidarity, though he generally opposed the Communists at home. In He denounced the 1924 Labour Government Attlee was appointed as Under Secretary of State for WarHoare-Laval Pact.
After As the Labour Party victory [[Second World War]] opened in the 1929 General Election1939 and turned against Britain in 1940, MacDonald appointed Conservative [[Winston Churchill]] became prime minister in 1940 and Attlee joined Churchill's wartime coalition cabinet as postmaster-general. HoweverLord Privy Seal, like most ministers, Attlee refused to serve and continued as Labour leader in Parliament. In 1942 he became secretary of state for the National Government formed by MacDonald in 1931dominions and deputy prime minister. Attlee was one became Lord President of the few Labour MPs to win his seat Council in 1943. To the 1931 General Election and became deputy leader astonishment of the party under George Lansburyworld, Churchill and the Conservatives were defeated in the elections of July 1945.
When Lansbury retired in 1935 Attlee became the new leader of the Labour Party. During the [[Spanish Civil War]] he supported the non-national combatants from Britain fighting against General Francisco Franco and visited the [[International Brigades]] on the front-line in December 1937. ==Prime Minister==
In 1940 Attlee joined the coalition government headed by [[Winston Churchill]]. He was virtually deputy Prime Minister although this post did not formally become his until 1942. It was afterwards claimed that during the Second World War Attlee worked as a restraining influence on some of Churchill's more wilder schemes.  In the 1945 General Election Attlee lead led the Labour Party to its largest victory at the polls. During his six years in office he carried through a vigorous program of reform. The [[Bank of England]], the coal mines, civil aviation, cable and wireless services, gas, electricity, railways, road transport and steel were all nationalized. The National Health Service was introduced and independence was granted to [[India]] (1947) and [[Burma]] (1948).
In April 1950 Attlee's already weak position (the Labour majority in the House of Commons had been reduced to six) further deteriorated when two Labour leaders, Aneurin Bevan and Harold Wilson (afterward Prime Minister), resigned from the government over the introduction of National Health-service charges, that were bitterly opposed by the public. He stayed on as leader after the narrow defeat in the election of 1951, but when the Conservatives increased their majority in the General Election of 1955, Attlee resigned. On yielding the party leadership in December 1955, he was created an Earl. In 1937 he published ''The Labour Party in Perspective'' and in 1954 his memoirs, ''As It Happened''. He was active in the [[House of Lords]] until his death in 1967. <ref></ref>
==Further reading==
[[Category:United Kingdom Prime Ministers]]
[[Category:British History]]
[[Category:Cold War]]
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