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Great Flood

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[[Image:Michelangeloflood.jpg|thumb|300px|right|''The Flood'', by Michaelangelo, detail from the [[Sistine Chapel]], 1509.]]
Cultures around the world record a world-destroying {{cquote|'''floodGenesis 6:13''' in their oral or written histories<br />. Dr. [[John Morris]] wrote regarding the existence .The end of a past worldwide flood all flesh has come before Me; for the following: "One earth is filled with violence because of them; and behold, I am about to destroy them with the strongest evidences for earth.}}The '''Great Flood''' refers to the global flood which annihilated all people on most catastrophic [[Earthflood]] except for [[Noah]] and his family, that has been the ubiquitous presence of flood legends ever taken place in the folklore of people groups from around the worldhuman history. And This flood was the stories are all so similar." <ref>http://www.icr.org/article/570/</ref> Today 60% means of [[AmericansGod]] accept as true 's judgment on the [[Bible|Biblical]] account evil of the Great Flood,<ref>http://www.washtimes.com/national/20040216-113955-2061r.htm</ref> hearts and actions of mankind at the olive branch returned by a dove to the Ark after the Flood is universally recognized as a symbol of peacetime.
==The Flood accounts==The best known of the flood accounts are, firstly, the one found in the book of God warned [[GenesisNoah]], and secondly, that He was going to destroy the one found in the [[Gilgamesh Epic]].Both are written accounts.The Genesis account is the most detailed of any of the accounts, and the one against which others are usually compared.It has also been studied the most, world with a number flood, because of terms used in reference to it, including the '''Flood''', '''wickedness of mankind. Noah was to build an [[Noah's Flood''', the '''Deluge''', the '''Great Flood''', Ark|ark]] and the '''Noahic flood'''.The terms ''pre-diluvian'' take his family and ''post-diluvian'' are used some animals in it in order to refer to the times before and after be saved from the flood respectively.
A table comparing specific details in a number After Noah and his family and all the creatures were on board, God shut the door of different the ark. The flood accounts can be found [http://wwwwas brought on by the bursting open of the ''fountains of the great deep'' and the opening of ''the floodgates of the sky''.creationonthewebThe rain lasted nearly six weeks (40 days and nights).com/content/view/3107 here]The flood waters apparently continued to rise for 150 days, but it was just over a year before the waters had receded enough for the occupants of the ark to leave.
==The Genesis account==The Genesis account is ark came to rest on one of the most detailed accountmountains of [[Ararat]].In it, God warned Noah put a [[rainbow]] in the clouds as a sign that He was going to he would never again destroy the world with in a flood, because of the wickedness of mankind. Noah was to build an ark and take on it his family and representatives of all air-breathing, land-dwelling creatures. The ark was to be 300 cubits long by 50 cubits wide by 30 cubits high<ref>''Genesis'' 6:15does not say that this was the first ever rainbow.</ref> (approximately 450 feet long, by 75 feet wide, by 45 feet high), have three decks, and rooms.
God brought == Flood accounts ==Peoples around the animals and birds to Noah, and there were two world record a world-destroying '''flood''' in their oral or written histories. Dr. [[John Morris]] wrote regarding the existence of a past worldwide flood the following: "One of the strongest evidences for the global flood which annihilated all people on [[unclean (animals)|uncleanEarth]] except for [[Noah]]" animals and seven (or seven pairs) his family, has been the ubiquitous presence of flood legends in the folklore of people groups from around the world. And the stories are all so similar."<ref>http://www.icr.org/article/570/</ref> Today 60% of [[Americans]] accept as true the [[clean (animals)Bible|cleanBiblical]]"account of the Great Flood,<ref>http://www.washtimes.com/national/20040216-113955-2061r.htm</ref> and the olive branch returned by a dove to the Ark after the Flood is universally recognized as a symbol of peace.
After Noah and his family and all The best known of the creatures were on boardflood accounts is, firstly, God shut the door of biblical account in [[Genesis]], and secondly, the arkone found in the [[Gilgamesh Epic]]. Both are written accounts.The flood was brought on by Genesis account is the eruption most detailed of subterranean water ("any of the accounts, and the one against which others are usually compared. It has also been studied the most, with a number of terms used in reference to it, including ''the fountains of Flood'', ''Noah's Flood'', ''the deep were openedDeluge'', ''the Great Flood''"), and rain''the Noahic flood''.The rain lasted nearly six weeks (40 days terms ''pre-diluvian'' and nights).The flood waters apparently continued ''post-diluvian'' refer to rise for 150 days, but it was just over a year before the waters had receded enough for the occupants of the ark times prior to leaveand following the flood event, respectively.
The ark is recorded as having come to rest on the mountains A table comparing specific details in a number of [[Ararat]], taken by many today to different flood accounts can be the existing mountains of that name.God put a found [[rainbow]] in the clouds, and said that it was to be a reminder that he would never again destroy the world in a floodhttp://www. (Genesis does not say that this was the first ever rainbowcreationontheweb.)He also told Noah that it was now okay to eat meatcom/content/view/3107 here].
==The = Gilgamesh Epic account===The council of the gods decided to destroy mankind with a flood, but Utnapishtim was warned by the god who had made man, Ea, to build a boat to take all living beings. The length, width, and height were each 120 cubits (about 180 feet). It had seven stories.
The gods got frightened by the flood and retreated to heaven where they cowered and wept.
The flood lasted six days and seven nights, and was accompanied by wind and storm.
Utnapishtim send out a dove followed by a swallow, but both returned, unable to find land. He then sent a raven, which didn't return.
Dr. Jonathan Sarfati comments on the Gilgamesh Epic:
:It is common to make legends out of historical events, but not history from legends. ... For instance, in Genesis, God’s judgment is just, he is patient with mankind for 120 years (Genesis 6:3), shows mercy to Noah, and is sovereign. Conversely, the gods in the Gilgamesh Epic are capricious and squabbling, cower at the Flood and are famished without humans to feed them sacrifices. That is, the human writers of the Gilgamesh Epic rewrote the true account, and made their gods in their own image.<ref Name="JS_GE" />
==Other ancient references= Common Themes in Flood Accounts ===The [[Assyrian]] King [[Ashurbanipal]], who lived in There are parallel themes going through most of the seventh century B.C., recorded, "I have read intricate tablets inscribed with obscure [[Sumerian]] or [[Akkadian]]...inscriptions on stone from before accounts of the Great Flood."<ref>[http://everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=1032092 Ashurbanipal]<!-- this may not be the best reference for thisHere are some of them.--></ref>
==Common Themes for Flood Accounts==Cause ===Cause===
Many of the accounts say that the flood was caused by God or some equivalent being.
In Genesis, it was Yahweh<ref>Genesis 6:3</ref>.
In the Gilgamesh Epic, it was the council of the gods <ref Name="JS_GE">[http://www.creationontheweb.com/content/view/3107 Noah’s Flood and the Gilgamesh Epic] by Jonathan Sarfati, ''Creation'', vol. 28 No. 4 pp.12-17</ref>.In the Bundaba (Australian aboriginal) flood story, it was Ngowungu, the Great Father. <ref>[http://www.creationontheweb.com/content/view/1468 Australian Aboriginal Flood Stories], ''Creation'' Vol. 5 No. 1, pp. 6-9.</ref>
The Greeks recorded it as being [[Zeus]].<ref name="Greek">[http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/flood-myths.html#Greek Greek], in ''Flood Stories from Around the World'' by Mark Isaak.</ref>
====Purpose====
When the cause of the flood is attributed to a god, the reason is frequently said to be for [[mankind]]'s wickedness.
Genesis adds that "every inclination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil all the time".<ref>Genesis 6:5 (NIV)</ref>
The Miao account from China says, in verse, "These did not God's will nor returned His affection. / But fought with each other defying the Godhead. / Their leaders shook fists in the face of the Mighty."<ref>[http://www.icr.org/index.php?module=articles&action=view&ID=341 Genesis According to the Miao People], by Edgar A. Truax, ''Impact'', April 1991</ref>
A Navajo account says that it was because of "their sins of adultery and constant quarreling". <ref>[http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/flood-myths.html#Navajo Navajo (Four Corners area)], in ''Flood Stories from Around the World'' by Mark Isaak</ref>
====What saved the people====People were generally saved either by floating out the flood, or fleeing to the top of a mountain. In the former case, the vessel took a variety of forms.
A Hopi Indian story has them surviving in the hollow stems of giant reeds<ref name="Hopi">[http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/flood-myths.html#Hopi Hopi], in ''Flood Stories from Around the World'' by Mark Isaak.</ref>
The Greek story has them surviving in a chest. <Ref name="Greek" />
In Genesis, Noah was instructed by God to build an ark to dimensions and other specifications included in the account.
====Who was saved?====
The survivors were often a single family.
An Australian aboriginal account has Ngadgja, the Supreme One, telling Gajara to take his wife, his sons, and his sons' wives.<ref name="Wunambal">[http://www.creationontheweb.com/content/view/1467 Aboriginal Flood Legend], by Howard Coates, ''Creation'' Vol. 4 No.3, pp.9-12</ref>
The Masai account from East Africa has Tumbainot taking his two wives, his six sons, and their wives.<ref name="Masai">[http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/flood-myths.html#Masai Masai (East Africa)], in ''Flood Stories from Around the World'' by Mark Isaak.</ref>
A Hawaiian story has Nuu taking his wife and three sons. <ref name="Hawaii">[http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/flood-myths.html#Hawaii Hawaii], in ''Flood Stories from Around the World'' by Mark Isaak.</ref>
Noah took his wife, his three sons, and their wives.<ref>Genesis 7:13</ref>
====Birds sent out====
Genesis describes Noah sending out birds to see if there was yet dry land.<ref>Genesis 8:6-12</ref>
Initially this was unsuccessful, but a subsequent attempt was successful when a dove didn't return. In the Hopi account also, they unsuccessfully sent out birds to find land.<ref name="Hopi" />
An Australian aboriginal account has a cuckoo not returning because it found land.<ref name="Wunambal" />
The Masai account has Tumbainot sending out a dove, which returned because it had no place to rest.<ref name="Masai" />
====A rainbow====
The Masai account has four rainbows signifying that God's wrath was over.<ref name="Masai" />
A Hawaiian account has the god Kane leaving a rainbow as a perpetual sign of his forgiveness.<ref name="Hawaii" />
Genesis says that the rainbow would be a reminder that God would never again destroy the world with a flood.<ref>Genesis 9:12-17</ref>
====Criticisms====:''See also criticism more criticisms in the article on [[Noah's Ark#ControversyCriticisms|Noah's Ark]] and [[Flood Geology#Controversy|Flood Geology]].''
Critics of the global flood suggest that the flood accounts are unrelated accounts of local floods, or stories influenced by the arrival of missionaries.
And Murray Adamthwaite responds regarding the missionary influence, "''...that explanation fails since in many cases secular anthropologists gathered the stories before missionaries reached these tribes with the Gospel. In other cases missionaries have related how they indeed told the story of Noah, only to find that the tribal folk already had a similar tale in their own legends.''"<ref>[http://www.creationontheweb.com/content/view/2538 Animals, a Deluge and Noah’s Ark]</ref>
==Modern explanationsOther ancient references =====Black Sea theory===In 2000, explorers discovered evidence that humans lived where the The [[Assyrian]] King [[Black SeaAshurbanipal]] now is and speculated , who lived in the sea was created during a great flood <ref>http://archivesseventh century B.cnnC.com/2000/NATURE/09/13/great.flood.finds.ap/</ref>. Dr. Robert Ballard expanded on this theory, postulating that the Black Sea was much lower during the recorded, "I have read intricate tablets inscribed with obscure [[Ice AgeSumerian]] (including the finding of a beach thousands of feet underwater), and when the walls holding back the or [[Mediterranean SeaAkkadian]] at the Bosporus broke, the sea rushed in and drowned the inhabitants; those who survived told the tale orally, and according to Ballard this became the basis for the flood accounts of Genesis and Gilgamesh <ref>http://www.nationalgeographic.com/blacksea/ax/frame.html</ref>. This theory is for a local flood, and not inscriptions on stone from before the world-wide flood as recorded in Genesis and many other cultural traditions. It also doesn't fit with many other details of the Genesis accountFlood."<ref>[http://www.creationonthewebeverything2.com/content/view/3392 Proof of Noah's Flood at the Black Seaindex.pl?node_id=1032092 Ashurbanipal] by Creation Ministries International<!-- this may not be the best reference for this.--></ref>
==Modern explanations =Crustal Displacement Theory==== Black Sea theory ===In ''When the sky fell: In search of Atlantis'' (1996)2000, Rand Flem Ath explorers discovered evidence that humans lived where the [[Black Sea]] now is and speculated the sea was created during a great flood<ref>http://wwwarchives.flem-athcnn.com/2000/NATURE/09/13/great.flood.finds.ap/</ref> . Dr. Robert Ballard expanded on Professor this theory, postulating that the Black Sea was much lower during the [[Charles HapgoodIce Age]]'s theory of crustal displacement whereby (including the entire earth's crust moved with respect to the core. The suggested date for this was about 10,000 years BC. If finding of a displacement had occurred then it would have caused enormous disruption to the the earth's oceans with massive tsunamis beach thousands of feet underwater), and heavy rain. Although when the book was nominally about walls holding back the disappearance of [[AtlantisMediterranean Sea]]at the Bosporus broke, the theory sea rushed in and drowned the inhabitants; those who survived told the tale orally, and according to Ballard this became the basis for the flood accounts of crustal displacement Genesis and Gilgamesh<ref>http://www.nationalgeographic.com/blacksea/ax/frame.html</ref>. This theory is for a local flood, and not only explains the discrepancies world-wide flood as recorded in ice thickness in [[Greenland]] Genesis and [[Antarctica]] but many other cultural traditions. It also the sudden demise doesn't fit with many other details of the Genesis account.<ref>[[mammoth]]shttp://www. This theory could also potentially explain the widespread existence creationontheweb.com/content/view/3392 Proof of flood accounts throughout different culturesNoah's Flood at the Black Sea?] by Creation Ministries International.</ref>
==Flood geology= Crustal Displacement Theory ===In ''See main articleWhen the sky fell: In search of Atlantis'' (1996), Rand Flem Ath<ref>http://www.flem-ath.com</ref> expanded on Professor [[Flood GeologyCharles Hapgood]]'s theory of crustal displacement whereby the entire earth's crust moved with respect to the core. The suggested date for this was about 10,000 years BC. If a displacement had occurred then it would have caused enormous disruption to the the earth's oceans with massive tsunamis and heavy rain. Although the book was nominally about the disappearance of [[Atlantis]], the theory of crustal displacement not only explains the discrepancies in ice thickness in [[Greenland]] and [[Antarctica]] but also the sudden demise of the [[mammoth]]s. This theory could also potentially explain the widespread existence of flood accounts throughout different cultures.
==Flood geology==
:''Main article: [[Flood Geology]]''
Flood geology is the study of the Earth's geology from the point of view that the Genesis account is true and accurate, and that evidence of the Flood can be found in the [[geology]] of the Earth.
Until the rise of [[uniformitarian]] geology in the early 19th century, most geologists accepted the Noahic deluge as part of geology.But [[James Hutton]] proposed in 1795 that geology ought to be based on the processes that we see happening now, thereby automatically ruling the Flood out of consideration.During the 19th century a number of "[[scriptural geologists]]" held out against the rising acceptance of Hutton's principles,<ref>The Great Turning Point, by Terry Mortenson. See also a series of articles in the ''Journal of Creation'', commencing with "British scriptural geologists in the first half of the nineteenth century: part 1" by Terry Mortenson, ''Journal of Creation'' Vol. 11 No. 2 pp. 221-252.</ref> but they fought a losing battle and interest in flood geology virtually died out by the end of the 19th century.
However, in the second half of the 20th century, interest was revived amongst people keen to show that the biblical account was correct, and a small but growing number of geologists are now studying this field again, although the vast majority of geologists still reject the idea of a global flood on Earth.
===Creationist Scientists Defense of Flood Geology ===
Creationist scientists assert that there are multiple lines of evidence from the field of geology showing that flood geology is correct. <ref>http://www.answersingenesis.org/home/area/faq/geology.asp</ref> <ref>http://www.creationism.org/topbar/geology.htm</ref> <ref>http://www.grisda.org/georpts/gr11.htm</ref> <ref>http://www.nwcreation.net/geologylinks.html</ref> <ref>http://globalflood.org/</ref> Creationist scientists also state that there was enough water to cause a worldwide flood and various other objections to a worldwide flood are invalid. <ref>http://www.answersingenesis.org/Home/Area/AnswersBook/flood12.asp</ref> <ref>http://www.answersingenesis.org/home/area/faq/flood.asp</ref>
==External Links==
==References==
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