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/* The types of the covenant of sacrifice fulfilled by the antitype of Christ */ revised "would be spared readings which sounded" to "would be spared intonations of the readings which sounded"
'''Typology''' ("''study of types''") refers to the Christian concept of [[Old Testament]] scenes and characters ("type") as foreshadowing those in the [[New Testament]] ("antitype") and was a commonly used device within the broader artform of Christian iconography. It was typically illustrated through the juxtaposition of imagery from the former with that of the latter (type and antitype), for example the depiction of [[King David|David's]] fight with [[Goliath]] mirrored by [[Jesus Christ|Christ's]] resistance to [[Satan]].
Typology was a popular and enduring form of religious illustration and was ubiquitous across Western art throughout the [[Middle Ages]]. It is an important part of Bible [[hermeneutics]].
==Levitical sacrifices as types of Jesus==
===Allusions [[Allusion]]s and paronomasia of meaning===
The narrative accounts of the passion, death and resurrection of Jesus in the [[The Gospels]], and in particular the [[Epistle to the Hebrews]], feature numerous direct and indirect quotes and allusions to prophetic types seen in the Old Testament sacrifices commanded in the books of [[Leviticus]] and [[Numbers]]. Typology includes the [[paronomasia]] of the meaning of the particular Hebrew words for the various sacrificial offerings: bulls, bullocks, lambs, goats, doves, pigeons, fine flour, bread, wine, oil, incense, and even the act of laying hands on the sacrifice.
===The everlasting covenant of sacrifice perpetually continued in the Eucharist===
Christians who believe that the [[Eucharist]] manifests the [[Real presence]] of the Lord Jesus Christ<ref>[[Orthodox Church|Orthodox Christians]] believe in the reality of the Real Presence of Christ as a [[Orthodox Mysteries|Mystery]], and do not subscribe to the more [[Theology|theologically]] explicit [[Catholic Church|Catholic]] doctrine of [[Transubstantiation]]. Both of them believe in the Real Presence of Christ, also the [[Church of England|Anglicans]], [[Lutheranism|Lutherans]], [[Presbyterianism|PresbyteriansPresbyterian]] s and others.</ref>, see in the Levitical sacrifices a foreshadowing of the banquet of real communion with the living [[substance]] of the body and blood of the Lord, as St. Paul so eloquently expressed in his [[I Corinthians|First Epistle to the Corinthians]]<ref>1 Corinthians 10:14-22; 11:17-34</ref>, and as explicitly pointed out by the writer to the Hebrews to those who doubt<ref>Hebrews 9; 10:19-31; 12:18-29; 13:10-15</ref>. The New Testament presents Jesus as the one true "apostle and High Priest of our [[Christianity|confession]]"<ref>Hebrews 3:1</ref>. He is seen as the one , unique, perpetually enduring flesh and blood sacrifice for sin "slain from the foundation of the world"<ref>Matthew 25:34; Ephesians 1:4; Hebrews 4:3; 1 Peter 1:20; Revelation 13:8</ref>, "for without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness of sins"<ref>Hebrews 9:22</ref>. The giving of a portion of the sacrifices from the altar of sacrifice to the worshipers to be eaten as part a partaking of the ''sin offerings'' and ''peace offerings'' and ''votive offerings'' in the covenant of God is regarded by them these Christians as a divinely revealed ''type'' fulfilled in the divinely revealed ''antitype'' of partaking of the bread of life in the communion of the Lord's Supper the bread of life, the [[substance]] of the flesh and blood of Christ himself as promised by him in the sixth chapter of the Gospel of John<ref>John 6:26-69</ref> as part of the New covenant of the Lord<ref>Jeremiah 31:31-34</ref>. The sacrifice instituted by Christ Jesus at Jesus—"this is my body, this is my blood"—at his [[Last Supper]] in the ''Cenacle''<ref>The "Upper Room ". A cenacle is a small supper room, usually in an upper story of a dwelling or inn. When capitalized, Cenacle, the word refers to the upper chamber in which Christ ate the Last Supper with his disciples (Mark 14:13-15; Luke 22:10-12)—from French ''cénacle'', from Latin''cenaculum'', from ''Cenaclecena''), "this is my body, this is my blood"dinner.</ref>, and permanently executed in a bloody manner in the [[universe]] of [[Spacetime|time and space]] "once and for all" on the Cross<ref>Hebrews 10:12-14; Jude 3; 1 Corinthians 11:23-29; Matthew 26:26-28; Mark 14:22-25; Luke 22:14-30 "''that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel''".</ref>, is seen by them as perpetuated in the timeless [[Eternal|eternity]] of the everlasting "''now''" of God [[Omnipresence|present]] through all ages in all places <ref>"and lo, I am with you alway" Matthew 28:20 KJV. See [ multiple versions of Matthew 28:20] and [ multiple commentaries on the meaning of Matthew 28:20].</ref> with the offering also of [[incense]] in [[worship]] by the nations (<ref>Malachi 1:11. "Nations" = Hebrew ''goiim'' "gentiles")<ref>Malachi 1:11. See Strong's number [ 1471 <big><big>'''גוי'''</big></big> ''gôwy, goy,'' plural -im, ''goyim, goiim'']</ref>, so that all believers in him may "believe without seeing" and still be able to "see the Son"<ref>John 6:40 "everyone who sees the Son" is parallel to John 14:8-11 "He who has seen me has seen the Father".</ref>, "behold the Lamb of God", and "partake of the divine nature", by eating his flesh and drinking his blood in an unbloody manner as divine food given to them by him Jesus himself personally present under the appearance of bread and wine<ref>John 20:28-29; John 6:40; John 1:29; 2 Peter 1:3-4; John 6:53-57.</ref> <br> —"The Jews therefore strove among themselves, saying, How can this man give us ''his'' flesh to eat? Then Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his blood, ye have no life in you. Whoso eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, hath eternal life; and I will raise him up at the last day. For my flesh is meat indeed, and my blood is drink indeed. He that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in me, and I in him. As the living Father hath sent me, and I live by the Father: so he that eateth me, even he shall live by me. This is the bread which came down from heaven: not as your fathers did eat manna, and are dead: he that eateth of this bread shall live for ever." <br> —"We have an altar, whereof they have no right to eat which serve the [[tabernacle]]"<ref>John 6:52-58; Hebrews 13:10 (KJV). It is regarded as theologically significant that the word <small>EATETH</small> in the [[King James Bible]] version of John 6:52-58 is not a reading from the ordinary word ''phage'φάγω''' ''phagō'' "eat" in Greek, but is instead a reading from the unusual word '''τρώγω''' ''trogo'' "chew, gnaw, crauch, devour" in the Gospel text. While the various forms of the Greek words for eating '''έσθίω''' ''esthio'' and '''φάγω''' ''phagō'' throughout the New Testament both admit a literal and figuratively metaphorical meaning, '''τρώγων''' ''trogon'' does not, being a literal, boldly intense, physical concrete term only, and not a figure of speech—in the New Testament it appears only here in the Greek text of John 6:53-58 as an emphatic statement by Jesus, and is found without exception in all of the extant [[Bible manuscript evidence|Greek manuscripts ]] of this passage. See [[Strong's|Strong's Concordance]] <small>EATETH</small>, [ number ''5176'' '''τρώγω''' ''trōgō''] (five occurrences). </ref>.
Christians who believe that Jesus was speaking only [[metaphor]]ically in a vividly [[symbol]]ic figure of speech see the Old Testament bloody animal sacrifices offered with bread and wine in atonement for [[sin]] as a ''type'' of the ''antitype'' of their final fulfillment in the reality of his unique, "once and for all" bloody sacrifice of himself on the altar of his crucifixion on the Cross. The [[Eucharist]]ic banquet of communion with him in the celebration of the Lord's Supper is firmly held by them to be a purely spiritual and symbolic memorial<ref>1 Corinthians 11:24-26; John 4:23-24.</ref> of his Last Supper with the Twelve Apostles and a representation of his sacrifice as an [[ordinance]] of the Christian Church<ref>1 Corinthians 11:2 "ordinances" KJV; Hebrews 9:1; Romans 6:17</ref> , and a witness of the New Covenant in his blood which completes, fulfills and does away with the ritual sacrifices of the Old Covenant of Moses and Israel. The sacrifices of praise and thanksgiving and good works in worship of God are still acceptable to Him<ref>Hebrews 13:15-16</ref>. But there remains no longer any sacrifice for sin<ref>Hebrews 10:10-18</ref>. If there was of necessity any need for a repetition of his sacrifice for sins, he would have had to suffer repeatedly since the foundation of the world<ref>Hebrews 9:24-28</ref>—"but now once in the end of the world hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself. And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment: So Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many"—"Now where remission of these ''is, there is'' no more offering for sin"<ref>Hebrews 9:26b-28a; 10:18 KJV</ref>. For this reason they see no need for [[priest]]s offering ritual [[sacrifice]]s on an altar, which of themselves cannot take away sins<ref>Hebrews 10:11</ref>, and for this reason they see the doctrine of offering the sacrifice of Jesus repeatedly on an altar as the sin of falling away from Christ<ref>Hebrews 6:4-6. The Greek word for "fall away" in Hebrews 6:6 is [ .htm '''παραπίπτω''' ''parapiptō'' (Strong's number ''3895'')], "to ''fall aside, [[Apostasy|apostatize]]''". See [[Great Apostasy]]</ref>through a [[Syncretism|syncretistic]] compromise with [[paganism|pagan]] [[superstition]].For these Christians the one true altar of sacrifice is Jesus Christ himself through whom we have direct access to God the Father.<ref>Hebrews 9:24-28; 10:19-25</ref>
===The ''eternal'' covenant of Levitical sacrifice===
The [[Torah]] of Moses declares that the Law of the Lord is an "'''''everlasting covenant'''''", which was first established in [[Genesis]] with [[Noah]] and the bow of the Lordin the clouds<ref>Genesis 9:16</ref>, with [[Abraham]] and the mark of [[circumcision]] in flesh<ref>Genesis 17:7</ref>, and with Moses and the descendants of [[Jacob|Israel/Jacob]] with an everlasting priesthood<ref>Exodus 40:15; Numbers 25:13</ref> having everlasting ordinances and statutes of obedience and an everlasting statute of [[atonement]] for sins<ref>Leviticus 16:34</ref>, and with [[King David|David]]<ref>2 Samuel 23:5</ref>and his house (his descendants) and his throne, a covenant that he the L<small>ORD</small> commanded for "a thousand generations, an everlasting covenant"<ref>1 Chronicles 16:14-17. Taking the traditional meaning of a biblical generation as twenty-five years, God established the covenant with Israel for twenty-five thousand years. The number of years since the Exodus (E) subtracted from 25,000 years of the covenant with Israel at Sinai (T) equals the number of years remaining of the covenant (R) — '''T - E = R'''.</ref>.
[[Jeremiah (prophet)|Jeremiah]] declared the word of the Lord that he would "make a new covenant with the house of Israel and the house of Judah"<ref>Jeremiah 31:31-34</ref>, but nowhere does the prophet say that the covenant they broke was cancelled or "disannulled"<ref>Hebrews 7:18-19 KJV "For there is verily a disannulling of the commandment going before for the weakness and unprofitableness thereof. For the law made nothing perfect, but the bringing in of a better hope ''did''; by the which we draw nigh unto God."</ref>, only that a new covenant would be made. Even St. Paul stated that the Law of Moses was "''established''" by faith in Christ, not done away. "Do we then make void the law through faith? God forbid: yea, we establish the law."<ref>Romans 3:31 KJV</ref> Jesus himself declared, "Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill. For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled. Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach them men so, he shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach ''them'', the same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven."<ref>Matthew 5:17-19</ref>
It is important to emphasize that the covenant God made with Israel at Sinai was binding only on the people of Israel. The Gentiles were not included.
Christian doctrine in the New Testament teaches that ''in the Person of the Incarnate Word of God'', Jesus Christ, Lord and Savior and only-begotten Son of God the Father<ref>John 1:1-4, 14.</ref>, and ''in his blood sacrifice'', all the sacrifices of the Levitical covenant, everlastingly established by an everlasting covenant for a thousand generations, everlastingly ''continue'' to be fulfilled in one unbroken eternal sacrifice without ceasing, forever, in the body of his one unique blood sacrifice of himself as High Priest and Head of the human race on the cross in full reparation for all the outrages committed against the dignity of God and for the redemption of the sins of the whole world<ref>Hebrews 10:1-14</ref>. According to St. Paul, all who are united to him in baptism share in his eternal sacrifice to God<ref>Romans 6:3-11.</ref> in being offered up to God as living sacrifices<ref>Romans 12:1; 15:16</ref>. And in the communion of his body and the communion of his blood<ref>1 Corinthians 10:15-18</ref> all those who believe in him and eat his flesh and drink his blood according to his promise have eternal life<ref>John 6:27-69</ref>, and according to St. Peter they partake of the divine nature<ref>1 Peter 1:3-4</ref>, in a fulfillment of the ''type'' of the eating from the altar of sacrifice under the Levitical covenant of Moses in the [[Tabernacle]] and the [[Temple of Jerusalem]]. The prayer of those who have been redeemed from the wrath to come on the ungodly<ref>Matthew 3:7; 1 Thessalonians 1:10</ref> by "pleading the blood of Jesus" contains the reality of offering up humble acknowledgement of the full satisfaction of the sacrifice of Christ in atonement for their souls, in the continuously ongoing and unbroken eternal fulfillment of an everlasting statute of [[atonement]] for sins<ref>Leviticus 16:34</ref>.
==The types of the covenant of sacrifice fulfilled by the antitype of Christ==
The [[Hebrew]] alphabet has no vowels. Every letter is a consonant. Many Hebrew words can be sounded in various ways by the speaker, allowing for latitude in interpretive readings by the speaker. This often presents opportunity to alter the meaning of the reading by changing the sound. Occasionally this can be done as a form of ''[[paronomasia]]'' as a form of humor, but more seriously to open up depths of meaning in the inspired text that traditional readings do not reveal. The ancient [[Hebrew]] text of the Torah which is read in the [[synagogue]] originally had no markings indicating how the words should be pronounced. The Hebrew scriptures normally read aloud with melodic intonation by cantors in the synagogue, who realized their obviously evident potential for clearly manifesting prophetic witness to the arrival of the [[Messiah]] in the person of Jesus of Nazareth, saw in the text opportunities to either support the claims of the Jewish Christians, that the Law and the Prophets and the Psalms testified to Jesus as the Anointed of God, the Prophet foretold by Moses, or to negate and even oppose them by the way the scriptures of Israel were read with intonated inflections that would not suggest such an interpretation. The leading scholars of Israel, distressed by the use of the [[Septuagint]] by the Nazarene sect to as an aid in converting the people to belief in Jesus of Nazareth, after the destruction of the temple and the city of Jerusalem , determined to reject it in favor of only those scriptures written in Hebrew or Aramaic , which were written in Palestine before the time of [[Ezra]] , and which they believed supported the Torah of Moses. Then after the development of the [[Talmud]], scholars known as [[Masoretes]] set themselves the task of standardizing the intonation of the Hebrew text of the ''Torah'' in particular, and more generally the whole of the more clearly defined Jewish canon of the ''[[Tanakh]]'', so that the people in the synagogue would be spared intonations of the readings which sounded too clearly like prophecies of Jesus. For this reason various ''diacritical marks'' were added to the text of the scriptures indicating the approved traditional method of intonation and pronunciation in accordance with the traditional reading readings of Judaism. Also various corrections to the text were made, to remove or revise and correct all readings they considered to be corruptions of the text. The result is known today as the [[Masoretic Text]]. When the Torah, and in particular the book of Leviticus with its regulations of sacrificial offerings to God, is read with the consonantal text only, without the Masoretic diacritical marks, those established and accredited scholars who believe in Jesus , and who truly know the ancient Hebrew language , are easily able to see even more clearly portrayed the vividly evident ''typology'' of Christ Jesus in the scriptures of Israel. The [[connotation]]s of the words [[Denotation|denoting]] each of the sacrifices of Israel as ''types'' of the expected Messiah of Israel are rich with meanings pointing to the Sacrificial High Priestly Lordship of Jesus as the true ''antitype'' of their fulfillment.
===bulls and bullocks===
'''Leviticus 1:4-8'''.
"There was a '''''division''''' among them." John 7:43; Luke 12:51; Matthew 10:34. A bull. The Hebrew words '''פר, פרר, פרא''' can mean bull, bullock, divider, defeat, to break, frustrate, divide. Jesus is the bull of sacrifice, and a divider. <br>See Strong's Hebrew lexicon
*[ 6499 '''פר'''] –divider, as dividing the hoof
*[ 6565 '''פרר'''] –divide
*[ 6501 '''פרא'''] –wild ass, free man
===dust, bullcovering over blood===
'''Genesis 2:7; 13:16; Leviticus 14:40-41; 17:13; Psalm 22:1, 15; 103:14; Ezekiel 24:7; Numbers 4:3-14'''
"thou dost lay me in the dust of death"–"My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?"–"For the bodies of those beasts, whose blood is brought into the sanctuary by the high priest for sin, are burned without the camp. Wherefore Jesus also, that he might [[Holy|sanctify ]] the people with his own blood, suffered without the gate." Psalm 22:15; Psalm 22:1 / Matthew 27:46 and Mark 15:34; Hebrews 13:11-12a. The Hebrew word '''עפר''' can mean both dust, and bullthe covering over of blood that was shed. See Strong's Hebrew lexicon*[ 6083 '''עפר'''] –dry earth, dust, bullcovering over Compare Romans 4:7; James 5:19-20; 1 Peter 4:8. <br>See [[Badger skins (Bible)]]<ref>As the body of the Lord is the veil of the tabernacle (Hebrews 10:19-29), so also his divine (blue, violet) humanity (red, skin) covers the instruments of ritual worship in the tabernacle and in Christian worship including the ministers and the people.</ref>
===lamb, ewe lamb, sacrifice===
Compare Luke 2:33-35; 19:25-26.
===goat, sin offering, scapegoat===
'''Leviticus 3:12-15; 4:24-25; 16:8-27; Numbers 18:17'''
"Himself took our infirmities, and bare ''our'' sicknesses"–"What think ye? They answered and said, He is guilty of death. Then did they spit in his face and buffeted him; and others smote ''him'' with the palms of their hands" Matthew 8:17; 26:66-67. The Hebrew words '''שעיר, עז''' can mean buck, he-goat, he-goat for sin offering, food, sacrificial victim; the Hebrew word '''עזאזל''' means goat of departure, scapegoat (KJV). See Strong's Hebrew lexicon
*[ 8163 '''שעיר'''] –buck, he-goat, he-goat for sin offering
*[ 5795 '''עז'''] –food, sacrificial victim
*[ 5799 '''עזאזל'''] –Azazel, goat of departure, scapegoat
Compare Matthew 27:3-10, 27:26.
===dove, Jonah===
'''Leviticus 1:14-17; 5:7-10; Jonah 1:17'''
"Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.... But he spake of the temple of his body."–"Jesus, when he had cried again with a loud voice, yielded up the ghost. And, behold, the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom"–"For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale's belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth." John 2:19-21; Matthew 27:50-51a; 12:40. The Hebrew words '''יונה, יין, תור''' can mean dove, pigeon, offerings, mourning, Jonah, banquet, grape, wine, seek out, search, turn, opportunity, adornment, estate, turtledove, a people, a bullock. See Strong's Hebrew lexicon*[ 3123 '''יונה'''] –dove, pigeon, offerings, mourning*[ 3124 '''יונה'''] –prophet Jonah*[ 3196 '''יין'''] –banquet, grape, wine*[ 8446 '''תור'''] –seek out, search*[ 8447 '''תור'''] –turn, opportunity, adornment*[ 8448 '''תור'''] –turn–border, turn, estate*[ 8449 '''תור'''] –turtledove, a people*[ 8450 '''תור'''] –a bullock
Compare Luke 19:10; Deuteronomy 32:14; Genesis 49:11; Isaiah 63:1-5; 1 Timothy 2:9-10; Romans 13:17; 1 Peter 3:3-4; Ephesians 6:10-17
*[ 5560 '''סלת'''] –fine flour, luxurious food, in king's household, flour (as chipped off) stricken off, ground up, broken.
Fine flour is like dust.<br>Compare Genesis 13:16; 28:14; Isaiah 53:3-6; 54:1-5; Galatians 3:16.
'''Leviticus 2; Exodus 12:8'''
"I am the bread of life."–"I am the living bread which came down from heaven: if any man eat of this bread, he shall live for ever: and the bread that I will give is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world." John 6:35a, 51. The Hebrew words '''לחם, בית לחם, מצה''' mean devour, to use as food, eat, place of bread, unleavened bread, sacrificial meal, bread, food, flesh, meat, in sacrifices , food (for man or beast). See Strong's Hebrew lexicon
*[ 3898 '''לחם'''] –devour, fight, wage war
*[ 3898a '''לחם'''] –fight, wage war
===oil, olive oil, beaten, crushed===
'''Exodus 27:20; 29:1-2, 40; 35:14; Deuteronomy 24:20-21; Isaiah 49:6'''
Oil was light, a source of light. "I am the light of the world"–"Then cometh Jesus with them unto a place called Gethsemane"–"and his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground" John 9:5; Matthew 26:36a; Mark 14:32; Luke 22:44b. The Hebrew words '''שמן, כתית, זית''' words mean oil, beaten, olive, light. See Strong's Hebrew lexicon
*[ 8081 '''שמן'''] –liquid (as from the olive, often perfumed), richness, anointing, fruitful, oil, olive
*[ 3795 '''כתית'''] –beaten (oil)
*[ 2132 '''זית'''] –an olive (as yielding illuminating oil), the tree, the branch, or the fruit, the olive berry; source of wealth
The Greek word '''Γεθσημανή''' means olive press. See Strong's Greek lexicon
*[ ''1068'' '''Γεθσημανή'''] –Gethsemane, oil press, olive press, a garden near the site of Jesus' agony—a press—a combination of '''גת''' and '''שמן'''. Gethsemane is an olive orchard on the Mount of Olives, a small place between the brook Kidron and the Mount of Olives near Jerusalem, a garden near the site of Jesus' agony.
See Strong's Hebrew lexicon
*[ 1660 '''גת'''] –press, treading out (wine)-fat, olive press, wine press, for squeezing out liquid
*[ 8081 '''שמן'''] –liquid, as oil from the olive
Compare Psalm 23:5; Matthew 25:1-13; Luke 22:30
===incense, beaten small===
'''Exodus 30:1-10; Leviticus 8:18-21; 16:11-28; Numbers 4:16'''
"And when they were come into the house, they saw the young child with Mary his mother, and fell down, and worshipped him: and when they had opened their treasures, they presented unto him gifts; gold, and frankincense, and myrrh"–"Then Pilate therefore took Jesus, and scourged ''him''. And the soldiers platted a crown of thorns, and put ''it'' on his head, and they put on him a purple robe, And said, Hail, King of the Jews! and they smote him with their hands. Pilate therefore went forth again, and saith unto them, Behold, I bring him forth to you, that ye may know that I find no fault in him. Then came Jesus forth, wearing the crown of thorns, and the purple robe. And ''Pilate'' saith unto them, Behold the man! When the chief priests therefore and officers saw him, they cried out, Crucify ''him'', crucify ''him''. Pilate saith unto them, Take ye him, and crucify ''him'': for I find no fault in him. The Jews answered him, We have a law, and by our law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God."–"And walk in love, as Christ also hath loved us, and hath given himself for us an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling savour." Matthew 2:11; John 19:1-7; Ephesians 5:2. The Hebrew words '''קטרת''' and '''דקק''' mean incense and crushed to powder. See Strong's Hebrew lexicon
'''Leviticus 4:3-12, 15-21; 8:14, 18, 22; 16:21-22; Numbers 19; Deuteronomy 21:1-9'''
"And they that had laid hold on Jesus led ''him'' away to Caiaphas the high priest, where the scribes and the elders were assembled."–"When Pilate saw that he could prevail nothing, but ''that'' rather a tumult was made, he took water, and washed ''his'' hands before the multitude, saying, I am innocent of the blood of this just person: see ye ''to it''." Matthew 26:57; 27:24. The Hebrew word '''יד''' means hand and power; the word '''סמך''' means to lay (hands on). See Strong's Hebrew lexicon
*[ 3027 '''יד'''] –hand, the ''open'' one, power, means, direction,
*[ 3028 '''יד'''] –hand, power
*[ 5564 '''סמך'''] –to lean, lay, rest, support, lay (hands on the sacrifice), take hold of
Compare Matthew 21:46 KJV; 26:50; Mark 14:46; Luke 20:19; John 7:30; ''see'' 1 Kings 18:44-46 and Mark 1:12 together; 1 Chronicles 28:19 KJV.
===Passover, remembering, in remembrance, ''anamnesis'' and ''mneme''===
'''Exodus 13:3; 20:8; 28:29; Leviticus 2:16; 17:4; Deuteronomy 5:15'''
"This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me"–"And when he had given thanks, he brake ''it'', and said, Take, eat: this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me. After the same manner also ''he took'' the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood: this do you, as oft as ye drink ''it'', in remembrance of me"–"But in those ''sacrifices there is'' a remembrance again ''made'' of sins every year." Luke 22:19; 1 Corinthians 11:24-25; Hebrews 10:3. The Hebrew words '''זכר, זכרון''' mean mark, male, burn, commemoration, memorial, Zeker, most noteworthy male remembered, manchild, memorial, record. See Strong's Hebrew lexicon
*[ 2142 '''זכר'''] –mark (this), to remember, mention, to be male, burn (incense), bring to remembrance
*[ 2143 '''זכר'''] –a memento, recollection, commemoration, memorial, memory, remembrance, '''scent'''<ref>Compare 2 Corinthians 2:14-16; Ephesians 5:2 - KJV "savour", aroma. [[Medicine]] has established that strong memories, even vividly intense "flashbacks", can be induced by aromas, pleasant or unpleasant. Conversely, a picture of a past event can years later induce in the viewer who was present at the time the vivid sensation of aromas smelled on that occasion just as vividly as if they are truly present there again.</ref>
*[ 2144 '''זכר'''] –Zeker, an Israelite name
*[ 2145 '''זכר'''] –remembered, most noteworthy male, him, man (child, -kind)
*[ 2146 '''זכרון'''] –memento, memorable (thing, day, writing), memorial, record
The Greek words '''άναμιμνήσκω, άνάμνησις, μιμνήσκω, μνεία, μνήμα, μνημείον, μνήμη''' mean remembrance, commemoration, recollection, recital, memorial, memory, make (vividly) present, reliving (again)
*[ 363 '''άναμιμνήσκω'''] –remind, recollect, mind (bring to mind, call to mind, put in mind of), remember, remembrance
*[ 364 '''άνάμνησις'''] –recollection, remembrance (again), bring to the present, make (vividly) present, reliving (again)<ref>"bring to the present, make vividly present, reliving (again)" is a meaning included in most authoritative Greek-English lexicons of the 18th, 19th, 20th, 21st centuries but not included by James Strong in the appendix to his 19th century [[Strong's|Concordance]], ''A Concise Dictionary of the Words in the Greek/New Testament with their Renderings in the King James Version'' and its later updates. <br>See [ '''Lexica (Lexicons) for Students of the Greek NT''' (]. Also, the [[Typology#Anamnesis|External links "Anamnesis"]] of this article, below.</ref>
*[ 3403 '''μιμνήσκω'''] –remind, to recall to mind, be mindful, remember
*[ 3417 '''μνεία'''] –recollection, recital, mention, remembrance
*[ 3418 '''μνήμα'''] –memorial, monument (burial-place), grave, sepulcher, tomb
*[ 3419 '''μνημείον'''] –a remembrance, cenotaph (place of interment), grave, sepulcher, tomb
*[ 3420 '''μνήμη'''] –memory, remembrance, recall
Compare interlinear texts of
*[ Luke 22:19] and [ commentaries];
*[ 1 Corinthians 11:24] and [ commentaries];
*[ Hebrews 10:3] and [ commentaries]
==See also==
[[Biblical Canon]]
[[Bible#Melodies The melodies of the Old Testament|Bible: Melodies The melodies of the Old Testament]] [[Epistles of Ignatius#Witness to belief in transubstantiation in the early church|Epistles of Ignatius: Witness to belief in transubstantiation in the early church]]
[ Type and Antitype, by Wayne Blank (]
[ A Study of Biblical Types, by Wayne Jackson (]
[ Types in Scripture (]
[ The 5 Levitical Offerings (]
[ The Five Offerings Of Leviticus 1–7, Chart And Outline, Raymond K. Campbell (]
[ Leviticus and the True Sacrifice, by Peter Kwasniewski (]
[ Rabbi Lawrence A. Hoffman, Ph.D. Life and a Little Liturgy. '''911: Remembering How We Remembered''' (] —''anamnesis'' and ''zakar'' making the past present.
[ The Lord's Supper and The Concept of ''Anamnesis'', Ray Carlton Jones, Jr., Canton Lutheran Church, Canto, South Dakota - Word & World 6/4 (1986) (] pdf
[ All This in Remembrance: The History & Revelation of Anamnesis in Platonic, Jewish & Christian Thought, by Folke T. Olafsson - Touchstone Magazine (]
[ Anamnesis (Christianity) - Wikipedia]
[ Transubstantiation and the Real Presence, by Matt Slick - Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry (] —"''the Roman Catholic view is a violation of Levitical law...It is a violation of the incarnation...the Lord's Supper is not a sacrifice of Christ''". Matt Slick cites Leviticus 17:4 as a prohibition against eating blood ''in any form'' which was still in effect before the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus.
[ Anamnesis - Q+A (] pdf ''Lutheran article'' —"''Rev. Dr. Frank C. Senn has written,'' “This Greek word is practically untranslatable in English. 'Memorial', 'commemoration', 'remembrance' all suggest a recollection of the past, whereas ''ananamnesis'' means making present an object or person from the past. Sometimes the term 're-actualization' has been used to indicate the force of ''anamnesis''.” "
[ The Institution of the Mass - Catholic Answers (] —"[The Church] ''does not teach that the Mass is a re-crucifixion of Christ.''"
[ Anamnesis (] —''making the past present''. Citing the expertise of C.F. Evans, Darwell Stone, Stephen Beale, D.R. Jones, Buchanan Grey, Dom Gregory, Westcott, Ignatius, Justin, Irenaeus, James Barr, Mercea Eliade, D.R. Davies, J.D. Crichton, George Guiver CR, Dom Ode Casel, Käsemann, John Jewel, Hooker, Colin Buchanan, and ''The Anglo-Roman Catholic International Commission'' (ARCIC).
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