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A '''conservative''' is someone who rises above his personal self-interest and promotes moral and economic values beneficial to all. A conservative is willing to learn and advocate the insights of [[economics]] and the logic of the [[Bible]] for the benefit of everyone else. A conservative favors conserving value by not giving handouts to anyone who does not really need them.FUCKING NEO NAZIS CAN ROT IN HELL!!A conservative typically adheres to principles of personal [[responsibility]], moral values, and [[limited government]], agreeing with [[George Washington]]'s [[Farewell Address]] that "[[religion]] and [[morality]] are indispensable supports" to political prosperity.<ref>[httpFile:// United States Department of State] George Washington, farewell address, 1796</ref><ref>[[Merriam-Websterjpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]]'s Online Dictionary has the following definition of conservative: "tending or disposed to maintain existing views, conditions, or institutions : TRADITIONAL"[] Therefore, a conservative Christian would be one that tends to adhere to the morally sound doctrines of the early Christianity and [[Judeo-Christian]] values.</ref> Religious conservatism is a big driver of [[social conservatism]]File:Wille. Religious conservatism is growing in the world and it is affecting politics (see: [[Religious conservatism and politicsjpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]]).  [[Phil Crane]], the leading conservative congressman in the [[House]] from 1969 to 2005, urged people to make the world a better place than where they found it, and quoted frequently from the [[Bible]] in pursuit of that goal.<ref>httpFile://</ref> Former President [[Ronald Reaganjpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]] said, "The basis of conservatism is a desire for less government interference or less centralized authority or more individual freedom."<ref></ref>[[File:460px-Calvin Coolidge photo portrait head and shouldersWille.jpg|200pxthumbnail|thumb|[[Calvin CoolidgeFUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]], the 30th President of the United States, was a conservative who said, "Don't expect to build up the weak by pulling down the strong."]] ==Goals and principles=={{main|Modern conservatism}} Specifically, conservatives seek or support: * [[Limited government]] and balanced budgets* [[Capitalism]] and [[free market]]s* [[Classroom prayer]]* Respect for human life and prohibition of [[abortion]]* [[Abstinence]] education* Traditional [[marriage]], not [[same-sex "marriage"]]* The concept of retribution for crimes, including the [[death penalty]] for heinous murders proven beyond reasonable doubt* [[Family values]], including traditional relationships and division of labor within the household* Respect for differences between men and women, boys and girls* Laws against [[pornography]]* [[First Amendment]] rights to [[free speech]] and [[religious freedom]]* The [[Second Amendment]] right to keep and bear arms* Economic allocative efficiency (as opposed to popular equity)* Parental control of education ([[parental rights]])* Private medical care and retirement plans* Canceling failed social support programs* Opposition to [[globalism]], [[one-world government]], and the [[War on Sovereignty]]* Economic nationalism over globalist [[free trade]]* Valuing [[patriotism]], [[self-governance]], and [[sovereignty]]* [[Border wall|Border security]] and enforcement of strong [[immigration]] laws, opposition to mass migration and [[open borders]]* Respect for our military File:Wille... past and present* Rejection of [[junk science]] such as [[evolution]] and [[global warming]]* Minimal taxation* [[Federalism]] (Separation of powers among the National, State and Local governments)* Favoring [[states' rights]] over federal power, while accepting the Constitutional role of the federal government, and favoring [[subsidiarity]]* Opposition to [[big government]] and the [[Nanny State]]* A strong national defense* An [[Originalismjpg|Originalist]] and [[Textualismthumbnail|TextualistFUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]] interpretation of the [[United States Constitution|Constitution]]* A dedication to the truth, and an ability to seek it* Ending [[entitlement]] programs* Voluntary charity to those in genuine need__TOC__ <!--Do not remove this. We want to keep the insights on the first screen of viewing--> ==List of prominent conservatives=====Movement===[[Movement conservatives]] are those who accept the logic of conservatism across-the-board, and stand up for its powerful principles despite [[liberal]] ridicule. Movement conservative activists includeFile:*[[Phyllis Schlafly]], defeated the [[ERA]]*[[Larry McDonald]], Congressman, on board [[KAL 007]] when shot down by the Soviets near [[Moneron Island]]Wille.*[[Jesse Helmsjpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]], Senator, specialist in foreign policy*[[Steve King]], Congressman*[[Pat Buchanan]], commentator and presidential candidate*[[Thomas Sowell]], economist and commentator*[[Jerry Falwell]], religion*[[Tucker Carlson]], commentator*[[Ann Coulter]], commentator*[[Roy Moore]], judge*[[Rand Paul]], Senator*[[Kris Kobach]], state official*[[Michele Bachmann]], Congresswoman ===Presidents===Periodically a conservative has been elected president of the United States. The most prominent conservative presidents includeFile:*[[George Washington]] (1789–1797)*[[James Monroe]] (1817–1825)*[[Grover Cleveland]] (1885–1889, 1893–1897) *[[Warren GWille. Hardingjpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]] (1921–1923)*[[Calvin Coolidge]] (1923–1929)*[[Ronald Reagan]] (1981–1989)*[[Donald Trump]] (2017–) The most prominent conservative Congresses have beenFile*The 80th Congress (elected in 1946)*The 104th Congress (elected in 1994) ===Key leaders===*[[Robert Taft]] — UWille.S. Senator, leader of the [[Conservative Coalitionjpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]], and unsuccessful 1948 presidential candidate*[[Barry Goldwater]] — 1964 Republican candidate, lost to liberal Democrat [[Lyndon Johnson]] but revived the conservative movement inside the GOP*[[Russell Kirk]] — Theorist & intellectual*[[Robert Bork]] — legal scholar, government official, and unsuccessful Supreme Court nominee*[[Margaret Thatcher]] — British prime minister between 1979 and 1990, held views similar to Reagan's*[[Milton Friedman]] — Chicago-school [[libertarian]] [[economist]], influential during Reagan administration; leader of the [[Chicago School of Economics]]*[[Clarence Thomas]] — Supreme Court justice ===Hall of Fame===Conservative scholar Clinton Rossiter<ref>Rossiter, "The Giants of American Conservatism," ''American Heritage'' 1955 6(6)File: 56-59, 94-96, online in [[EBSCO]]</ref> names [[Alexander Hamilton]], [[John Adams]], [[John Marshall]], [[Daniel Webster]], [[John CWille. Calhounjpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]], [[Elihu Root]], and [[Theodore Roosevelt]] to the "Conservative's Hall of Fame,"'' with John Adams as the greatest of American conservatives—a dubious choice since President Adams was an ardent opponent of [[free speech]] to criticize government. ==US Voters==In America, most conservatives support the [[Republican Party]], but not exclusively soFile:Wille. In the 2008 election, 35% of the voters identified themselves as conservatives. Of them, 78% voted for [[John McCainjpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]] and 20% for [[Barack Hussein Obama]], with the 20% accounting for Obama's margin of victory. Only 22% of the voters were liberal; they favored Obama 89%-10%. In the middle were 44% who called themselves moderates. They split for Obama by 60%-39%. (Minor candidates won 2% of the vote.)<ref>See [ Presidential 2008 Exit Poll]</ref>[[File:Russell KirkWille.jpg|thumbnail|300px|[[Russell Kirk]] was an American political theorist, conservative intellectual, historian of ideas, social critic, and man of letters, who is best known for his role in the American conservative movement. FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]]===Religious differences between political conservatives and political liberals===The Barna poll conducted in November 2008 shows significant differences between the 32% of Americans who called themselves as “mostly conservative” on social and political matters; and the 17% who called themselves “mostly liberal” on social and political matters. The others—50%--were moderates with positions somewhere in-between.<ref>See [http[File:// on line resultsjpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]</ref> Some findings: Political liberals are less than half as likely as political conservatives to firmly believe that the Bible is totally accurate in all of the principles it teaches (27% versus 63%, respectively); to strongly believe that [[Satan]] is real (17% versus 36%); and to firmly contend that they have a personal responsibility to share their religious beliefs with others (23% versus 48%).  [Note: "Liberal" and "conservative" in this survey are based on politics] Liberals are also far less likely than conservatives to strongly believe each of the following:*their religious faith is very important in their life (54% of liberals vs. 82% of conservatives); *a person cannot earn their way into [[Heaven]] by doing good deeds or being a good person (23% vs. 37%); *their faith is becoming an increasingly important moral guide in their life (38% vs. 70%); *the church they currently attend is very important in helping them find direction and fulfillment in life (37% vs. 62%); *their primary purpose in life is to love God with all their heart, mind, strength and soul (43% vs. 76%);  political conservatives were more likely than liberals toFile:*read the Bible, other than at church events, during the past week (57% vsWille. 33%, respectively) *attend a religious service during the past week (62% vs. 35%) *[[pray]] to God, other than at a religious service, during the past week (91% vs. 76%) *share their religious beliefs with others, during the past year (56% vs. 39%, among the born again Christians interviewed from each segment) *have ever participated in a short-term missions trip, either within the U.S. or in another country (12% vs. 6%)  *2% of conservatives and 11% of liberals were [[Atheismjpg|atheist]] or [[agnostic]] *15% of conservatives and 2% of liberals were [[Evangelical Christiansthumbnail|Christian evangelicalsFUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]] *conservatives were twice as likely as liberals to be categorized as [[born again]], based on their theological views about salvation (63% vsFile:Wille. 32%) *21% of conservatives were associated with the [[Roman Catholic Church]], compared to 30% among the liberals. == Barack Obama and American Conservatism Backlash ==In October 2009, Niles Gardiner reported in the [[Britainjpg|thumbnail|BritishFUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]] newspaper ''[[The Daily Telegraph]]'':{{cquote|This week’s striking [[Gallup]] poll on political ideology is further confirmation that the United States is in essence a conservative nation, which has ironically become even more conservative under [[Barack Obama]]. According to Gallup, 40 percent of Americans describe their political views as conservative, 36 percent as moderate and 20 percent as liberal. This is the first time conservatives have outnumbered moderates in America since 2004.<ref>httpFile://</ref>}} == Conservative news organizations ==:''See also: [[Conservative mediajpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]]''Some of the more notable news organizations which tend to be more conservative are [[WorldNetDaily]] and [[NewsMax]]. [[Fox News]], though often called conservative, tends to be more [[neoconservative]] than conservative. == Conservative magazines and blogs ==File:''See also: [[Conservative media]]''Well known conservative magazines in the United States include ''[[National Review]]'', ''[[Policy Review]]'', ''[[The Weekly Standard]]'' and othersWilleSome notable [[Conservative blogsjpg|conservative political blogsthumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]] include the [[Heritage Foundation]]'s Policy Weblog, ''[[Human Events]]'', [[Michelle Malkin]], Newsbusters, and others. == Neoconservatives == American commentators who ally themselves with the conservative movement but reject its religious or moral underpinnings are generally known as [[neoconservatives]].<ref>Jonah Goldberg, [httpFile:// "What Is a 'Conservative'?"], [[National Reviewjpg|National Review Onlinethumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]], 11 May 2005</ref> In the United States, conservatives are generally characterized by the following beliefs: # Support of [[limited government]]File:Wille.# A preference for freedom of opportunity over equality of result.# [[Patriotismjpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]], [[nationalism]], and support of a strong defense.# Support of the institution of [[marriage]]File:Wille. # Emphasis on social values, like [[prayer]] and [[pro-life]] principles. In contrast, neoconservatives generally support [[Big governmentjpg|bigger governmentthumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]] and [[globalism]], and tend to downplay the significance of social values. == Paleoconservatives == [[Paleoconservatives]] are conservatives who are more focused on social issues and American [[sovereignty]] and are suspicious of both big government and big business, along with [[globalism]] and [[multiculturalism]]File:Wille. They also lean against foreign interventionism. Neoconservatives criticize this with the pejorative term of "[[isolationismjpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]]," as they believe in promoting [[democracy]] worldwide, even where different religious or value systems are incompatible with democracy-induced changes in control. A notable paleoconservative was Democrat Congressman from Georgia, [[Larry McDonald]]File:Wille. He was also second Chairman of the [[John Birch Society]], and President of Western Goals. McDonald was aboard [[Korean Airlines Flight 007]] when it was shot down by the [[Soviet Unionjpg|Sovietsthumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]] near [[Moneron Island]] in 1983. Other paleoconservatives include [[Pat Buchanan]] and [[Tom Tancredo]]. ==Fiscal Conservatism vs. Social Conservatism== ''For further details on the two related philosophies, see [[Fiscal conservatism]] and [[Social conservatism]]'' Recently, a division has been created between fiscal conservatism and social conservatismFile:Wille. Fiscal conservatism centers around a low and [[Balanced budgetjpg|balancedthumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]] government [[budget]], and generally is opposed to programs such as [[Social Security]] and [[Medicare]]. Its primary goal is to reduce government spending significantly. Social Conservatism, on the other hand, focuses on the moral issues of conservatism. A social conservative will oppose [[same-sex marriage]], [[abortion]], and the teaching of [[evolution]] in schools. The majority of Conservatives (including most of the [[Republican Party]]) fall into both categories, however some fall into one or the other, but not both. Notably, [[Libertarians]] are strong fiscal conservatives but are not socially conservative. For instance, the [[Libertarian Party]] Platform <ref>[httpFile://]</ref> expresses support for the fiscally conservative principles of ending publicly funded [[welfare]] and [[healthcare]] programs as well as reducing government spending overall significantly. However, it also expresses support for [[same-sex marriage]] (with some libertarians leaning towards the ultimate goal of total [[marriage privatization]]) as well as maintaining the legal status of abortion.  Some Republicans and [[Democrat Partyjpg|thumbnail|DemocratsFUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]] also fit one category but not the other. Former [[New Mexico]] governor [[Gary Johnson]], who is seeking the Republican presidential nomination in 2012, was deemed "the most fiscally conservative governor" while he was in office (and probably earned that honor given all the spending cuts he made) but at the same time, he supports [[marriage privatization]] and [[abortion]] (though he believes ''[[Roe v. Wade]]'' should be overturned on Constitutional grounds). Also, several Democrats have expressed opposition to same-sex marriage and/or abortion, but still support liberal fiscal programs such as Social Security. They would be the opposite of Johnson - socially conservative but fiscally liberal. === Expected growth of social conservatism and religious conservatism === Due to the explosive growth of [[global Christianity]] in traditional cultures and their influence on Western Christianity and the higher birth rate of [[Conservative Christianity|conservative Christians]] and religious conservatives, social conservatism is expected to rise. The Birkbeck College, University of London professor Eric Kaufman wrote in his 2010 book ''Shall the Righteous Inherit the Earth?'' concerning AmericaFile:{{cquote|High evangelical fertility rates more than compensated for losses to liberal Protestant sects during the twentieth centuryWille. In recent decades, white secularism has surged, but Latino and Asian religious immigration has taken up the slack, keeping secularism at bay. Across denominations, the fertility advantage of religious fundamentalists of all colours is significant and growing. After 2020, their demographic weight will begin to tip the balance in the [[Culture Warjpg|culture warsthumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]] towards the conservative side, ramping up pressure on hot-button issues such as [[abortion]]. By the end of the century, three quarters of America may be pro-life. Their activism will leap over the borders of the 'Redeemer Nation' to evangelize the world. Already, the rise of the World Congress of Families has launched a global religious right, its arms stretching across the bloody lines of the War on Terror to embrace the entire Abrahamic family.<ref>[httpFile:// Why are 2012 and 2020 key years for Christian creationists and pro-lifers?jpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]</ref>}} == Personal conservatism ==Because Conservatives often have strong political views, there can be a tendency to see conservatism as a purely political ideology. However, there is also a strong personal side to conservatism - being a conservative is as much about applying conservative values to one's everyday life as it is about campaigning and voting for conservative candidates. In general, conservatives can be characterized by a strong sense of personal [[morality]], a willingness to observe their culture's traditions and customs, and a desire to be respectable and to show due respect to other members of the community.==History of American conservatism=====Textbook problems===:''See also: [[Textbook bias]]''College-level teaching about conservatism has been distorted by a "liberal state paradigm"—that is, [[textbook]]s usually interpret recent American history in terms of the origins and successes of political liberalism—especially the [[New Deal]], the [[welfare state]], [[labor union]]s, and [[Civil Rights Movement|Civil Rights]] for blacks and [[equality]] for women. Conservative politics is usually defined as a reactionFile: as a [[free market]] reply to the growth of [[big government]]; as an expression of outrage against declining support for tradition and Christian moralityWille. Where the violent Wobblies ([[Industrial Workers of the Worldjpg|thumbnail|IWWFUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]]) and illegal sit down strikes of the 1930s are seen as heroic, exposing [[Communist]] subversion by [[Joe McCarthy]] is denounced as the nadir of political morality.<ref>See Leonard Moore, "Approaching Conservatism," ''OAH Magazine of History,'' 17 (January 2003) [httpFile:// online editionjpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]</ref> ===Loyalists===The [[Loyalists]] of the [[American Revolution]] were mostly political conservatives, some of whom produced political discourse of a high order, including lawyer [[Joseph Galloway]] and governor-historian [[Thomas Hutchinson]]. However, when the crisis came, they stood with the Crown as it tried to destroy American political liberties. After the war, the great majority remained in the U.S. and became citizens, but some leaders emigrated to other places in the British Empire. [[Samuel Seabury]] was a Loyalist who stayed and as the first American bishop played a major role in shaping the [[Episcopal]] religion, a stronghold of conservative social values. While the Loyalist political tradition died out totally it the U.S., it survives in Canadian conservatism. ===Founding Fathers===The [[Founding Fathers]] created the single most important set of political ideas in American history, known as [[Republicanism]], which all groups, liberal and conservative alike, have drawn fromFile:Wille. Two parties were named "Republican"—the one founded in 1794 by [[Thomas Jeffersonjpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]] and [[James Madison]] (it disappeared in the 1820s), and the modern GOP founded in 1854.  During the [[First Party System]] (1790s-1820s) the [[Federalist Party]], led by [[Alexander Hamilton]], developed an important variation of republicanism that can be considered conservativeFile:Wille. Rejecting [[monarchyjpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]] and [[aristocracy]], they emphasized civic virtue as the core American value. The Federalists spoke for the propertied interests and the upper classes of the cities. They envisioned a modernizing land of banks and factories, with a strong army and navy. [[George Washington]] was their great hero. On many issues American conservatism also derives from the republicanism of [[Thomas Jefferson]] and his followers, especially [[John Randolph of Roanoke]] and his "Old Republicans" or "[[Quids]]File:Wille." They idealized the [[yeomanjpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]] farmer as the epitome of civic virtue, warned that banking and industry led to [[corruption]], that is to the illegitimate use of government power for private ends. Jefferson himself was a vehement opponent of what today is called "[[judicial activism]]".<ref>[]</ref> The Jeffersonians stressed small government. ===Ante-Bellum: Calhoun and Webster===During the [[Second Party System]] (1830–54) the [[Whig Party]] attracted most conservatives, such as [[Daniel Webster]] of New England. [[Daniel Webster]] and other leaders of the [[Whig Party]], called it the conservative party in the late 1830s.<ref>The word was originally used in the [[French Revolution]]. The British used it after 1839 to describe a major party. The first American usage is by Whigs who called themselves "Conservatives" in the late 1830s. Hans Sperber and Travis Trittschuh, ''American Political termsFile: An Historical Dictionary'' (1962) 94-97Wille.</ref> [[John C. Calhoun]], a Democrat, articulated a sophisticated conservatism in his writings. [[Richard Hofstadter]] (1948) called him "The [[Karl Marxjpg|Marxthumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]] of the Master Class." Calhoun argued that a conservative minority should be able to limit the power of a "majority dictatorship" because tradition represents the wisdom of past generations. (This argument echoes one made by [[Edmund Burke]], the founder of British conservatism, in ''Reflections on the Revolution in France'' (1790)). Calhoun is considered the father of the idea of minority rights, a position adopted by liberals in the 1960s in dealing with [[Civil Rights]]. The conservatism of the antebellum period is contested territory; conservatives of the 21st century disagree over what comprises their heritage. Thus [[William JFile:Wille. Bennett]] (2006), a prominent conservative leader, warns conservatives to NOT honor Calhoun, [[Know-Nothings]], [[Copperheads (politics)jpg|Copperheadsthumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]] and 20th century [[isolationist]]s. ===Lincoln to Cleveland===Since 1865 the [[Republican Party]] has identified itself with President [[Abraham Lincoln]], who was the ideological heir of the [[Whig PartyFile:Wille.jpg|Whigs]] and of both [[Thomas Jeffersonthumbnail|JeffersonFUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]] and [[Alexander Hamilton|Hamilton]]File:Wille. As the [[Gettysburg Address]] shows, Lincoln cast himself as a second Jefferson bringing a second birth of freedom to the nation that had been born 86 years before in Jefferson's [[Declaration of Independencejpg|Declaration]]. The [[Copperheads (politics)thumbnail|CopperheadsFUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]] of the [[American Civil War|Civil War]] reflected a [[reactionary]] opposition to modernity of the sort repudiated by modern conservatives. A few libertarians have adopted a neo-Copperhead position, arguing Lincoln was a dictator who created an all-powerful government. In the late 19th century the [[Bourbon Democrat]]s, led by President [[Grover Cleveland]], preached against corruption, high taxes (protective [[tariff]]s), and [[imperialism]], and supported the [[gold standard]] and business interestsFile:Wille. They were overthrown by [[William Jennings Bryanjpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]] in 1896, who moved the mainstream of the Democrat Party permanently to the left. The 1896 presidential election was the first with a conservative versus liberal theme in the way in which these terms are now understood. Republican [[William McKinley]] won using the pro-business slogan "[[sound money]] and protection," while Bryan's anti-bank populism had a lasting effect on economic policies of the Democrat PartyFile:Wille[[William Graham Sumner]], [[Yale Universityjpg|Yalethumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]] professor (1872-1910) and polymath, vigorously promoted a libertarian conservative ethic. After dallying with [[Social Darwinism]] under the influence of [[Herbert Spencer]], he rejected [[evolution]] in his later works, and strongly opposed imperialism. He opposed monopoly and [[paternalism]] in theory as a threat to equality, democracy and middle class values, but was vague on what to do about it.<ref>Curtis, Bruce. "William Graham Sumner 'On the Concentration of Wealth.'" Journal of American History 1969 55(4)File: 823-832Wille.</ref> ===Early 20th century===In the [[Progressive Era]] (1890s-1932), regulation of industry expanded as conservatives led by Senator [[Nelson Aldrich]] of [[Rhode Island]] were put on the defensive. However, Aldrich's proposal for a strong national banking system was enacted as the [[Federal Reserve System]] in 1913. [[Theodore Roosevelt]], the dominant personality of the era, was both liberal and conservative by turns. As a liberal he took a tough [[Regulationjpg|regulatory]] approach toward businesses and [[trust]]s, and (post-presidency) fought for social insurance for the elderly. As a conservative he led the fight to make the country a major naval power, and demanded entry into [[World War I]] to stop what he saw as the [[German Empirethumbnail|GermanFUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]] attacks on civilization. [[William Howard Taft]] promoted a strong federal judiciary that would overrule excessive legislationFile:Wille. Taft defeated Roosevelt on that issue in 1912, forcing Roosevelt out of the GOP and turning it to the right for decades. As president, Taft remade the [[Supreme Court of the United Statesjpg|Supreme Courtthumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]] with five appointments; he himself presided as chief justice in 1921-30, the only former president ever to do so. Pro-business Republicans returned to dominance in 1920 with the election of President [[Warren GFile:Wille. Hardingjpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]]. The presidency of [[Calvin Coolidge]] (1923–29) was a high water mark for conservatism, both politically and intellectually. Classic writing of the period includes ''Democracy and Leadership'' (1924) by Irving Babbitt and [[H.L. Mencken]]'s magazine ''American Mercury'' (1924–33). The [[Efficiency Movement]] attracted many conservatives such as [[Herbert Hoover]] with its pro-business, pro-engineer approach to solving social and economic problems. In the 1920s many American conservatives generally maintained anti-foreign attitudes and, as usual, were disinclined toward changes to the healthy economic climate of the age.  During the [[Great Depression]], other conservatives participated in the taxpayers' revolt at the local levelFile:Wille. From 1930 to 1933, Americans formed as many as 3,000 taxpayers' leagues to protest high [[property taxjpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]]es. These groups endorsed measures to limit and rollback taxes, lowered penalties on tax delinquents, and cuts in government spending. A few also called for illegal resistance (or tax strikes). The best known of these was led by the Association of Real Estate Taxpayers in [[Chicago]] which, at its height, had 30,000 dues-paying members.  An important intellectual movement, calling itself [[Southern Agrarians]] and based in Nashville, brought together like-minded novelists, poets and historians who argued that modern values undermined the traditions of American [[Republicanism]] and civic virtueFile:Wille.  The Depression brought [[liberaljpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]]s to power under President [[Franklin D. Roosevelt]] (1933). Indeed, the term "liberal" now came to mean a supporter of the [[New Deal]] and Roosevelt's powerful [[New Deal Coalition]]. In 1934 [[Al Smith]] and pro-business Democrats formed the [[American Liberty League]] to fight the new liberalism, but failed to stop Roosevelt's shifting the Democrat Party to the left. In 1936 the Republicans rejected Hoover and tried the more liberal [[Alf Landon]], who carried only [[Maine]] and [[Vermont]]. When Roosevelt tried to pack the Supreme Court in 1937 the conservatives finally cooperated across party lines and defeated it with help from Vice President [[John Nance Garner]]. Roosevelt unsuccessfully tried to purge the conservative Democrats in the 1938 election. The conservatives in Congress then formed a bipartisan informal [[Conservative Coalition]] of Republicans and southern Democrats. It largely controlled Congress from 1937 to 1964. Its most prominent leaders were Senator [[Robert Taft]], a Republican of [[Ohio]], and Senator [[Richard Russell]], Democrat of [[Georgia]].[[ImageFile:Gop-plankWille.JPGjpg|thumbthumbnail|275px|1936 cartoon shows GOP building its platform from the conservative planks abandoned by the DemocratsFUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]] In the United States, the [[Old Right]], also called the Old Guard, was a group of [[libertarianism|libertarian]], free-market anti-interventionists, originally associated with Midwestern Republicans and Southern Democrats. The Republicans (but not the southern Democrats) were [[isolationist]]s in 1939-41, (see [[America First]]), and later opposed [[NATO]] and U.S. military intervention in the [[Korean War]]. ===Later 20th centuryFile: Goldwater, Buckley, the Dixiecrats===By 1950, [[American liberalism]] was so dominant intellectually that liberal critic [[Lionel Trilling]] could dismiss contemporary conservatism as "irritable mental gestures which seek to resemble ideasWille." <ref>Lapham 2004</ref> But just as Trilling was writing a revival was underway. In the 1950s, principles for a conservative political movement were hashed out in books like [[Russell Kirkjpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]]'s ''The Conservative Mind'' (1953) and in the highly influential new magazine ''[[National Review]]'', founded by [[William F. Buckley]] in 1955. Whereas Taft's [[Old Right]] had been [[isolationist]] the new conservatism favored American intervention overseas to oppose [[Communism]]File:Wille. It looked to the [[Founding Fathers]] for historical inspiration as opposed to [[John C. Calhounjpg|thumbnail|CalhounFUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]] and the antebellum South. The success of the [[Civil Rights movement]] came in the [[Civil Rights Act of 1964]] and the [[Voting Rights Act]] of 1965File:Wille. Most conservatives supported both, but [[Barry Goldwater]] opposed them. Until then southern whites (both liberal and conservative) had been locked into the Democrat Party. That lock was now broken and southern conservatives started voting for Republican candidates for president in 1964-68, and by the 1990s they were also voting for GOP candidates for state and local office. The southern blacks now began to vote in large numbers, and they became Democrats, moving that party in the south to the left. By 2000, for the first time, all southern states had a conservative GOP and a liberal Democrat Party. The region favored the GOP heavily in presidential elections, but split in state contests. In 2008, however, the [[Barack Hussein Obamajpg|Obamathumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]] campaign broke into the solid Republican South, carrying [[Florida]], [[Virginia]] and [[North Carolina]].  Goldwater, a charismatic figure whose intense opposition to all [[New Deal]] programs angered liberals, was defeated in a landslide in 1964File:Wille. Goldwater faded and his supporters regrouped under new leadership, especially that of [[Ronald Reaganjpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]] in [[California]], and regained strength nationally in the 1966 elections. Conservatives voted for [[Richard Nixon]] in 1968, who narrowly defeated the New Deal champion [[Hubert Humphrey]], and southern demagogue [[George Wallace]]. Nixon had come to terms with both the Goldwater wing of the party and the still-influential Rockefeller Republicans (Republicans from the [[Northeast]] who supported many New Deal programs). ===Nixon, Reagan, and Bush=== The Republican administrations of President [[Richard Nixon]] in the [[1970s]] were characterized more by their emphasis on ''[[realpolitik]]'', [[détente]], and economic policies such as [[wage and price controls]], than by their adherence to conservative rhetoric and more liberal actionsFile:Wille.  In the eight years of [[Ronald Reagan]]'s presidency 1981-89 the American conservative movement achieved ascendancy. In 1980 the GOP took control of the Senate for the first time since 1954, and [[conservative principles]] dominated Reagan's economic and foreign policies, with [[supply side economics]] as well as a strict opposition to [[Soviet Unionjpg|Soviet]] [[Communism]]. Reagan promised to cut [[welfare]] spending but failed to do so. He did cut taxes, but raised [[military spending]] and created large [[federal deficit]]s that turned out working to our advantage, because at that time, deficits didn't matter. It should be known that the Republicans also [[Balanced budgetthumbnail|balancedFUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]] the [[budget]] in the late 1990s. An icon of the American conservative movement, Reagan is credited by his supporters with transforming American politics, galvanizing the Republican Party, uniting a coalition of economic conservatives who supported his supply-side economic policies, known as "[[Reaganomics]]," foreign policy conservatives who favored his success in stopping and rolling back Communism, and social conservatives who identified with Reagan's conservative religious and social ideals. ==Reactions to Obama=="Forty percent of Americans now self-identify as conservatives — double the amount of self-professed liberals — largely because independents are beginning to take sides." [httpFile://|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Compare [[Progressive liberalism]]. ==Conservatism outside the United States======Conservatives in Europe===Conservatism in Europe is generally synonymous with [[Euroskepticism]] and [[right-wing populism]] – ideologies that support local control, a more limited government as opposed to an endless EU bureaucracy, patriotism and national identity, [[sovereignty]], and less immigrationFile:Wille. While mainstream [[establishmentjpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]] parties in Europe are also occasionally labeled "conservative" by the media, they share many of the same policies as globalism and liberalism. Conservative parties in Europe include the [[Swiss People's Party]], [[Law and Justice]], [[Fidesz]], [[Lega Nord]], the [[Austrian Freedom Party]], and the [[Alternative for Germany]], among other partiesFile:Wille. [[Viktor Orbánjpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]], [[Václav Klaus]], [[Andrzej Duda]], [[Christoph Blocher]], [[Nigel Farage]], and [[Matteo Salvini]] are examples of European conservatives. Right-wing populism in Europe has grown since the [[Eurozone Crisis]] and [[European migrant crisis]]File:Wille===Conservatives in Canada===Many Canadian conservatives align with the [[Conservative Party of Canadajpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]], though the party does not strongly adhere to conservative values. The [[Christian Heritage Party]] is an example of a smaller but more consistent conservative Canadian party. ===Conservatives in Australia=== Australia was once more conservative than England but sweeping [[gun control]] laws pushed the nation leftward toward greater dependency on government in the last decade. In 2009, opposition to government control based on alleged [[global warming]] galvanized conservatives there and they led the [[Liberal Party of Australia]] to a repudiation of an emissions trading scheme.<ref>httpFile://</ref> Conservatives also support smaller political parties such as the [[Family First Partyjpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]]. ===Conservatives in Britain=== In the [[United Kingdom]], the [[Conservative Party]] is the major partner in the governing coalition. The party's current leader, [[David Cameron]],<ref>[httpFile:// Conservative party UK]</ref> has been [[Prime Minister of the United Kingdomjpg|Prime Minister]] of the UK since May 2010. Up until the mid-19th century, the forerunners of the Conservatives were known as [[Torythumbnail|ToriesFUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]], and the name has persisted as a common nickname both for the political party and those believed to be in agreement with it. Since the mid-to-late 1970s, British conservatives have been defined by an advocacy of [[laissez-faire]] economics, privatization and lower taxation. In recent years the Conservative Party has moved away from the social conservatism which once characterized it, and the current party policy includes, for example, support for [[abortion]] on demand, gay [[civil partnership]], the [[Kyoto Treaty]] and to oppose [[capital punishment]] (although it should be noted that such policies have little support among the party's grassroots membership) <ref>John Charmley, ''A History of Conservative Politics Since 1830'', (2nd ed. 2008)</ref> [[Margaret Thatcher]] revolutionized the British conservatives much like Reagan revolutionized American conservatives. During her tenure as Prime Minister, she cut taxes, trimmed back at government waste, and exercised a strong national defense abroad (including the [[Falklands War]] of 1982). Levels of prayer and worship are much lower in [[England]] and [[Wales]] than in the U.S., and religious issues thereby play less of a role in public discourse. However, religious issues remain a significant factor in [[Northern Ireland]] and in 2008 religious issues were significant during a special election in [[Scotland]]. In common with conservatives in many other countries, British Conservatives tend towards a patriotic rather than internationalist outlook, and are traditionally skeptical of the [[European Union]]. The broadcast media (dominated by the [[BBC]]) is almost exclusively [[liberal]] in tone. The print media is different with pro-Conservative newspapers like the ''[[Daily Mail]]'', ''[[Daily Express]]'' and ''[[Daily Telegraph]]'' selling more copies than their rivals.<ref>[httpFile:// Media UK; Introduction to newspapers in the UKjpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]</ref> === Conservatism and the French Revolution === Conservatism in France and the continent generally arose in the after 1790 as a response to the radicalism of the [[French Revolution]]. == Benefits of Conservatism == Several facets of conservatism function in unison to make it an effective and powerful philosophy. Conservatism emphasizes personal freedom, independence, and initiative; this allows the [[best of the public]] to rise to their natural level of achievement. Conservatives recognize that [[big government]] fosters dependency and stifles individual achievement—and thus, weakens society as a whole.  At the same time, conservatives also recognize that with individual freedom comes [[individual responsibility]]. In the absence of a hand-holding [[nanny state]], it is imperative that each individual take responsibility for his own actions, and exercise his rights and freedoms wisely and with discretion. Thus, [[social conservatism]] is also critical to a successful society, as it emphasizes the importance of [[morality]], duty, and responsibility to one's self and fellow men. === American conservatives and happiness === ''See alsoFile:'' [[American liberalism and 21st century political losses]] and [[Secular leftists and psychogenic illness]] ''Time'' magazine reported: "In the "who's happier?" race, a whole body of research shows conservatives report being happierWille. [ Four new studies] published in ''Science'' hint at a possible reason why.<ref>[ Liberals are More Honest Than Conservatives When They Smile], Time Magazine, 2015</ref> {jpg|align=right border=3 cellspacing=0 style="border-width: 5px; border-color: #c0c0c0; background: #e0e0e0; margin: 2em;"thumbnail| style="text-align: center; padding: 10px 40px 10px 40px;" | [[Previous Breaking News/Conservatives|Previous Breaking News:<br>ConservativesFUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]]|} == See also ==*[[Modern conservatism]]*[[Conservative resources]]*[[Previous Breaking News/ConservativesFile:Wille.jpg|Articles about '''Conservatives''' from previous "Breaking News"]]*[[More News/Conservativesthumbnail|Articles about '''Conservatives''' from "More News"FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]]*[[Conservative Links]]*[[EssayFile:Fair and balanced is not part of the Conservative platform]]*[[Conservative politicians]]*[[Liberal]]*[[Larry McDonald]] ==Further reading==* Critchlow, Donald TWille. ''The Conservative Ascendancy: How the GOP Right Made Political History'' (2007) * Filler, Louis. ''Dictionary of American Conservatism The First Complete Guide to Issues, People, Organizations and Events'' (1987), useful older encyclopedia* Frank, Thomas. ''What's the Matter with Kansas?: How Conservatives Won the Heart of America'' (2005), a liberal perspective [ excerpt and text searchjpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]* Frohnen, Bruce et al. eds. ''American Conservatism: An Encyclopedia'' (2006), the most detailed reference* Judis, John B. ''William F. Buckley, Jr.: Patron Saint of the Conservatives'' (1988) [ excerpt and text search]* Kirk, Russell. ''The Conservative Mind''. (7th ed. 2001). highly influential conservative history of ideas [ online at ACLS e-books]* Link, William A. ''Righteous warrior: Jesse Helms and the rise of modern conservatism'' (2008) 643 pages * Micklethwait, John, and Adrian Wooldridge. ''The Right Nation,'' (2004) influential survey [httpFile:// excerpt and text searchjpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]* Micklethwait, John, and Adrian Wooldridge. ''God Is Back: How the Global Revival of Faith Is Changing the World'' (2009)* Nash, George. ''The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America Since 1945'' (2006), excellent scholarly history. [ excerpt and text search]*Pemberton, William E. ''Exit with Honor: The Life and Presidency of Ronald Reagan'' (1998) [ online edition]*Perlstein, Rick. ''Before the Storm: Barry Goldwater and the Unmaking of the American Consensus'' (2004) on 1964 [httpFile:// excerpt and text searchjpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]*Perlstein, Rick. ''Nixonland: The Rise of a President and the Fracturing of America'' (2008) [ excerpt and text search]* Schneider, Gregory L. ed. ''Conservatism in America Since 1930: A Reader'' (2003) *Schoenwald; Jonathan. ''A Time for Choosing: The Rise of Modern American Conservatism'' (2002) [ online edition] also [httpFile:// online at ACLS e-books]* Schweizer, Peter, and Wynton C. Hall, eds. ''Landmark Speeches of the American Conservative Movement'' (2007) [ excerpt and text search] == References =={{Reflistjpg|colwidth=35em}} ==External links==*[ What Liberals Say - Category: Conservatives], [[Accuracy In Mediathumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]]*[ Pat Buchanan's "Crossfire" interview with [[Larry McDonald]] 3 months before downing of [[KAL 007]], Ron Paul intro]*[httpFile:// Directory of Conservative Websites - Category: Conservatives], [[Politics]] {{Conservatism}}[[Category:Conservative]][[Category:American History]][[Category:Reagan Era]][[Category:1960sjpg|thumbnail|FUCK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!]]