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Pseudoscience

686 bytes added, 15:41, 26 September 2019
/* See also */ The article about pseudoscience and Star Trek
:''See also: [[War on Science]]''
'''Pseudoscience''' is [[theory]] or speculation which has the trappings and [[rhetoric]] of [[science]], and is presented as science, but does not follow the [[scientific method]]. Pseudoscientific theories are typically not [[falsifiable]], and their purveyors show unwillingness to allow outsiders to observe, test, or replicate their findings.
 
A common example of pseudoscientific thought is the notion that [[slave]] [[reparations]] will reduce carbon emissions and lower global temperatures by 2 degrees [[Celsius]].
== Falsifiability ==
== Charlatanism ==
The label ''pseudoscientist'' is commonly given to cranks and [[charlatan]]s, who claim abnormal powers and abilities, but refuse to demonstrate them in objective, controlled, monitored environments. For example, Uri Geller claims to be able to bend spoons without applying pressure to them, but he cannot do it in front of scientists or journalists.<ref>httphttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N3vGGf-ZIkc Uri Geller debunked by James Randi and Johnny Carson</ref> Countless conjurers and mediums claim to be able to speak with the dead, but controlled circumstances revealed that they were really only conducting clever psychological tricks.
== Metaphysics ==
[[Spiritual]], [[metaphysical]], [[philosophical]], and [[religious belief]]s beliefs are occasionally confused with pseudoscience, as there is often an overlap in rhetoric, and charlatans blur the lines between scientific and philosophical ideas of knowledge.
== Public belief ==
There is no definitive or objective definition of the term "pseudoscience", so it is also sometimes used as a pejorative term. Pseudoscientists consider their work to be real science rather than pseudoscience. In addition to this, oftentimes theories which conflict with their theories are considered by them to be pseudoscience. Theories which are considered to be pseudoscience by the public may transition into being considered science if substantial evidence is found to support the theory. For example, before the theory of plate tectonics was fully developed, it was considered pseudoscience, whilst its predecessors, theories which involved an expanding Earth, are now considered pseudoscience.<ref>R. G. A. Dolby, ''Uncertain Knowledge: An Image of Science for a Changing World'', Published by Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN 0521892627, 9780521892629, 380 pages. [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=xd3ylT3WTLEC&pg=PA191&dq=pseudoscience+pejorative&num=100&as_brr=3 Page 191]</ref><ref>Brian Stableford, ''Science Fact and Science Fiction'', Published by CRC Press, 2006, ISBN 0415974607, 9780415974608, 729 pages. [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=uefwmdROKTAC&pg=PA410&dq=pseudoscience+pejorative&num=100&as_brr=3 Page 410]</ref>
==Examples of pseudosciencesTopics classified as pseudoscience==[[File:Richard Dawkins Stockholm.JPG|thumb|200px|right|Within the [[evolution]]ary science community and the [[creation science]] community, Richard Dawkins has faced charges of engaging in pseudoscience besides committing elementary errors.<ref>http://www.truefreethinker.com/articles/send-clowns-–-richard-dawkins-obliges</ref><ref>httphttps://creation.com/the-greatest-hoax-on-earth/main.php</ref> For more information, please see: [[Richard Dawkins and pseudoscience]] ]]
* Acupuncture
* Alternative medicine
* The [[ancient astronaut theory]]
* Animal magnetism
* [[Astrology]]
* [[Big Bang]] astronomy
* [[Biodynamic agriculture]]
* Clairvoyance
* Cryptozoology
* Crystal healing
* [[Darwinism]]
* [[Richard Dawkins]]' work<ref>http://www.truefreethinker.com/articles/send-clowns-–-richard-dawkins-obliges</ref><ref>httphttps://creation.com/the-greatest-hoax-on-earth/main.php</ref> (see: [[Richard Dawkins and pseudoscience]])
* [[Dianetics]]
* [[Dominionism]]
* [[Environmentalism]]
* [[Evolution|Evolutionary biology]]<ref>httphttps://www.icr.org/home/resources/resources_tracts_scientificcaseagainstevolution/</ref><ref>http://www.grisda.org/origins/04004.htm</ref><ref>http://www.uncommondescent.com/darwinism/there-is-no-theory-of-evolution/</ref><ref>http://members.iinet.net.au/~sejones/PoE/pe05scnc.html</ref><ref>http://www.parentcompany.com/science_kit/sk3b.htm</ref><ref>http://www.apologeticspress.org/rr/reprints/Evolution-Fact-or-Theory.pdf</ref>
* Extrasensory perception
* Feng shui
* [[Free Energy]]
* Ghost hunting
* [[Global warming]]
* [[Graphology]]
* Hypnosis
* Iridology
* Levitation
* Lunar effects
* [[Lysenkoism]]
* Magnet Therapy
* Memetics (coincidentally originated by Richard Dawkins)
* Mesmerism
* Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
* [[PZ Myers]]' work<ref>http://www.truefreethinker.com/articles/pz-myers-pseudoscienceblogscom</ref>
* Naturopathy
* Neuro-linguistic programming
* Numerology
* [[Old earth]] geology
* Orgone therapy
* Palmistry
* [[Parapsychology]]
* [[Phrenology]]
* [[Pseudoarchaeology]]
* [[Psychoanalysis]]
* Psychokinesis
* Reflexology
* [[Carl Sagan]]'s work
* Scientific racism, the basis for [[Adolf Hitler]]'s eugenics system
* [[Scientology]]
* Séances
* [[Self-projection as God]] (also known as [[vicarious autotheism]])
* [[Transgenderism]]
== See also ==
* [[War on Science]]
* [[Green New Deal]]
* [[Scientism]]
* [[List of atheist and agnostic pseudosciences]]
* [[Gay gene theory]]
* [http://www.stardestroyer.net/Empire/Science/Pseudoscience.html http://www.stardestroyer.net/Empire/Science/Pseudoscience.html]
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