/* See also */ The article about pseudoscience and Star Trek
'''Pseudoscience''' is [[theory]] or
[[speculation ]] which has the trappings and [[rhetoric]] of [[science]], and is presented as science, but does not follow the [[scientific method]]. Pseudoscientific theories are typically not [[falsifiable]], and their purveyors show unwillingness to allow outsiders to observe, test, or replicate their findings.
== Falsifiability ==
The most cited element of scientific theory is [[falsifiability]], established by [[philosopher]] [[Karl Popper]]<ref>[http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/popper/#BacHisTho Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, see in particular sections 2 and 3]</ref>
. A falsifiable theory makes predictions, which can be used to test it. Thus, the theory of gravity is falsifiable, as it predicts that an apple held above the ground and released will fall. If it fails the test, it is discarded, and if it passes, it is not proven, but better supported.
== Disproven Science ==
== Charlatanism ==
The label ''pseudoscientist'' is commonly given to cranks and [[charlatan]]s, who claim abnormal powers and abilities, but refuse to demonstrate them in objective, controlled, monitored environments. For example, Uri Geller claims to be able to bend spoons without applying pressure to them, but he cannot do it in front of scientists or journalists<ref>
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N3vGGf-ZIkc Uri Geller debunked by James Randi and Johnny Carson</ref> . Countless conjurers and mediums claim to be able to speak with the dead, but controlled circumstances revealed that they were really only conducting clever psychological tricks.
== Metaphysics ==
[[Spiritual]], [[metaphysical]], [[philosophical]], and [[religious
belief]] s are occasionally confused with pseudoscience, as there is often an overlap in rhetoric, and charlatans blur the lines between scientific and philosophical ideas of knowledge.
== Public belief ==
Despite evidence and logic against pseudoscientific theories, many remain popular among the public. Homeopathic medicine is available at most health-food stores and is a
multi- billion dollar business, and 31% of Americans believe in astrology.
Notably, twice as many [[Democrats]] believe in astrology as [[Republicans]], showing a strong bent of irrationality and scientific [[illiteracy]] among [[liberals]].<ref>http://www.harrisinteractive.com/harris_poll/index.asp?PID=359</ref>
There is no definitive or objective definition of the term "pseudoscience", so it is also sometimes used as a pejorative term. Pseudoscientists consider their work to be real science rather than pseudoscience. In addition to this, oftentimes theories which conflict with their theories are considered by them to be pseudoscience. Theories which are considered to be
psuedoscience by the public may transition into being considered science if substantial evidence is found to support the theory. For example, before the theory of plate tectonics was fully developed, it was considered pseudoscience, whilst its predecessors, theories which involved an expanding Earth, are now considered pseudoscience.
* [[Big Bang]] astronomy
* [[Biodynamic agriculture]]
* [[Evolution|Evolutionary biology]]<ref>
* [[Free Energy]]
* [[Global warming]]
Much of the work of [[ Stephen Hawking]]
[[Mesmerism ]]* Much of the work of [[PZ Myers]]<ref>http://www.truefreethinker.com/articles/pz-myers-pseudoscienceblogscom</ref>
* [[Old earth]] geology
[[Orgone therapy ]]
* [[Self-projection as God]] (also known as [[vicarious autotheism]])
== See also ==
* [[List of atheist and agnostic pseudosciences]]
=== Refutations of Pseudoscience ===
* [[Counterexamples to Evolution]]
* [[Counterexamples to an Old Earth]]
* [[Counterexamples to Relativity]]