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/* See also */ The article about pseudoscience and Star Trek
:''See also: [[War on Science]]'''''Pseudoscience''' is [[theory ]] or speculation which has the trappings and [[rhetoric]] of [[science]], and is presented as science, but does not follow the [[scientific method]]. Pseudoscientific theories are typically not [[falsifiable]], and their purveyors show unwillingness to allow outsiders to observe, test, or replicate their findings.  A common example of pseudoscientific thought is the notion that [[slave]] [[reparations]] will reduce carbon emissions and lower global temperatures by 2 degrees [[Celsius]].
== Falsifiability ==
The most cited element of scientific theory is [[falsifiability]], established by [[philosopher]] [[Karl Popper]].<ref>[ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, see in particular sections 2 and 3]</ref>. A falsifiable theory makes predictions, which can be used to test it. Thus, the theory of gravity is falsifiable, as it predicts that an apple held above the ground and released will fall. If it fails the test, it is discarded, and if it passes, it is not proven, but better supported.
== Disproven science Science ==
The term pseudoscience is also often applied to theories which ''are'' falsifiable and have in fact been falsified and discarded. [[Phrenology]] predicted that psychological traits could be inferred from the shape of the skull, but no actual link was ever found. Various [[astrology|astrological]] theories predicted regular planetary effects on the earth and human health, but testing those failed.
The existence of [[God ]] is thus not considered scientific theory, as no test can possibly be conceived which categorically disproves His existence. The same is the case for [[string theory]], which is a mathematical unification of scientific theory, but makes no predictions. Such things fall outside the realm of science.
== Charlatanism ==
The label ''pseudoscientist'' is commonly given to cranks and charlatans[[charlatan]]s, who claim abnormal powers and abilities, but refuse to demonstrate them in objective, controlled, monitored environments. For example, Uri Geller claims to be able to bend spoons without applying pressure to them, but he cannot do it in front of scientists or journalists.<ref>http Uri Geller debunked by James Randi and Johnny Carson</ref>. Countless conjurers and mediums claim to be able to speak with the dead, but controlled circumstances revealed that they were really only conducting clever psychological tricks.
== Metaphysics ==
[[Spiritual]], [[metaphysical]], [[philosophical]], and [[religious ]] beliefs are occasionally confused with pseudoscience, as there is often an overlap in rhetoric, and charlatans blur the lines between scientific and philosophical ideas of knowledge.
== Public belief ==
Despite evidence and logic against pseudoscientific theories, many remain popular among the public. Homeopathic medicine is available at most health-food stores and is a multimultibillion-billion dollar business, and 31% of Americans believe in astrology.
Notably, twice as many [[Democrats]] believe in astrology as [[Republicans]], showing a strong bent of irrationality and scientific [[illiteracy ]] among [[liberals]].<ref></ref>
There is no definitive or objective definition of the term "pseudoscience", so it is also sometimes used as a pejorative term. Pseudoscientists consider their work to be real science rather than pseudoscience. In addition to this, oftentimes theories which conflict with their theories are considered by them to be pseudoscience. Theories which are considered to be psuedoscience pseudoscience by the public may transition into being considered science if substantial evidence is found to support the theory. For example, before the theory of plate tectonics was fully developed, it was considered pseudoscience, whilst its predecessors, theories which involved an expanding Earth, are now considered pseudoscience. <ref>R. G. A. Dolby, ''Uncertain Knowledge: An Image of Science for a Changing World'', Published by Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN 0521892627, 9780521892629, 380 pages. [ Page 191]</ref><ref>Brian Stableford, ''Science Fact and Science Fiction'', Published by CRC Press, 2006, ISBN 0415974607, 9780415974608, 729 pages. [ Page 410]</ref>
<ref>R. G. A. Dolby, ''Uncertain Knowledge: An Image of Science for a Changing World'', Published by Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN 0521892627, 9780521892629, 380 pages. [ classified as pseudoscience+pejorative&num=100&as_brr=3 Page 191]</ref><ref>Brian Stableford, ''Science Fact and Science Fiction'', Published by CRC Press, 2006, ISBN 0415974607, 9780415974608, 729 pages. [ Page 410]</ref> ==Examples of pseudosciences==[[ImageFile:5712dawkinsRichard Dawkins Stockholm.jpgJPG|thumb|200px|right|Within the [[evolution|evolutionary]] ary science community and the [[creation science]] community, Richard Dawkins has faced charges of engaging in pseudoscience and also has faced charges of besides committing elementary errors.<ref>–-richard-dawkins-obliges</ref><ref>http</ref> For more information, please see: [[Richard Dawkins and pseudoscience]] ]]*Acupuncture* Alternative medicine* The [[Animal magnetismancient astronaut theory]]* Animal magnetism*[[Astrology]]*[[Big Bang]] astronomy*Much of the work of [[Biodynamic agriculture]]* Clairvoyance* Cryptozoology* Crystal healing* [[Darwinism]]* [[Richard Dawkins]]' work<ref>–-richard-dawkins-obliges</ref><ref>http</ref> (see: [[Richard Dawkins and pseudoscience]])*Climatology *[[Darwinism]]*[[Dianetics]]*[[Dominionism]]*[[Environmentalism]]*[[Evolution|Evolutionary biology]]<ref>http</ref><ref></ref><ref></ref> <ref></ref><ref></ref><ref></ref>* Extrasensory perception* Feng shui*[[Free Energy]]*[[Graphology]]Ghost hunting*[[Global warming]]*Much of the work of [[Stephen HawkingGraphology]]*[[Homeopathy]]*[[Hypnosis* Iridology]]* Levitation* Lunar effects*[[Lysenkoism]]*[[Magnet Therapy* Memetics (coincidentally originated by Richard Dawkins)* Mesmerism]]*Much of the work of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator* [[PZ Myers]]' work<ref></ref>* Naturopathy* Neuro-linguistic programming* Numerology*[[Old earth]] geology*[[Orgone therapy]]* Palmistry*[[Parapsychology]]*[[Phrenology]]*[[Population control]]*[[Pseudoarchaeology]]*[[Psychoanalysis]]* Psychokinesis* Reflexology*[[ReflexologyCarl Sagan]]'s work* Scientific racism, the basis for [[Adolf Hitler]]'s eugenics system* [[Scientology]]* Séances*[[Self-projection as God]] (also known as [[vicarious autotheism]])*[[Theory of Relativity|Relativity, Theory of]]*Much of the work of [[Carl Sagan]]*[[Transgenderism]]*[[Ufology]]
== See also ==
* [[War on Science]]* [[Green New Deal]]*[[Scientism]]*[[List of atheist and agnostic pseudosciences]]* [[Gay gene theory]]* []
 *[[Essay: You obviously don't understand how science works|You obviously don't understand how science works]] - Humor/[[Satire]]
=== Refutations of Pseudoscience ===
*[[Counterexamples to Evolution]]* [[Counterexamples to Global Warming]]* [[Counterexamples to an Ice Age]]*[[Counterexamples to an Old Earth]]*[[Counterexamples to Relativity]]* [[Counterexamples to String Theory]]
  [[Category: Pseudoscience]]