Jordan

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المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية
Al-Mamlakah al-Urdunniyyah
al-Hāšimiyyah
Jordan rel 2004.jpg
Flag of Jordan.png
Arms of Jordan.png
FlagCoat of Arms
CapitalAmman
GovernmentConstitutional monarchy
LanguageArabic (official)
MonarchKing Abdullah II
Prime ministerAbdullah Ensour
Area45,495 sq mi
Population 20075,924,000
GDP 2005$27.96 billion
GDP per capita$4,900
CurrencyJordanian dinar

Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan "المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية" also know as Jordan "الأردنّ" is a constitutional monarchy in the Middle East. It borders Syria to the north, Saudi Arabia to the southwest, Iraq to the east, and Israel and the palestinian territories (west bank) to the west. Along with Israel, Jordan borders the Dead Sea.

Contents

People

Jordanians are Arabs, except for a few small communities of Circassians, Armenians, and Kurds who have adapted to Arab culture. The official language is Arabic, but English is used widely in commerce and government. About 70% of Jordan's population is urban; less than 6% of the rural population is nomadic or semi-nomadic. Most of the population lives where rainfall can support agriculture. Approximately 1.7 million registered Palestinian refugees and other displaced persons reside in Jordan, most as citizens.

  • Population (2006, per IMF): 5.63 million.
  • Religions (est.): Sunni Muslim 94%, Christian 6%,
  • Languages: Arabic (official), English.
  • Education (2006, according to Jordan's Department of Statistics): Literacy--90.9%.and is the highest in the Arab world.
  • Health (2003): Infant mortality rate--19/1,000. Life expectancy--71 yrs.
  • Ethnic groups: Mostly Arab but small communities of Circassians, Armenians, and Kurds.
  • Work force (1.3 million, of which 260 thousand are registered guest workers): public sector 17%, services 36%, manufacturing 20%, education 12%, health and social services 10%, primary industries 5%.
  • Unemployment rate (2006): 13% of economically active Jordanians.

Government

Jordan is a constitutional monarchy based on the constitution promulgated on January 8, 1952. Executive authority is vested in the King and his Council of Ministers. The King signs and executes all laws. His veto power may be overridden by a two-thirds vote of both houses of the National Assembly. He appoints and may dismiss all judges by decree, approves amendments to the constitution, declares war, and commands the armed forces. Cabinet decisions, court judgments, and the national currency are issued in his name. The King, who may dismiss other cabinet members at the prime minister's request, appoints the council of ministers, led by a prime minister. The cabinet is responsible to the Chamber of Deputies on matters of general policy and can be forced to resign by a two-thirds vote of "no confidence" by that body.

Legislative power rests in the bicameral National Assembly. The number of deputies in the current Chamber of Deputies is 110, with a number of seats reserved for various religions, ethnicities, and women. The Chamber, elected by universal suffrage to a 4-year term, is subject to dissolution by the King. The King appoints the 55-member Senate for a 4-year term. Parliamentary elections are scheduled to be held in the fall of 2007.

The constitution provides for three categories of courts--civil, religious, and special. About 20 women are murdered each year in Jordan in the barbaric practice known as "honor killing", sometimes for simply dating a man. Until recently, the Jordanian penal code allowed for "honor" killers to get sentences as lenient as six months. Attempts to apply thougher punishments for these henious crimes are resisted and blocked by the country's Muslim lawmakers.[1]

Administratively, Jordan is divided into 12 governorates, each headed by a governor appointed by the King. They are the sole authorities for all government departments and development projects in their respective areas.

Principal Government Officials

  • Chief of State--King Abdullah bin al-Hussein II
  • Prime Minister--Abdullah Ensour
  • Minister of Defense--Nader Al-Thahabi
  • Foreign Minister--Abdelelah al-Khatib
  • Ambassador to the UN--Charge d'affaires Bashir Zubi

Political Conditions

King Hussein I ruled Jordan from 1953 to 1999, surviving a number of challenges to his rule, drawing on the loyalty of his military, and serving as a symbol of unity and stability for both the East Bank and Palestinian communities in Jordan. In 1989 and 1993, Jordan held free and fair parliamentary elections. Controversial changes in the election law led Islamist parties to boycott the 1997 elections. King Hussein ended martial law in 1991 and legalized political parties in 1992.

King Abdullah II succeeded his father Hussein following the latter's death in February 1999. Abdullah moved quickly to reaffirm Jordan's peace treaty with Israel and its relations with the U.S. Abdullah, during his first year in power, refocused the government's agenda on economic reform.

Jordan's continuing structural economic difficulties, burgeoning population, and more open political environment led to the emergence of a variety of political parties. Moving toward greater independence, Jordan's Parliament has investigated corruption charges against several regime figures and has become the major forum in which differing political views, including those of political Islamists, are expressed. In June 2001, the King dissolved Parliament. Parliamentary elections were held in June 2003, and municipal elections were held in July 2003. The King appointed the former Prime Minister, Marouf Bakhit, in December 2005. Bakhit and his cabinet have set as their goal the continued legislative implementation of a ten-year reform plan, known as the National Agenda, drafted by a royal commission in 2005. The King also charged the new cabinet with strengthening Jordan's security following the November 2005 suicide hotel bombings in Amman that killed 60. New elections took place in 2007 in both the governates and the parliment, and the new primeminister Mr. Nader Al-Thahabi was apointed in November 2007.

Foreign Relations

King Abdullah at Middle East peace talks in Washington, 2010, with Benjamin Netanyahu, Mahmoud Abbas, Hosni Mubarak, and President Obama.

Jordan has consistently followed a pro-Western foreign policy and traditionally has had close relations with the United States. These relations were damaged by support in Jordan for Iraq during the first Gulf war. Although the Government of Jordan stated its opposition to the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait, popular support for Iraq was driven by Jordan's Palestinian community, which favored Saddam as a champion against Western supporters of Israel.

Following the first Gulf war, Jordan largely restored its relations with Western countries through its participation in the Middle East peace process and enforcement of UN sanctions against Iraq. Relations between Jordan and the Gulf countries improved substantially after King Hussein's death. Following the fall of the Iraqi regime, Jordan has played a pivotal role in supporting the restoration of stability and security to Iraq. The Government of Jordan has facilitated the training of over 50,000 Iraqi police cadets at a Jordanian facility near Amman.

Jordan signed a nonbelligerency agreement with Israel (the Washington Declaration) in Washington, DC, on July 25, 1994. Jordan and Israel signed a historic peace treaty on October 26, 1994, witnessed by President Clinton, accompanied by Secretary Christopher. The U.S. has participated with Jordan and Israel in trilateral development discussions in which key issues have been water-sharing and security; cooperation on Jordan Rift Valley development; infrastructure projects; and trade, finance, and banking issues. Jordan also participates in multilateral peace talks. Jordan belongs to the UN and several of its specialized and related agencies, including the World Trade Organization (WTO), the International Meteorological Organization (IMO), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and World Health Organization (WHO). Jordan also is a member of the World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), Nonaligned Movement, and Arab League.

Since the outbreak of the Intifada in September 2000, Jordan has worked to maintain lines of communication between the Israelis and the Palestinians to counsel moderation and to return the parties to negotiations of outstanding permanent status issues.

During summer 2006, Jordan provided considerable relief supplies to Lebanon and has supported U.S. efforts to generate international security assistance for Lebanese national forces.

Defence

The Jordanian military is one of the most reliable in the region, augmentented with modern weaponry from the Unites States, Britain and Russia, and has had a great role in peace keeping and counter-terrorism missions throughout the world.

Economy

Jordan is a small country with limited natural resources. The country is currently exploring ways to expand its limited water supply and use its existing water resources more efficiently, including through regional cooperation. Jordan also depends on external sources for the majority of its energy requirements. During the 1990s, its crude petroleum needs were met through imports from neighboring Iraq. Since early 2003, oil has been provided by some Gulf Cooperation Council member countries. In addition, a natural gas pipeline from Egypt to Jordan through the southern port city of Aqaba is now operational. The pipeline has reached northern Jordan and construction to connect it to Syria and beyond is underway.

Under King Abdullah, Jordan has undertaken a program of economic reform. The government has taken the initiative to gradually eliminate fuel subsidies, pass legislation targeting corruption, and begin tax reform. It has also worked to liberalize trade, gaining access to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2000, signing an Association Agreement with the European Union (EU) in 2001, and securing the first bilateral Free Trade Agreement between the U.S. and an Arab country in 2001. Since 2000, exports of light manufactured products, principally textiles and garments manufactured in the Qualifying Industrial Zones (QIZ) that enter the United States tariff and quota free, have been driving economic growth. Jordan exported $6.9 million in goods to the U.S. in 1997, when two-way trade was $395 million; according to the U.S. International Trade Commission, it exported $1.42 billion in 2006, with two-way trade at $2.07 billion.

The Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the United States that went into effect in December 2001 will phase out duties on nearly all goods and services by 2010. The agreement also provides for more open markets in communications, construction, finance, health, transportation, and services, as well as strict application of international standards for the protection of intellectual property. In 1996, Jordan and the United States signed a civil aviation agreement that provides for "open skies" between the two countries, and a U.S.-Jordan treaty for the protection and encouragement of bilateral investment entered into force in 2003.

Such developments hold considerable promise for diversifying Jordan's economy away from its traditional reliance on exports of phosphates and potash, overseas remittances, and foreign aid. The government has emphasized the information technology (IT) and tourism sectors as other promising growth sectors. The low tax and low regulation Aqaba Special Economic Zone (ASEZ) is considered a model of a government-provided framework for private sector-led economic growth.

Jordan is classified by the World Bank as a "lower middle income country." The per capita GDP, as reported by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), was $2,533 for 2006. According to Jordan's Department of Statistics, 13% of the economically active Jordanian population residing in Jordan was unemployed in 2006. Education and literacy rates and measures of social well-being are relatively high compared to other countries with similar incomes. Jordan's population growth rate has declined in recent years and is currently 2.3% as reported by the Jordanian government. One of the most important factors in the government's efforts to improve the well-being of its citizens is the macroeconomic stability that has been achieved since the 1990s. The rate of inflation in 2006 was 6.3%; the currency has been stable with an exchange rate fixed to the U.S. dollar since 1995 at JD 0.708-0.710 to the dollar. In 2006, Jordan significantly reduced its debt to GDP ratio to 73.2% of GDP.

While pursuing economic reform and increased trade, Jordan's economy will continue to be vulnerable to external shocks and regional unrest. Without calm in the region, economic growth seems destined to stay below its potential.

  • Total GDP (2005): $27.96 billion
  • Nominal GDP (2006): $14.3 billion.
  • Annual real growth rate (2006): 6.4%.
  • Per capita GDP (2006): $2,533.
  • Natural resources: Phosphate, potash.
  • Agriculture: Products--fruits, vegetables, wheat, olive oil, barley, olives. Land--10% arable; 5% cultivated.
  • Industry (26.5% of GDP in 2006): Types--phosphate mining, manufacturing, electricity and water; cement and petroleum production, and construction.
  • Trade: Exports (2006)--$5.17 billion: phosphates, potash, garments, fertilizers, pharmaceutical products, agricultural products. Major markets--U.S., Iraq, India, Saudi Arabia, U.A.E., Syria, Israel, Kuwait. Imports (2006)--$11.46 billion: crude petroleum and derivatives, vehicles, machinery and equipment, cereals, fabrics and textiles. Major suppliers-- Saudi Arabia (mainly crude oil and derivatives), EU, China, U.S., Egypt, South Korea, Japan, Turkey.

History

The land that became Jordan is part of the richly historical Fertile Crescent region. Around 2000 B.C., Semitic Amorites settled around the Jordan River in the area called Canaan. Subsequent invaders and settlers included Hittites, Egyptians, Israelites, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Arab Muslims, Christian Crusaders, Mamelukes, Ottoman Turks, and, finally, the British. At the end of World War I, the League of Nations awarded the territory now comprising Israel, Jordan, the West Bank, Gaza, and Jerusalem to the United Kingdom as the mandate for Palestine and Transjordan. In 1922, the British divided the mandate by establishing the semiautonomous Emirate of Transjordan, ruled by the Hashemite Prince Abdullah, while continuing the administration of Palestine under a British High Commissioner. The mandate over Transjordan ended on May 22, 1946; on May 25, the country became the independent Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. It ended its special defense treaty relationship with the United Kingdom in 1957.

Transjordan was one of the Arab states which moved to assist Palestinian nationalists opposed to the creation of Israel in May 1948, and took part in the warfare between the Arab states and the newly founded State of Israel. The armistice agreements of April 3, 1949 left Jordan in control of the West Bank and provided that the armistice demarcation lines were without prejudice to future territorial settlements or boundary lines.

In 1956, the country gained it's full indipendence from the British and became the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan to include those portions of Palestine annexed by King Abdullah I. While recognizing Jordanian administration over the West Bank, the United States maintained the position that ultimate sovereignty was subject to future agreement.

Jordan signed a mutual defense pact in May 1967 with Egypt, and it participated in the June 1967 war against Israel. During the war, Israel gained control of the West Bank and all of Jerusalem. In 1989, Jordan renounced all claims to the West Bank but retained an administrative role pending a final settlement, and its 1994 treaty with Israel allowed for a continuing Jordanian role in Muslim holy places in Jerusalem. The U.S. Government considers the West Bank to be territory occupied by Israel and believes that its final status should be determined through direct negotiations among the parties concerned on the basis of UN Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338.

In 1968, the Israeli army attacked the area in western Jordan to hit fedayeen controled areas and to take control of the Salt hights in central Jordan, a battle erupted in the Jordanian valley between the Israeli troops and the Jordanian army, which led the Israelis to withraw from the area.

The 1967 war led not only to a loss of a huge part of land under Jordan's control (the West Bank), but also a dramatic increase in the number of Palestinians living in the remainder of Jordan due to an inclusion of refugees. Its Palestinian refugee population--700,000 in 1966--grew by another 300,000 from the West Bank. The period following the 1967 war saw an upsurge in the power and importance of Palestinian resistance elements (fedayeen) in Jordan. The heavily armed fedayeen constituted a growing threat to the sovereignty and security of the Hashemite state, and open fighting erupted in June 1970.

No fighting occurred along the 1967 Jordan River cease-fire line during the October 1973 Arab-Israeli war, but Jordan sent a brigade to Syria to fight Israeli units on Syrian territory. Jordan did not participate in the Gulf war of 1990-91. In 1991, Jordan agreed, along with Syria, Lebanon, and Palestinian representatives, to participate in direct peace negotiations with Israel sponsored by the U.S. and Russia. It negotiated an end to hostilities with Israel and signed a peace treaty in 1994. Jordan has since sought to remain at peace with all of its neighbors.

See Also

References

External Links

Copyright Details
License: This work is in the Public Domain in the United States because it is a work of the United States Federal Government under the terms of Title 17, Chapter 1, Section 105 of the U.S. Code
Source: File available from the United States Federal Government [1].
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