Genetic Engineering, Biological Engineering or Genetic Modification / Splicing is the process of changing the DNA of organisms (their genes) in order to use the natural or new synthetic biological system for a manmade purpose.
The 1978 Nobel Prize for Medicine was awarded for the ability to isolate endonucleases, which cut DNA at specific sites, which is generally considered the beginnings of this field.
Examples of Genetic Engineering are the manufacture of pharmaceutical drug products, including insulin and many other high value proteins used for genetic therapies.
Experimental animals including fruit flies and mice have been used in research.
Some argue that Genetic Engineering is "playing god", and it should not be carried out. While others belive it a logical extension of cross breeding and that it has many opportunities to improve the lives of people.