Apprendi v. New Jersey
In Apprendi v. New Jersey, 530 U.S. 466, 490 (2000), the U.S. Supreme Court held that any fact (other than a prior conviction) that increases the penalty for a crime beyond the statutory maximum must be proved to a jury beyond a reasonable doubt.
Justice John Paul Stevens delivered the opinion of the court, joined by Justices Antonin Scalia, David Souter, Clarence Thomas, and Ruth Bader Ginsburg. Justices Thomas (joined in part by Justice Scalia) and Scalia filed concurring opinions. Justices Sandra Day O'Connor (joined by Justices William Rehnquist, Anthony Kennedy, and Stephen Breyer) and Breyer (joined by Justice Rehnquist) filed dissenting opinions.
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